Author Topic: Article by Famous Scientiest Ram Prasad Ji - वैज्ञानिक राम प्रसाद जी के लेख  (Read 21753 times)

ramprasad

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To : Active Political Leaders of Uttarakhand
 

The last mail carried the title “Knowledge Management by Internet:  A Challenge for Dr.  Nishank”.  It compared the perceptions of an Uttarakhandi from New York and a 21 year American friend of mine on internet.  It mentioned about the contributions of even younger people from the village Gumod around which the Knowledge base of Phatte ki Sarkar was built when the real Uttarakhand government came into being under the Chief Minister ship of Nityanand Swami.  But today Phatte ki Sarkar has made some progress to get in touch with people who are not confined to Uttarakhand or Uttarakhandi migrants all over the world.  The Uttarakhandi friend in New York does not believe in the Internet power.  But the Florida friend believes in it.  I had mentioned to him “Lenin Royal Society Effect” that led Soviet Union to become the No 2 Super Power of the world.  I mentioned to him “Roosevelt Vannevar Bush Effect” that led America to become No 1 Super Power of the world.  This was at the end of World War II.  But “Roosevelt Vannevar Bush Effect” continued its effort that made America the leader of the Globalised world.  I asked him about the new Effect that will make some part of the world to lead it.  His reaction is:

    No no, I mean the "survival of the fittest" term has evolved as did we, in the sense of now the strongest is the smartest. So in that being so the smartest should "weed out" the ignorant so only the strongest of all the countries strive to become the strongest until there is only one, till they dwindle down to nothingness. Over a long period of time of course.

Phatte ki Sarkar understands what he means.  The survival of the fittest is applicable today in systems.  The individual has become nothing.  But that is not the case in the real part of the complex world.  There is voting.  Even the poor can vote.  On eFront the poor is the resource in the terror war.  In iFront the poor brings leaders to power.  Uttarakhand is a laboratory for the world as a whole.  This is the only part of the world where there is an iGovernment.  The internet does not know what is the plan of the eGovernment of the state for industrializing the hilly part of the state.  But the iGovernment that is Phatte ki Sarkar” is developing the proposal for Gopio WFSW Effect to tackle the problem of  world poverty.  Gopio is eOrganisation.  It will be visible in India during the next Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas that is being held in Delhi .  The iGovernment of Uttarakhand cannot participate in this programme.  But the eGovernment can participate.

 

PBD-2010 will also witness the launch of an annual Lecture series under the theme of 'India and its Diaspora: Everlasting Bonds of Togetherness'.

    Tentative PBD 2010 program to include as follows:

        Inaugural session with the Prime Minister of India

        Plenary Sessions

            Interaction with Union Ministers

            Interaction with PIO Ministers

            Interaction with State Chief Ministers

This means that Dr Nishank can participate in the session “Interaction with State Chief Ministers” in the plenary session.  Last year Phatte ki Sarkar suggested that Gopio should invited General Khanduir and Shri Manohar Kant Dhyani to its annual convention at Chennai.  It was not possible.  General Khanduri could have had a discussion with Gopio during the last year’s plenary session “interaction with State Chief Ministers”.
 

What Gopio has done so far is the eWork which has been recognized by the Government of India.  Gopio today is working for the interests of the global community of the people of Indian origin.  These interests are looked after by the External Affairs Ministry.  But on Gopio suggestion a separate Ministry was created.  The government of India and some of the Indian states have given representation to NRIs.

 
It is for Dr Nishank to make or not make the use of PBD 2010.  This is eBusiness.  Similarly it is for Gopio to accept the work done by the Institute of iBusiness of the Phatte ki Sarkar.  Politics of the country is a thing of concern to the eGovernment of India and Gopio which so far is eOrganisation.  This is why the title of this mail is slightly modified.  It is Political Knowledge Management by Internet.  A challenge for Dr Nishank?

 

Ram Prasad

ramprasad

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The Active Political Leaders of Uttarakhand
As you have been reminded now and then, the Active Political Leaders of Uttarakhand is not the group that is created by the real Uttarakhand Government that is being headed by Dr Nishank.  It is created by the Phatte ki Sarkar.  There is demand and agitation for shifting the capital of the real Uttarakhand state from Dehra Dun to Gairsain.  The last two mails addressed   to you discussed this question.  The question that can be asked now is “Where is the capital of Phatte ki Sarkar”?  There is a real location that can be described as the capital of the Phatte ki Sarakar.  This location is page 5 of the column “Phatte ki Sarkar” in Pyara Uttarakhand Weekly that has a real identity and this identity is


    Pyara Uttarakhand Weekly

    U-203 Fourth Floor, Vikas Marg, Shakarpur, (Opposite Hotel Sipra)

    Delhi – 1100 92 (Telephone 9910145367)


The Phatte ki Sarkar is supporting the demand of Dhumakot Sangliya Experiment for inclusion of the Lens Nursery in the state plan.  This solution is provided by the Senior Political Leader ND Tiwari, Ex-PM Uttarakhand, now retired from politics and is working as the Governor of Andhra Pradesh.  During his tenure he handed over the responsibility of the Lens Project to General T PS Rawat, a Minister in the Tiwari Government who was representing Dhumakot as an MLA.  General B C Khanduri is currently representing Dhumakot as MLA.  The whole planning process seems to be non existent in Uttarakhand or for that matter  in the Government of India as well.  This is why the Phatte ki Sarkar has formed the Group known as Active Political Leaders of India.

 
The emergence of the Phatte ki Sarkar may be considered as a revolutionary step.  It has been possible to organize this Sarkar because of the availability of the internet and its wealth of information.  We are living in the 21st century and creation of Uttarakhand matches very well with the beginning of this century.  Internet feels that the revolutions in this century may be much different from the French revolution, American Revolution, Russian revolution, etc.  But there is a lot for the revolutionary process of the 21st century in Indian revolution.  Following is the note for consideration:
 

    “Nonviolence is a strategy to win in conflict. It was invented by Gandhi during the struggle of independence of the people of India against British imperialism. It was as successful as a strategy that it produced the most decisive of all victories to bring down the British Empire .
     

    "For the basic principles of nonviolence, see the clear exposition by Martin Luther King, Jr in his book Stride Toward Freedom.

    A key to nonviolence is that there should be no enemies. The struggle is against ideas and institutions but not individual persons. As Gandhi put it, "Hate the sin and not the sinner" History shows that people change and today's enemy can become tomorrow's ally. Perhaps the most extraordinary example is that of Saul of Tarsus who was the persecutor of the Christians until he was converted to Christianity and became St. Paul .
     

    "As we leave the 20th Century behind, nonviolence has yet to reach its full potential. Both Gandhi and King were assassinated. In India independence was marred by a bloodbath between Hindus and Muslims and the splitting off of Pakistan . The movement begun by King has yet to reach its goals of racial equality in America . Enemy images continue to be used by those seeking dominance in the world today, including the anti-Islamic language of American militarism and the anti-American language of Islamist sects.”

 

This information is being brought to the lime light by the Phatte ki Sarakar.  The focus on Gandhism for revolutions of future should give confidence to you.  Who knows more about Gandhism than Active Indian politicians?  We have physical realities on Gandhism today and this why the Phatte ki Sarkar is focusing on Bhago Devi.  You have to find ways  to make real Uttarakhand government include the lens nursery in the state plan as an example to show the world how to bring about 21st century revolution.

 

Ram Prasad

ramprasad

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From:

      Technological Nursery for Optics Research and

      Development (TNORD)

      D-5 Dronacharya Apartments,

      Mayur Vihar Phase I Ext.,

      Delhi-110091

      Tel: 22714920

      Fax:  22719366

      E-mail: tnordramprasad@yahoo.co.in                   

March 21, 2003

To

Sanjay TEWARI

Institute Of Forest Ecology
Mendel University of Forestry
Zamedelska 3
Brno-61200
Czech Republic

uttaranchal_web_watch@hotmail.com <uttaranchal_web_watch@hotmail.com>

Dear Shri Tewari,

 

     The Uttaranchal Web Watch is experimentally  carrying information on TNORD in its column Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal.  The title notes under this column published so far are:

   1. First things first in Uttarakhand
   2. Uttrakhand and 50 years of Indian Science.
   3. Science Driven development of Uttaranchal (3) “Uttaranchal and Professor MGK Menon
   4. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (4):  Dr Murli Manohar Joshi and Uttaranchal
   5. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (5):  Koshiyariji and his 80 days

   6. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (6) -  Governor in a re-invented role

   7. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (7)  - Unemployment challenge and the Seasoned Chief Minister
   8. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (8)  - The millennium challenge before the Chief Ministers

 
 

   The next installment in the above series is titled “Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (9)  - The role of the scientist President” 

    With kind regards,
 
 

      Yours sincerely
 

      (RAM PRASAD)

      SYSTEM DIRECTOR

 
Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (9)  - The role of the scientist President
 
       In the series “Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal” we have tried to understand (1) the role of science in development, (2) the role of the infrastructure of the Indian science, (2) the views of a top representative of  Indian science, (3) the stand of the central government on science driven development, (4) the role of the Chief Ministers of Uttaranchal, (5) the role of the Uttaranchal governor, (6) the millennium challenge that rural India is facing.  We may now consider the role of the scientist President.   

   President of India Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, a scientist by profession,  unveiled foundation stone of Uday Shankar Academy for Dance and Music, on October 19, 2002 at Almora, flagged off the Mobile Clinic and Research Centre, a joint project of Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), Government of Uttaranchal and executed by the Birla Institute of Technology. He  also visited Doon School and Mahadevi Kanya Pathshala, Dehradun, in the afternoon. Thus Uttaranchal is one of the 17 states he visited before delivering his republic day speech.

      The media was not sure about the role of the scientist President. There was a big fight on  the  Star TV over this development.  It was, however, only an entertainment on the television. TNORD wrote to the coordinator:  “The problems of science and development are very serious and  Dr Kalam’s rise to the office of the President of India is an opportunity.  Rather than commenting on what panelists, columnists and members of the audience who expressed themselves at the programme, I would like to bring to your notice (1) what Gandhiji said on the governance of Indian  development and (2) copy of my E-mail to Dr Kalam.” 

Recalling Gandhiji’s views on governance of development:   

      I am sure every one will remember this old man one day when it is realized that India has no alternative except to develop village industries.  Any Government formed by any party, Congress, Socialist or Communist will be forced to accept  this truth.  We do not reaslise this today but we shall realize it after we stumble in out attempt to compete with America or Russia.
TNORD E-mail addressed  to Dr Kalam on June 13, 2002
 

      Dr Kalam was still the Professor of Technology and Societal Transformation at the Anna University. 

“As the president of currently sleeping Association of Scientific Workers of India I feel extremely encouraged  on the decision of the political power to offer you   the office of the President of India.  Scientific workers’ movement works for application of science and technology for all problems in human affairs.  Big names like J J Thomson, J D Bernal, Jolio-curie, P M S Blakett, C F Powell and EHS Burhop have been associated with this movement.  Jawaharlal Nehru, a friend of PMS Blackett,  was keen promoter of science and scientific temper in human affairs.  When the Indian Science Congress decided to launch the Association of Scientific Workers of India, he willingly accepted the offer of becoming its founder president.  His efforts to make science as a tool of development are summarized in the preamble of the 1958 Scientific Policy Resolution which states: “The key to national prosperity, apart from the spirit of the people, lies, in the modern age, in the effective combination of three factors, technology, raw materials and capital of which the first perhaps is the most important, since the creation and adoption of new scientific techniques can, in fact, make up for a deficiency in natural resources, and reduce the demands on capital.  But technology can only grow out of study of science and its applications.”   

“Science is no longer as prestigious word as it was at the end of the Second World War which also happens to be the eve of Indian independence.  The momentum of the R&D activities of the above war continued as the world war was replaced by cold war and the cold war with the proxy war of terrorism.  It is only science that can, after appropriate  experimentation, analysis and verification of results offer solutions  to the contemporary crisis of chaos in politics.  This is why majority of political opinion has been in favour of electing you as the President of India.  This background will be clear from the following excerpt from a  TNORD paper  (March, 2000)
 

      Background: More than 74 % of the population of India lives in 5.65 lakh villages.  Almost 3.7% of them, including artisans, work in the household section.  Agriculture accounts for about 40 % of the gross national product of India.  Thus, the village economy of India revolves around agriculture and allied activities, which are the principal means of livelihood for this large segmental efforts aimed at improving the living standard of its teeming millions.  Rural development through various developmental agencies has been accorded the highest priority in the five-year plans.  Though gains have been obvious in certain fronts, the ground reality does not seem to have altered substantially. -

      TNORD: This ground reality has been accepted at the highest governmental levels.  Times of India news report (dated 19 December 1999) on the 79th Annual General Meeting of ASSOCHAM quoted observations of the Prime Minister in following words:

            “The PM made it clear that even in a knowledge-based society, the objectives would remain unchanged:  poverty eradication and an equitable social order.  The knowledge base would help find “new answers to old problems”, faster and more effectively as the older measures have not succeeded every new measure deserves serious consideration.”.

      Background: Hardly any organised efforts by various agencies has been made to date to develop the rural artisans industries.  Getting disheartened at this inadequate effort towards development, the village artisan seem to have been left with no other option but to shift to alternative vocations or to migrate to urban centres to earn their livelihood.  This trend is tending to deny the villages a major element of self-sufficiency, which they had enjoyed for ages. -

            TNORD: The above observations of the PM are important.  The members of the corporate world are working for survival through intense R&D in a positive assertive sense.  Change is the focus of their activities.  The PM seems to have taken a measure for poverty eradication and creation of equitable social order by appointing the key scientist Dr Kalama as principal scientific adviser and grass-root worker Shri Rawat as the S&T minister. 

“Against this background, TNORD has studied the Kalam Coup Editorial in Today’s (13th June, 2002) editorial comment. The contents of the editorial along with TNORD comments are given in the following table.

      Editorial: Not just a dark horse but a rank outsider seems set to win the presidential sweepstakes. The NDA’s nomination of former scientific adviser A P J Abdul Kalam has come as bolt from the blue for bookies and others interested in the race fro Rashtrapati Bhavan.  A quick study of the field, however, reveals how the odds tilted in Mr. Kalam’s favour.  After front runner PC Alexander fell by the wayside, largely because of opposition by the Congress, the search for a consensus candidate gained ever greater urgency.  Particularly so as a second term for the current incumbent of Rashtrapati Bhavan, which the Congress has been pushing for was unacceptable to the NDA.  Mr. Kalam’s name, first proposed by some hardliner elements within the BJP, was promptly seized and acted upon by NDA, which has secured the support of the TDP, the AIADMK and the BSP, not to mention the BJP’s adversary, the Samajwadi Party.  Predictably though, the missile man hasn’t found favour with the Left parties.  The Congress, too, is in a bit of a quandary: Much as it would like to oppose Mr. Kalam, it can’t do so in the face of his twin credentials as a member of a minority community and winner of the Bharat Ratna. -

            TNORD: Against this media interpretation of the event TNORD would like to proceed in a very different direction.  Dr Kalam’s election to the high office is dictated by the common urge that science must sort out the chaos of the current politics.  TNORD elaborated the current problems of development in a letter to the Uttaranchal CM N D Tiwari as follows: “The world has acquired developmental status mainly through war efforts and now business war has taken over from the conventional wars.  These wars still use the conventional forces of army.  Whether they are official armies of the nations or unofficial armies of the underworld they operate under business pressures.  Industrially developed countries are unable to sustain the organized sector of the world as a whole.   In the last para of the conclusion, the book “Plain Speaking” by N Chandrababu Naidu with Sevanti Ninan (Viking, 2000, page 250) observes: “ Both the physical and virtual divide between the haves and have-nots must be bridged.  That is the challenge of the millennium.” The inspiration for writing this letter came from the press report, which described the proposed U-Turn of the Planning Commission on unemployment problem.

      Editorial: If the government has its way, the BJP will have effected a major political symbolic coup.  Popularly – though inaccurately – known as the ‘Father of the Indian Bomb’ Mr. Kalam’s translation to Rashtrapati Bhavan will help put the BJP’s signature on the country’s nuclear programme, which has long been the party’s nuclear progamme, which has long been the party’s avowed intention.  Mr. Kalam’s candidature will also counter the BJP’s communalist image.  Indeed, Mr. Kalam would appeal even to the Hindutva hardliners.  He doesn’t speak Urdu, is not overtly religious and is a vegetarian.  In the climate of pop patriotism generated by the Indo-Pakistan stand-off, a ‘nuclearised’ Rashtrapati Bhavan could have a jingoistic appeal cutting across party lines.  In the context of competitive flag-waving, the suggestion that, given the exigencies of coalitional governance, what Rashtrapati Bhavan needs more than ever is a constitutional expert rather than a nuclear boffin is unlikely find may takers.  Mr. Kalam has long been regarded by not a few of this colleagues as a politician among scientists, and a scientist among politicians.  His elevation to the presidential gaddi should prove a fitting finale to such a career. -

            TNORD: This paragraph pays a great compliment to Dr Kalam’s holistic personality. A confined scientist is not really a real scientist because there are areas within his mind where scientific thoughts break their flow and become unscientific. A confined scientist is really a career seeking politician.  There is no doubt that the country wants to make use of Dr Kalam’s personality for real development. When he insists on the slogan  ‘strength respects strength’ and visualizes India as a ‘developed nation’, he is not behaving like a politician.  He wants to get things done. The TNORD letter to Shri N D Tiwari was actually analyzing the new strategy of the Planning Commission to solve unemployment problem.  The TNORD comment observed:  “The primary requirement for the real development of the country is to ensure that all the people of the country work to their full capabilities.  Unemployment is enough proof to show that this is not being ensured.  An individual can do best if he or she is allowed complete freedom to employ himself or herself to a productive activity.”  A constitutional expert in Rashtrapati Bhavan cannot solve the political problem of unemployment but a scientist in Rashtrapati Bhavan can.   

“In my last letter to you at the Chennai address I made a reference to the scientific policy resolution and wrote:  “Research environments are different for root development and stem development.  The conditions for germination of seeds are different.  Roots require soil, moisture, fertilizers and darkness as conditions.  But the buds require sky, air and sunlight.  Reversal of conditions is fatal for both sides.”  I then added:  “The last sentence (in the preamble of the 1958 scientific policy resolution) identifies science as the root and technology as the stem.  When there is no capital one has to devise technology that does not require normal R&D infrastructure and manpower.  When raw materials are not available one has to devise technology to find alternatives.  When neither capital nor raw materials are available technology has to be software centered.  All the efforts are to be directed to form the roots and make the bud to come out.  The DST project is thus the bud that stands on the roots that have been developed during the struggle of TNORD.”  I also added  “The DST support comes for the bud that has roots in the new state of Uttaranchal. Uttaranchal starts its work on a clean slate.   I recently had a meeting with Uttaranchal Chief Minister and I find him very keen to bring about societal transformation in his state through science and technology.  He is fully supporting TNORD programme.  As the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, he had inaugurated the weeklong seminar-cum-workshop on technological nursery for optics research and development.  This gave us initial momentum.”
 

      The text of the letter addressed to Dr A P J Abdul Kalam in his capacity of Professor of Technology & Societal Transformation, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai – 600 025 was as follows:

            Dear Dr Kalam, Techbio is a concept on which our organization is working for quite some time.  I am sending herewith a copy of a TNORD article published in the September-October 2001 issue of the Invention Intelligence.

                  Research environments are different for root development and stem development.  The conditions for germination of seeds are different.  Roots require soil, moisture, fertilizers and darkness as conditions.  But the buds require sky, air and sunlight.  Reversal of conditions is fatal for both sides.  This is the point TNORD has been insisting upon. The concept of technological nursery got developed through 1958 Scientific Policy Resolution (New Delhi, the 4th March 1958/13th Phalguna, 1879) No. 131/CF/57) which states in the preamble: “The key to national prosperity, apart from the spirit of the people, lies, in the modern age, in the effective combination of three factors, technology, raw materials and capital of which the first perhaps is the most important, since the creation and adoption of new scientific techniques can, in fact, make up for a deficiency in natural resources, and reduce the demands on capital.  But technology can only grow out of study of science and its applications.”   The last sentence identifies science as the root and technology as the stem.  When there is no capital one has to devise technology that does not require normal R&D infrastructure and manpower.  When raw materials are not available one has to devise technology to find alternatives.  When neither capital nor raw materials are available technology has to be software centered.  All the efforts are to be directed to form the roots and make the bud to come out.  The DST project is thus the bud that stands on the roots that have been developed during the struggle of TNORD.

                  The DST support comes for the bud that has roots in the new state of Uttaranchal. Uttaranchal starts its work on a clean slate.   I recently had a meeting with Uttaranchal Chief Minister and I find him very keen to bring about societal transformation in his state through science and technology.  He is fully supporting TNORD programme.  As the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, he had inaugurated the weeklong seminar-cum-workshop on technological nursery for optics research and development.  This gave us initial momentum.

                  We shall feel grateful if you can kindly let us have some information on the type of work you have been able to establish in Chennai.

             

Dr Kalam’s Hyderabad address
 

      When we are considering the Role of the Scientist President in the context of Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal we may also go through the following address of his delivered at Hyderabad some time before he was sworn as the President of India.

Quote: -

       
      I have three visions for India. In 3000 years of our history people from all over the world have come and invaded us, captured our lands, conquered our minds. From Alexander onwards. The Greeks, the Turks, the

      Moguls, the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Dutch, all of them came and looted us, took over what was ours. Yet we have not done this to any other nation. We have not conquered anyone. We have not grabbed their land, their culture, their history and tried to enforce our way of life on them. Why? Because we respect the freedom of others. That is why my first vision is that of FREEDOM. I believe that India got its first vision of this in 1857, When we started the war of independence. It is this freedom that we must protect and nurture and build on. If we are not free, no one will respect us. 
       

      My second vision for India is DEVELOPMENT. For fifty years we have been a developing nation. It is time we see ourselves as a developed nation. We are among top 5 nations of the world in terms of GDP. We have 10 percent growth rate in most areas. Our poverty levels are falling. Our achievements are being globally recognized today. Yet we lack the self-confidence to see ourselves as a developed nation, self-reliant and self-assured. Isn't this incorrect? 

      I have a THIRD vision. India must stand up to the world. Because I believe that unless India stands up to the world, no one will respect us. Only strength respects strength. We must be strong not only as a military power but also as an economic power. Both must go hand-in-hand. My good fortune was to have worked with three great minds. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai of the Dept. of space, Professor Satish Dhawan, who succeeded him and Dr. Brahm Prakash, father of nuclear material. I was lucky to have worked with all three of them closely and consider this the great opportunity of my life. Why is the media here so negative? Why are we in India so embarrassed to recognize our own strengths, our achievements? We are such a great nation. We have so many amazing success stories but we refuse to acknowledge them. Why? We are the first in milk production. We are number one in Remote sensing satellites. We are the second largest producer of wheat. 

      We are the second largest producer of rice. Look at Dr. Sudarshan, he has transferred the tribal village into a self-sustaining, self-driving unit. 

      There are millions of such achievements but our media is only obsessed in the bad news and failures and disasters. I was in Tel Aviv once and I was reading the Israeli newspaper. It was the day after a lot of attacks and bombardments and deaths had taken place. The Hamas had struck. But the front page of the newspaper had the picture of a Jewish gentleman who in five years had transformed his desert land into an orchid and a greenery. It was this inspiring picture that everyone woke up to. The gory details of killings, bombardments, deaths, were inside in the newspaper, buried among other news. In India we only read about death, sickness, terrorism, crime. Why are we so NEGATIVE? Another question: Why are we, as a nation so obsessed with foreign things? We want foreign TVs, we want foreign shirts. We want foreign technology. Why this obsession with everything imported. Do we not realize that self-respect comes with self-reliance? 

      I was in Hyderabad giving this lecture, when a 14 year old girl asked Me for my autograph. I asked her what her goal in life is: She replied: I want to live in a developed India. For her, You and I will have to build this developed India. You must proclaim. India is not an under-developed nation; it is a highly developed nation. 

      Allow me to come back with vengeance. ! Got 10 minutes for your country?

            YOU say that our government is inefficient.

            YOU say that our laws are too old.

            YOU say that the municipality does not pick up the garbage.

            YOU say that the phones don't work, the railways are a joke, the airline is the worst in the world, mails never reach their destination.

            YOU say that our country has been fed to the dogs and is the absolute pits.

            YOU say, say and say.

            What do YOU do about it? 

      Take a person on his way to Singapore. Give Him a name - YOURS. Give him a face - YOURS. YOU walk out of the airport and you are at your International best. In Singapore you don't throw cigarette butts on the roads or eat in the stores. YOU are as proud of their Underground Links as they are.

      You pay $5 (approx.. Rs.60) to drive through Orchard Road (equivalent of Mahim Causeway or Pedder Road) between 5 PM and 8 PM. 

      YOU comeback to the parking lot to punch your parking ticket if you have over stayed in a restaurant! or a shopping mall irrespective of your status identity. In Singapore you don't say anything, DO YOU? YOU wouldn't dare to eat in public during Ramadan, in Dubai. YOU would not dare to go out without your head covered in Jeddah. YOU would not dare to buy an employee of the telephone exchange in London at 10 pounds (Rs.650) a month to, "see to it that my STD and ISD calls are billed to someone else." YOU would not dare to speed beyond 55 mph (88 km/h) in Washington and then tell the traffic cop, "Jaanta hai sala main kaun hoon (Do you know who I am?). I am so and so's son. Take your two bucks and get lost." YOU wouldn't chuck an empty coconut shell anywhere other than the garbage pail on the beaches in Australia and New Zealand. Why don't YOU spit Paan on the streets of Tokyo? 

      Why don't YOU use examination jockeys or buy fake certificates in Boston? We are still talking of the same YOU. YOU who can respect and conform to a foreign system (!!!) in other countries but cannot in your own. YOU who will throw papers and cigarettes on the road the moment you touch Indian ground. If you can be an involved and appreciative citizen in an alien country why cannot you be the same here in India. 

      Once in an interview, the famous Ex-municipal commissioner of Bombay Mr. Tinaikar had a point to make. "Rich people's dogs are walked on the streets to leave their affluent droppings all over the place," he said. "And then the same people turn around to criticize and blame the authorities for inefficiency and dirty pavements. What do they expect the officers to do? 

      Go down with a broom every time their dog feels the pressure in his bowels? In America every dog owner has to clean up after his pet has done the job. Same in Japan. Will the Indian citizen do that here?" He's right. We go to the polls to choose a government and after that forfeit all responsibility. We sit back wanting to be pampered and expect the government to do everything for us whilst our contribution is totally negative. We expect the government to clean up but we are not going to stop chucking garbage all over the place nor are we going to stop to pick a up a stray piece of paper and throw it in the bin. We expect the railways to provide clean bathrooms but we are not going to learn the proper use of bathrooms. We want Indian Airlines and Air India to provide the best of food and toiletries but we are not going to stop pilfering at the least opportunity. This applies even to the staff who is known not to pass on the service to the public. When it comes to burning social issues like those related to women, dowry, girl child and others, we make loud drawing room protestations and continue to do the reverse at home. 

      Our excuse? "It's the whole system which has to change, how will it matter if I alone forego my sons' rights to a dowry." So who's going to change the system! ? What does a system consist of? Very conveniently for us it consists of our neighbors, other households, other cities, other communities and the government. But definitely not me and YOU. When it comes to us actually making a positive contribution to The system we lock ourselves along with our families into a safe cocoon and look into the distance at countries far away and wait for a Mr. Clean to come along & work miracles for us with a majestic sweep of his hand. Or we leave the country and run away. Like lazy cowards hounded by our fears we run to America to bask in their glory and praise their system. When New York becomes insecure we run to England. When England experiences unemployment, we take the next light out to the Gulf. When the Gulf is war struck, we demand to be rescued and brought home by the Indian government. Everybody is out to abuse and rape the country. Nobody thinks of feeding the system. Our conscience is mortgaged! to money. 

      Dear Indians, The article is highly thought inductive, calls for a Great deal of introspection and pricks one's conscience too.... I am echoing J.F.Kennedy's words to his fellow Americans to relate to Indians... "ASK WHAT WE CAN DO FOR INDIA AND DO WHAT HAS TO BE DONE TO MAKE INDIA WHAT AMERICA AND OTHER WESTERN COUNTRIES ARE TODAY" 

Unquote: 
 
 

ramprasad

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From:

      Technological Nursery for Optics Research and

      Development (TNORD)

      D-5 Dronacharya Apartments,

      Mayur Vihar Phase I Ext.,

      Delhi-110091

      Tel: 22714920

      Fax:  22719366

      E-mail: tnordramprasad@yahoo.co.in                   

March 21, 2003

To

Sanjay TEWARI

Institute Of Forest Ecology
Mendel University of Forestry
Zamedelska 3
Brno-61200
Czech Republic

uttaranchal_web_watch@hotmail.com <uttaranchal_web_watch@hotmail.com>

Dear Shri Tewari,

 

     The Uttaranchal Web Watch is experimentally  carrying information on TNORD in its column Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal.  The title notes under this column published so far are:

   1. First things first in Uttarakhand
   2. Uttrakhand and 50 years of Indian Science.
   3. Science Driven development of Uttaranchal (3) “Uttaranchal and Professor MGK Menon
   4. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (4):  Dr Murli Manohar Joshi and Uttaranchal
   5. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (5):  Koshiyariji and his 80 days

   6. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (6) -  Governor in a re-invented role

   7. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (7)  - Unemployment challenge and the Seasoned Chief Minister
   8. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (8)  - The millennium challenge before the Chief Ministers
   9. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (9)  - The role of the scientist President

 

The next installment in the above series is titled “Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (10)  - How to ensure that Poor delivery does not undercut pro-active approach of the seasoned Chief Minister”.
 

    With kind regards,
 
 

      Yours sincerely
 

      (RAM PRASAD)

      SYSTEM DIRECTOR

 
 

 

Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (10)  - How to ensure that  Poor delivery does not  undercut  pro-active approach  of the seasoned Chief Minister

      On March 17, Uttaranchal Web Watch posted, Courtesy: www.garhwalpost.com,   the feature Poor delivery undercuts pro-active .....carrying the fuller title Tewari ministry completes year in office, Poor delivery undercuts pro-active approach .  The series Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal is also reflects  the  proactive approach of the Chief Minister .  Soon after becoming the Chief Minister of Uttaranchal Shri Tiwari called me on telephone and wanted me to help him in Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal. In response I wrote a letter to Tiwariji  on March 26, 2002.  The text reads:

      “We have been  able to get sanction of Government of India, Ministry of Science and Technology for the programme “to under take Location Specific Demonstration of Lens Making Workshop for generating awareness and interest for promotion of a lens industry network in the new state of Uttaranchal among schoolteachers, local authorities and social activists and to use it as an escort technology for industrial culture and development” for financial assistance of Rs 6,61,500/- (Rupees Six Lakhs Sixty One Thousand Five Hundred only).   Copy of the sanction letter No. ST/(UP)/DP(LM)/98/56 dated 26.03.2002 is enclosed for your kind information.

      “We would request you to kindly provide a matching grant of Rs 6,61,500/- (Rupees Six Lakhs Sixty One Thousand Five Hundred only) from the state government during the current year  so as to enable us to utilise the above DST grant.”

      What does the UWW feature on Tewari ministry completes year in office, Poor delivery undercuts pro-active approach expect on this initiative.  The pro-active Chief Minister cannot do things himself.  He has to depend on government servants to do things.   It is the state administration that has to deliver.  Why has it not been able to deliver the above grant even though the whole year has passed since the letter was sent to Tiwariji.  The feature  analyses the role of the state administration and says:

      “There is absolutely no doubt that the salary bill of government servants is the biggest non-productive expenditure of the state. It cannot be allowed to grow to a point that the system collapses under its weight. It is in this context that the government needs now to exhibit a lot of dynamism. The existing government staff has to be made as productive as possible. Every government servant has to perform in a manner that justifies his or her salary. At the present, unfortunately, this is only icing on the cake as corruption cuts the heart out of the services they are expected to deliver. The same goes for the development programmes. It is the government's hope that e-governance could be the means to transparency and accountability.”

  The above observation points finger on the corruption.  Corruption has been studied  in one of the uww features in this series. The feature is titled as Governor in a reinvented role.  It quotes the Uttaranchal Governor “The well-to-do should consider the impact of their actions on ordinary people. For instance, why pay a bribe? For the rich it is speed money, but the poor man has to suffer, as he cannot get work done without paying.” This observation of Shri Sudarshan Agarwal explains why TNORD programme has been moving with a very slow pace.   

Matching Pro-activity 

      But corruption alone may not be the reason for non-delivery. Be it e-governance,  be it transparency,  be it accountability or any other yardstick to measure productivity, things would not go very far with the pro-activity of the Chief Minister alone. The pro-activity of the Chief Minister must have a matching pro-activity on the part of  the drivers of development who ever they are. What did TNORD do in this connection?

      On April 25, 2002 TNORD wrote to Hon’ble MPs, Ex-MPs from Uttaranchal and concerned stakeholder in TNORD programme:

      “We have been able to get sanction of Government of India, Ministry of Science and Technology for the programme “to under take Location Specific Demonstration of Lens Making Workshop for generating awareness and interest for promotion of a lens industry network in the new state of Uttaranchal among schoolteachers, local authorities and social activists and to use it as an escort technology for industrial culture and development” for financial assistance of Rs 6,61,500/-. We can now experiment to tackle what Andhra Chief Minister, C Chandrababu Naidu in his plain speaking describes as “the challenge of the millennium”.  The challenge  is plainly stated in the words:  “Both the physical and virtual divide between the haves and have-nots must be bridged.”   

      To us ‘haves’ stand on ‘have-nots’ just as stem stands on the roots in a plant.

      Research environments are different for root development and stem development.  The conditions for germination of seeds are different.  Roots require soil, moisture, fertilizers and darkness as conditions.  But the buds require sky, air and sunlight.  Reversal of conditions is fatal for both sides.  This is the point TNORD has been insisting upon. The concept of technological nursery got developed through 1958 Scientific Policy Resolution (New Delhi, the 4th March 1958/13th Phalguna, 1879) No. 131/CF/57)  which states  in the preamble : “The key to national prosperity, apart from the spirit of the people, lies, in the modern age, in the effective combination of three factors, technology, raw materials and capital of which the first perhaps is the most important, since the creation and adoption of new scientific techniques can, in fact, make up for a deficiency in natural resources, and reduce the demands on capital.  But technology can only grow out of study of science and its applications.”   The last sentence identifies science as the root and technology as the stem.  When there is no capital one has to devise technology that does not require normal R&D infrastructure and manpower.  When  raw materials are not available one has to devise technology to find alternatives.  When neither capital nor raw materials are available technology has to be software centered.  All the efforts are to be directed  to form the roots and make the bud to come out.  The DST project is thus the bud that stands on the roots that have been developed during the struggle of TNORD.

      Uttaranchal has now a regular  elected government and one of you, Shri N D Tiwari has taken over the Himalayan challenge.  TNORD had written 28 letters to Shri Nitya Nand Swami, the former Chief Minister.  Shri Tiwari himself contacted me on telephone.  When I recently had an opportunity of meeting him personally, he at once introduced me to Shri Surendra Singh Negi, the Minister for Rural Development in his Ministry and handed over the following three letters to him for facilitating an early action:

            Letter dated 26.03.2002-

                  Matching grant for implementing DST project on lens making demonstration

            Letter dated 15.04.2002-

                  Stamp duty exemption on land donated by Sangliya village to TNORD

            Letter dated 15.04.2002-

                  Permission to use the premises of the Solar Energy Deptt in Jaraukhand

      “From the enclosed  TNORD letter addressed to Shri Tiwari (Uww has already published this letter under Millennium  Challenge…) you will find that he has an opportunity to take over the matters from where  Shri C Chandrababu Naidu has left them. The two Chief Ministers can work together to make 11 rather than 2.  The challenge of the millennium is also being tackled by   Dr R Chidambaram the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India.  I am also enclosing a copy of my recent letter to the last para of which reads:   

      Shri N D Tiwari, the Chief Minister of the first elected government in Uttaranchal personally contacted me on telephone for the development of the new state.  This should serve as an opportunity for you to try your ideas in Uttaranchal effectively.  One of the interesting features of TNORD programme is the testing of techbio concept.   

      Dr. Chidambaram also heads TIFAC – Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council. This Council has a coordinating office in Uttaranchal.  We understand that IIFAC is funding the following projects in Uttaranchal:  (1) Mobile Hospital & Research Centre, (2) Agriculture Project in Pindar Valley, (3) Demo project on integrated development of Ramgarh watershed project, (3) Development of airshift for transportation of passengers and goods, (4) Development of standard water mills in Uttaranchal, (5) technology dissemination, commercialization, utalisation of geranium cultivation through processing of end products at bio-village level in Uttaranchal.  Dr Murli Manohar Joshi has suggested to General Khanduri that TNORD projects could also be funded by TIFAC.

      From these developments you will find that things are going in TNORD’s favour as the time is passing by.  You have supported TNORD when it struggled to form roots.  The scientists, the bureaucrats and others in authority saw the programme in the light of the day, under the sky of the prevailing order  and the dry atmosphere of the mechanistic culture.  But you appreciated the organic nature of the things and supported the case.

      We would request you to  continue to support TNORD bud  as it grows into a full tree, flowers and provides fruits of development.
       

Pro-active Parliament of Development

      TNORD is sending such communications to   Hon’ble MPs, Ex-MPs from Uttaranchal and concerned stakeholder in TNORD programme on regular basis.    The circular   Dated December 5, 2002  evaluated the progress of the programme.    It said:                                                                     

      “ I am enclosing with this circular Minutes of the Meeting of GB members and other stake holders present in Delhi organised on 23rd, November 2002 at 4.00 p.m. at the residence of Dr S Z Qasim (A-15 Defence Colony, New Delhi 110024, tel: 4632626) along with the follow up letter I wrote to Lt General Tej Pal Singh Rawat, Hon’ble Minister of Tourism, Uttaranchal who is the local MLA of the Site where TNORD is being set up.  This in a way sums up the progress of the TNORD programme with which you have been associated as a sleeping member of its Governing Body – sleeping because not much was required to be done by the GB members.  TNORD has, however, been functioning sleeplessly for 12 years. The work is reflected from the following list of titled progress reports which also serve as mile stones for initiating science driven rural development.

            Report                      Year                                Focus Title

            Annual Report    1   (1990-1991)    Background

            Annual Report    2  (1991-1992)    NPL-TNORD separation:  Transfer of relevant NPL activities to TNORD

            Annual Report    3  (1992-1993)    Acquisition of Independent SIRO status

            Annual Report    4  (1993-1994)    Focus on organizational R&D & knock research in development

            Annual Report    5  (1994-1995)    Casting TNORD programme in accordance with the DST pro forma.

            Annual Report    6   (1995-1996)   Change of guards problem and sustenance of organisational coherence

            Annual Report    7  (1996-1997)    Double-loop R&D learning: Width and Depth of the TNORD programme

            Annual Report    8  (1997-1998)    Organisational basics of Developmental Innovation

            Annual Report    9  (1998-1999)    TNORD as a comprehensive treatise in experimental development

            Annual Report   10  (1999-2000)   From NPL to NLP: Confidence inspires confidence

            Annual Report   11  (2000-2001)   Working for mindset change in science

            Annual Report   12  (2001-2002)   Organisational techbio concepts

      “ One of the most significant achievements of TNORD is to build a ‘Supporting Parliament’ around its activities.  Rather than wording this ‘Supporting Parliament’ in the context of this circular, it may be more appropriate to quote what Shri Narayan Datt Tiwari, Chief Minister, UP understood it five years ago in his letter to Indian Prime Minister.  Then Member Of Parliament (Lok Sabha), wrote to Shri Inder Kumar Gujral Prime Minister of India South Block, New Delhi - 110 011 vide his letter vide his letter No.  L.N. – 3713 /M.P /97 dated 8.5.97:

       

            “Esteemed Shri Gujral, During my last tenure as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, I was requested by the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi to inaugurate a week-long Seminar-cum-Workshop on Technological Nursery for Optics Research and Development.  I was told that Professor K J Rosenbruch of PTB Germany, who was the chairman of the Optical Instruments Committee of the International Standards Organisation, had been specially invited to help in the planning and implementation of the programme.  It was an event in which along with, the celebrated international authority in optics, were delegates from UP hills and the Gram Pradhan of village Sangliya who had donated land for TNORD.  I accepted the proposal without any hesitation and I took with me the senior officials of the concerned State departments.

            “The event was being cosponsored by all concerned authorities not only in the field of optics but also in the concerned socio-economic and business areas.  It was decided to get TNORD registered as an independent body on the pattern of CSIR functionally and INSA organisationally.  NPL did all work related to the drafting and approval of the Memorandum of Association and the registration of TNORD as a Society.  On its formation the NPL activities on design and development of optical systems were transferred live to TNORD.

            “TNORD suffered a bit of set back due to political developments in the country.    But it continued to function even under this grim situation thanks to an extraordinary contribution of its system director and the support given to him by his family, friends and the Members of GB. During this period the TNORD maintained a rate of 1.5 outgoing letters per day and a research paper a month.  This enabled the organisation to interact with system as a recognised SIRO.

            “The project is being fully supported by all the Members of Parliament from Uttarakhand irrespective of their political linkages.  I would request you to take appropriate interest in the further development of TNORD.”

      “Similar letters were written to various authorities by other stake holding Parliamentarians also. The Centre has overcome the resistance of the system at their end and the ball is in Shri Tiwari’s court now.  He is the Chief Minister of the new state where the age and obesity of old states is absent.

      “We may consider Uttaranchal as a laboratory for development and Shri Tiwari as its new director. TNORD is an experiment within this laboratory. This line of approach is necessary to initiate Switzerland type development in the new state.  Uttaranchal has a better resource position than Switzerland.  It is closer to the equator.  It also lies in the Monsoon belt.  It receives more water and it receives more solar energy.  Water is the key resource on this planet.  It is the source of life.  Altitude is another resource.  Storing of water at high altitudes amounts to possessing wealth and power. 

      “Shri Tiwari has given a very positive response to the following letter of ours and the minutes sent herewith indicate that there will soon be an interaction between Tiwariji and Dr Qasim:

            “During my meeting with Dr S Z Qasim, President TNORD yesterday, Dr Qasim recalled the long meeting both of us had with you in your residence a couple of years ago regarding implementation of the detailed project report of TNORD for setting up Lens Nirman Prashikshan evam Utpadan Sansthan at Sangliya in Uttaranchal.  Both of you were in Planning Commission and it was concluded that the best way to implement the programme was to ensure its entry in the Five Year Plan.   You are in power now as Uttaranchal Chief Minister and specific work is in hand on the DST project: “To undertake Location Specific Demonstration of Lens Making Workshop for generating awareness and interest for promotion of a lens industry network in the new state of Uttaranchal among school teachers, local authorities and social activists and to use it as an escort technology for industrial culture and development”.

      “I hope this slow but sure progress in implementation of the TNORD will satisfy and you will continue your association with the programme.

      “The meeting noted that  on the request of the newly created Hill Development Department of UP a detailed project report was prepared by NPL for creation of Lens Nirman Prashikshan evam Utpadan Sansthan  in early eighties and the Panchayat of village Sangliya  donated  1 hectare of land  so that the Chapter on Land Acquisition and Estate Development  was completed with specific information.  A portion of this land was acquired by Non-conventional Energy Development Agency (UP) and two buildings were constructed.  The villagers are unhappy to find that the Neda Centre was later transferred to Almora for the convenience of its officers and the solar estate remains abandoned at present.  The Member Secretary informed the meeting that action is in progress to acquire a portion of the estate on loan for two years in order for the demonstration workshop envisaged in the current DST project.

      “Members present felt that since the Village Panchayat has donated the land in principle to TNORD and their resentment is over the Neda Centre and not TNORD, TNORD could start its activities in association with the Village Panchayat and complete land transfer formalities step by step as the activities expand. For example action may be taken to construct Kedar Kutis with IMPLADS support on village land outside the solar estate formalizing the   transfer of  the land covered in the  name of TNORD.

      “The meeting was informed that the local MLA Lt Gen(Rtd)  TPS Rawat was the Minister for Tourism.  A meeting had already been arranged between  him and Shri V K Jain.  He has agreed to appoint Shri Jain as his representative in the Ministry.  This will give him some status with the Uttaranchal Government.  Gen Rawat had informed us that to begin with Shri Jain will get pass for the Vidhan Bhavan and he can use the Sainik Guest house at Dhumakot as his office.  He may also interact with Uttaranchal Tourism to create better facilities for stay of specialists in Sangliya.

      “The meeting felt that simultaneous efforts should be made for the visit of GB members to the site.  This will inspire confidence among the villagers who have donated land.  The members could stay in the Guest House of the Electronic Service and Training Centre located at Ram Nagar. TNORD has already an understanding with them.  They can then visit the site and return to Ram Nagar next day.

      “The meeting noted interest of Shri N D Tiwari in the project from his recent letter in response to our request  for giving time for a meeting with the TNORD president with him during one of his Delhi visits.  It was suggested that we may hold a meeting of GB members and other stake holders present in Delhi in his office in Delhi and request him to address it.

      “The proposal for opening a centrally operated bank account at the Canara Bank Jaraukhand was considered.  The meeting felt that this could also be done during the site visit of the GB team.

      “There was a discussion on the technical aspects of optical manufacture.  Member Secretary said the Indian Dominion (November 2002)in an article entitled “China as a Manufacturing Base for India Inc.” observes:

                  “But cost competitiveness has now started impacting not so complicated hi-tech items like cameras, electronic goods and is making inroads in even automotive sector.  Minolta of Japan, a leading film and digital camera manufacturer has a manufacturing subsidiary in China since 1994 along with one in Malaysia but recently it has established another joint venture in China with a local company for manufacturing optical parts for cameras and will assemble optical units.  With the establishment of this new joint venture  Minolta aims to increase the cost competitiveness of its lens and finder units – key components in both digital and film cameras. (page 16).”

      “Dr Krishan Lal  informed the meeting that CSIO has recently acquired capabilities for high class optics for space applications.   Shri Kaushal Goel narrated his efforts for production of optical and ophthalmic glass in India.  Member Secretary said that the document  of the existing demonstration lens project records: “TNORD has recently received a special mention in the detailed techno market study of TIFAC CSIO Board on complete range of optical an ophthalmic glass including optical fibre This study recommends, as a first step, to encourage high volume low margin optical glass component manufacturing facilities in the country to cater to both the domestic and export markets which is also in the work plan of TNORD.”   

      “The meeting noted that the project had, right from the start, been understood as a joint effort of the central and state governments.  Equal participation of both sides is important.  As there has been a delay in matters related to the state government, it is necessary to extend the duration of the demonstration  project by six months.

Testing the State Government 

      This description of the progress of the DST supported programme is extremely important.  It places various authorities under test.  However, experience of this specific project does not deny the conclusion of the Garhwal Post feature, which is given as follows:

      The behaviour, quality and efficiency of service in most government offices are extremely poor. Ask the common man and he will tell you that nothing gets done without greasing palms. All the advantage being sought to be achieved through the numerous plans and programmes is being drained away at the point of delivery.

       
      The time has come, now, to lay down the law for each and every department. Goals have to be articulated in measurable terms and audits carried out to ensure that these are met. Corruption should not be allowed to undo or undercut reforms.

      One way to do this would be to empower the elected bodies as much as possible. Government employees who function at these levels have to become accountable to these bodies. So many government departments are supposed to carry out regulatory functions; these have to be judged from the results on the ground.

      Unless steps are taken in this regard, Chief Minister Tiwari would have to look for something even more ingenious to offer as an excuse after completion of his second year in office. 
       
       


ramprasad

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From:

      Technological Nursery for Optics Research and

      Development (TNORD)

      D-5 Dronacharya Apartments,

      Mayur Vihar Phase I Ext.,

      Delhi-110091

      Tel: 22714920

      Fax:  22719366

      E-mail: tnordramprasad@yahoo.co.in                   

April 3, 2003

To

Sanjay TEWARI

Institute Of Forest Ecology
Mendel University of Forestry
Zamedelska 3
Brno-61200
Czech Republic

uttaranchal_web_watch@hotmail.com <uttaranchal_web_watch@hotmail.com>

Dear Shri Tewari,

 

     The Uttaranchal Web Watch is experimentally  carrying information on TNORD in its column Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal.  The title notes under this column published so far are:

   1. First things first in Uttarakhand
   2. Uttrakhand and 50 years of Indian Science.
   3. Science Driven development of Uttaranchal (3) “Uttaranchal and Professor MGK Menon
   4. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (4):  Dr Murli Manohar Joshi and Uttaranchal
   5. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (5):  Koshiyariji and his 80 days

   6. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (6) -  Governor in a re-invented role

   7. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (7)  - Unemployment challenge and the Seasoned Chief Minister
   8. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (8)  - The millennium challenge before the Chief Ministers
   9. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (9)  - The role of the scientist President
  10. Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (10)  - How to ensure that Poor delivery does not undercut pro-active approach of the seasoned Chief Minister

 

The next installment in the above series may be titled as   “Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (11)  - Introducing the Challenging Field of i-Business” and the same is enclosed.

    With kind regards,
 
 

      Yours sincerely
 

      (RAM PRASAD)

      SYSTEM DIRECTOR 
 

Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (11)  - Introducing the Challenging Field of i-Business

      The recent top story of uww speaks about MS Digital Democracy explaining “Microsoft aims to reduce the digital divide in the country through its e-governance initiatives”.  The question arises can the Microsoft solve the problems of development through e-business? Its primary aim is to promote its own business – the e-business.  It knows all about e and its development.  The starting point of e-business was a certain organizational level of the industrialized world.  That level is first to be attained and machines are not available for that purpose.   If this is so has Shri N D Tiwari has gone wrong in his proactive approach for the development of Uttaranchal?    The Garhwal Post does not blame Tiwariji but it points out that there is an inadequacy somewhere in his scheme of things when it observes  “Tewari ministry completes year in office, Poor delivery undercuts pro-active approach.” The uww has already made a study of this observations in the series science driven development of Uttaranchal and suggested how to ensure that poor delivery does not undercut pro-active approach of the seasoned Chief Minister.

      TNORD has been working not on one but on two rails.  The e-business track is to be balanced by what is defined as i-Business.  Development of machines, techniques and mechanical environment of organization and behaviour may be necessary but it is not sufficient to ensure real development.  The second track of i-Business is necessary and we may recall the TNORD article: Uttaranchal: Introducing the Challenging Field of i-Business by Pallavi Dhyani who is the Co Project Investigator of the project: “To undertake Location Specific Demonstration of Lens Making Workshop for generating awareness and interest for promotion of a lens industry network in the new state of Uttaranchal among school teachers, local authorities and social activists and to use it as an escort technology for industrial culture and development.” This project is supported by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India and it seeks matching support from the Uttaranchal Government. Tiwariji knows all about this project and uww has already discussed this project against the Garhwal Post comments.

       But the second rail is not understood in the political and bureaucratic circles.  Only MPs, Ex-MPs   from Uttaranchal and other stakeholders in TNORD programmed vaguely know something about it.  We may, therefore, consider the following text of Pallavi Dhyani’s article:

      Taking the advantage of the current e-business race, I am trying to extend the scope of my work in the field of tech-bio to the newly defined field of i-business.  Before coming to the topic of i-business, I would like to explain the background.   

      I was asked to make a presentation on Technological Nursery for Optics Research and Development – a programme developed by my father during his long research career of almost half a century.   I have been trying to understand his concept of technological nurseries from my own background of a software engineer in a problem solving environment by writing essays on what I call tech-bio – coined by interchanging the order of technology and biology in the term biotechnology.   The attempt is to provoke interest in this less understood field of technological nurseries.     This essay will extend the list of contributions given in the following table.

         1. Essays on tech-bio-Technological Nurseriyan: Vikas Path ki Margdarshak, (Hindi) Garhwal Gaurav (Souvenir 1999), Garhwal Bhavan, New Delhi
         2. Skill reinvestment and reinvestment skills for developing rural economy, Nistads Seminar, March 8, 1999.
         3. New Economics: Analysis to prevent paralysis of the new state of Uttaranchal, Chapter in Rajendra Dhasmana’s book under publication.
         4. Uttaranchal:  Prashna anusandhan aur vikas ka (Hindi) (Under publication)
         5. Uttaranchal: The Developmental Photosynthesis Argument (Under publication)
         6. Uttaranchal: Introducing the fascinating field of tech-bio. (Under publication)
         7. Technological Nursery for Optics Research and Development (TNORD) – A presentation by Pallavi Dhyani at the Meeting of Project Evaluation Group, DST, on 3rd May 2001

 

      Social development Vs software development

            The titles of these seven issues and the introductory paragraph of this essay do not make any suggestion as to what is the i-business.  I would not venture to define it in the beginning of this essay because I do not myself know what this term will define when this essay is completed.  Fundamentals do not change and it is not difficult to find words to define them.  But it takes ages to define fundamentals.  Information technology is changing very fast and one is not sure whether a concept discovered today would last and become a fundamental one day.  But when a young student gets a frog on his or her table it has to be dissected and studied part by part to learn whatever is possible from the experiment.  TNORD was such a frog for me when I was asked to make presentation before the DST’s Project Evaluation Group. Last things came first and I expressed my approach as follows: 

            “Let me take the methodology part and explain the approach.   As a software engineer who specialises in exclusively object oriented Java language, I would like to begin from the end rather than beginning, that is, from the optical factories to be (ultimately) created by the system.  The current project proposal does not go that far.  It does not go to the end result of the preceding step, that is, factory prototype, either.  Its scope is limited to establishing the mother laboratory as a demonstration workshop.  What I want to insist by making references to the end realities, which have necessarily to remain in abstraction throughout the project life of the proposal, is that the like the modern software, object oriented reverse approach is necessary to understand the nature of a complex project irrespective of its size of shape.  So we must start from the mother laboratory point for discussing the methodology of this proposal.” 

      I tried to understand the organisation of TNORD as a software system.  My background of working in technologies like JAVA, EJB, Visual Basic, CORBA etc for software development may have made me biased in favour of these technologies. “A software development process is a structured set of activities required to develop a software system. Software is defined as programs, procedures, rules and all associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computerized system. These Standards are concerned with all software aspects of a system, including its interfaces with the computer hardware and with other components of the system.”  Social development too has to be a structured set of activities with a difference.  The social elements are not electrons or photons – they are living beings and simple procedural routines become inapplicable even to the elementary social problems.  Plants grow in sunlight social developments flourish on the encouragement provided by a human authority.  Sun does not go to the plant to know how grateful it is for the light he received.  But human authority has this weakness.  Social system has to be so designed as to keep the sun in its orbit at an optimum distance to provide adequate light and avoid Bhashmasur Effect.   

      Bhashmasur is this not a mere mythological term.  Every social act is a Bhasmashur and it needs orbitisation, which is balancing, by building a social system around it to prevent the burning effect. 

      General Utopian Mode (Gumod)

            How to place a social system in such a general utopian mode?  Individual beings are human with all weaknesses.  When an individual becomes a sun (that is, occupies a position of importance in the society), he has the power to beam all around but the acquisition process is rooted deep in the history of the case.    Now he or she acquires this power unconditionally on the primary strength of being a human being.  All the strengths and all weaknesses of being a human being remain unchanged.

        My father has been able to create a very special place for himself by remaining in a general utopean mode all his life.  He worked full day at Instruments Research and Development Establishment  (Dehra Dun) and joined the Defence Science Laboratory (Delhi) the next day.  He was entitled to avail of the joining time and other concessions.  He never availed of Leave travel allowances and allowed his earned leave quota to over flow.  He commuted his pension in order to run the office of TNORD.  He could not get his normal retirement dues unless he surrendered his flat and returned all stores and equipment.  His flat was also the registered office of TNORD and NPL was reluctant to transfer erstwhile NPL activities to the new organisation.  Status quo had to be maintained while the process of this live transfer was on.  He had to take legal steps to change the registered office of TNORD to his flat.  When NPL agreed to transfer the project live to TNORD, all the material landed in our flat.    Along with him he made me and my mother suffer.  The restrictions also irritated our relatives.  But when a person takes up social responsibility, he or she has to function in this general utopian mode.  It is this mode that makes a person acquire solar power and become a sun – or a Bhashmasur. 

      I came in the picture at this stage.  I defined his method of working as a style in Gumod.  I would have not been tempted to write this essay had my father stopped at this stage.  But he started to work in the same style and in the same mode to move towards a real Gumod.  He started to take initiative to organise an optical factory at Gumod – a real village in Champavat district of Uttaranchal that lies on Delhi Pithoragarh route.  A large number of taxi drivers from this village work in the Samachar Taxi Stand close to the Headquarters of TNORD.  Their number is so conspicuous that the owner of the Taxi Stand has built a resting platform for them and named it “Garhwali Fatta”.  The taxi drivers sit together daily and discuss four page proceedings of the previous meeting on Gumod optical factory.  GOF may come up or may not come up but it will certainly arouse some interest about the mode that is defined here as a new challenge – the challenge that is to be faced by TNORD and the state of Uttaranchal.

      The name Sangliya where the central mother laboratory of TNORD is being organised is as interesting as Gumod.  What my father has done is to bring together (that is, to establish the process of Sang Liya of) the taxi drivers of Gumod to develop an urge for optical factory in their native village and take the benefit of the facilities being organised at Sangliya.  The tale of these two villages will convey the message of a new developmental business – the i-business.

      The eternal field of i-business

      The entire history of human development is actually the live story of the i-business.  The human mind has a natural tendency of working in Gumod, that is, in general utopian mode.   The drivers sit on the Garhwali Fatta and think about an optical factory rising in their native place. The spark of TNORD has taken such a long time to glow that one is reminded of the writer Washington Irving, fictitious Rip Van Winkle and the 18th century America.  The entire history of America of 18th and 19th centuries is dedicated to the i-business of rural development.  A person who did not move with the tide of development was left behind by decades to become a Rip Van Winkle.  The American was the product of industrial development. When he created the new rural America, it was not a replica of rural Europe – it was a synthetic product and not a natural product.  This i-business had poetic rhythm of its own.  The rhyme saw an African Chieftain forced to become a farm laborer.  Tied to his work by a real iron chain this character bade farewell to the history as he bade farewell to his life.  Curiously enough the poets of this era focusing on the slavery were not slaves themselves – in fact they were termed as new Brahmins in American literature.  What type of Brahmins are the Gumod drivers.  They are slaves tied to their wheels looking forward to glorious future of their native land in an un-American way.  The i-business of the 18th and 19th century American poets saw the end of the history and the i-business of the Gumod drivers sees the return of the history in its glorious future.

      I-business the challenging field

      Lenin wisely took the hint from the American history.  He built the Soviet Union and developed an appropriate i-business for that purpose.  The corporate world took fullest advantage of the experience of the Soviet Union and developed an i-business of their own to serve corporate ends.  India also took the hint and developed the i-business of technological nurseries and industrial orchards to spark the idea of spark and town and village enterprises in China. 

       

      I may abandon my present essay at this point without drawing any conclusion for myself.   The state of Uttaranchal already has the ground and enough justification to take up the challenging field of i-business.  I have already made the following suggestion in this very essay in this connection:

            “The name Sangliya where the central mother laboratory of TNORD is being organised is as interesting as Gumod.  What my father has done is to bring together (that is, to establish the process of Sang Liya of) the taxi drivers of Gumod to develop an urge for optical factory in their native village and take the benefit of the facilities being organised at Sangliya.  The tale of these two villages will convey the message of a new developmental business – the i-business.”

      Now, says the M S Digital Divide article: “the Software giant Microsoft is now spearheading e-governance initiatives across India in a big way. The company started this initiative in 1997. “The biggest bottleneck in India today is the digital divide,” says Shailender Kumar, group manager, Microsoft Corporation (India) Pvt. Ltd. Globally, the company is actively supporting e-governance initiatives in 45 countries.”  This experience of e-governance in 45 countries is already available in Uttaranchal.  The article says: “Recently, the company signed an MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) with the government of Uttaranchal, under which it will jointly develop and deploy an array of technology solutions for e-governance in the state. With the signing of the MoU, the Department of Information Technology (DOIT) will attain the status of a strategic Microsoft technology partner for the Uttaranchal government and it will consult, develop and execute systems integration projects on Microsoft technologies.”
 

      The parallel rail – the rail of i-business, however does not yet have support.  TNORD is feeding itself with an ever increasing deficit budget.  It does not have surpluses of Microsoft business to mobilize the promotional budget support   Says Mr. Kumar, “Most state governments have earmarked an IT budget in their 10th Plan. In fact, most politicians and bureaucrats are upbeat about the IT benefits that can be passed on to the common man. It ultimately leads to a transparent and efficient government.” Shri Tiwari’s pro-activity in e-business must be balanced by providing adequate support to the i-business of TNORD in the state plan.

      “The employment of 21st century will be by the quest of knowledge, through super highway of information technology. Well begun is half done. Our destiny in development will be through information technology” said Shri ND Tiwari at the function at the time of signing the MoU with the Microsoft and added  that “technology does not understand politics. Sometimes politics pushes development back, but here it was otherwise. Our relationship is not merely of business but of finding new arenas in development. Aarohi means towards excellence and more innovative and Microsoft is pioneer in it.” Rajiv Nair, President, Microsoft Corporation India Private Limited & Senior Strategic Advisor, Microsoft Asia said at the same function that he had been to many countries in South Asia, but he has to still come across a savvy Chief Minister who has an indepth knowledge, which is the basic talent of success.

      All these compliments to e-business  cannot succeed on the machine track only.  There is equally import track that is the track of man – the i-business.

       

ramprasad

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From:

      Technological Nursery for Optics Research and

      Development (TNORD)

      D-5 Dronacharya Apartments,

      Mayur Vihar Phase I Ext.,

      Delhi-110091

      Tel: 22714920

      Fax:  22719366

      E-mail: tnordramprasad@yahoo.co.in                   

April 3, 2003

To

Sanjay TEWARI

Institute Of Forest Ecology
Mendel University of Forestry
Zamedelska 3
Brno-61200
Czech Republic

uttaranchal_web_watch@hotmail.com <uttaranchal_web_watch@hotmail.com>

Dear Shri Tewari,

 

      From your interest in  the last note “Introducing the Challenging Field of i-Business”, I feel that the unpublished TNORD book may be exposed to the web community The next installment in the  series may be titled as Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (12)  - Techbio of the new economics for Uttaranchal and    the same is enclosed.

    With kind regards,
 
 

      Yours sincerely
       (RAM PRASAD)

      SYSTEM DIRECTOR 

Science Driven Development of Uttaranchal (12):Techbio of the new economics for Uttaranchal

Chapter 2

New Economics: Analysis to prevent paralysis of the new state of Uttaranchal

 

In his foreword to the book “Science and Rural Development in Mountains: Ecological, Socio-Economical and Technological Aspects” edited by S Singh, S P Singh and C Shastri and published by Gyanodaya Prakashan, Naini Tal, 1981 from the papers of a seminar held in Nainital on 3-5 November 1978, Dr M S Swaminathan, Member Planning Commission wrote:

      “Although, it is well known that the protection of mountain ecosystems is essential for the economic well-being of not only the people living in the hills, but also in the plains, considerable deforestation is taking place in all our hill areas.  Damage to the habitats also damages the prospects for the survival of the native flora and fauna.  The soil and gene erosion will undermine the renewable wealth in the world.  I am, therefore, happy that this publication which contains papers on sociological, socio-economical and technological aspects of mountains and the production of hill regions has been brought out.”

and warned in conclusion:

      “We have so far concentrated mainly on methods of analysis of problems through frequent seminars, symposia etc.  It is high time that we also took appropriate action since otherwise paralysis is the only result of analysis.” 

      Since the new state of Uttaranchal has come up, it is necessary for all concerned to take note of this warning.  We may do this by focusing on a particular topic in a series of seminars that preceded and followed the Nainital Seminar on which the book is based.  The Nainital Seminar had, in a way, considered the roots of what in the year 2000 we call the new economics.   Within its micro focus the seminar had discussed  micro-industrialisation of UP hills as the new economics of the region and made the following recommendation:

        16. Micro-industries industries may be developed in the field of precision mechanics, electronics or micro-chemical engineering.  For establishing new industries, however, “industrial seeds” will have to be prepared in “technological nurseries”.  In this connection the seminar has noted that the National Physical Laboratory has already submitted a scheme for development of precision optical components in the UP hills with “built-in nursery-orchard concept”.

 

      What is this new economics?  The Foundation Day lecture 2000 of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research said: “During the last 9 years, a new generation of companies, representing the new economy, has come into existence.  Information technology, Telecommunications, Pharmaceuticals are the new kids on the block.  They are driven by knowledge.  They are all surging ahead on the basis of technology.  Technology can completely rewrite our competitiveness”.   During this very period of 9 years the above Uttaranchal focussed NPL baby was struggling for building a new economy based on the nursery orchard concept.
Short cut to the new economy
 

      This 1978 recommendation made in the context of UP hills more or less hints at the same industrial economics that has now engulfed the entire world as the new economy and which has been mentioned in the CSIR Foundation Day 2000 lecture.   In the current discussion we may focus on this recommendation in depth and consider the Swaminathan warning against it.  The raw leaders of this new state of Uttaranchal  may need an instrument and for this purpose they may use the NPL experience encapsulated in the above recommendation in designing the new economics for UP hills. The recommendations of the above seminar and several other events were considered in the 12th Chapter (Controls: Planning, Evaluation, Monitoring and Review) of the Detailed Project Report of the UP hill project prepared by NPL.  This chapter was reproduced in the Souvenir of the NPL Seminar-cum-workshop on Technological Nursery for Optics Research and Development (November 19-25, 1988) in order to fully expose the problem before the learned gathering.  It started as follows:

      “The nature of the project described in the preceding chapters is basically of R&D character and no hard and fast methodology exists for its planning, evaluation, monitoring and review.  Controls are, however, necessary for the progress of the project and we can lay down a certain procedure for the evaluation and replanning of the project step by step.

      “The chronology of the events through which the idea matured and the exposition of the idea before the learned audiences provide the fundamental justification for undertaking the project.  Fig 12.1 gives the chronology of the project and fig 12.2 enlists the seminars, conferences, etc. at which the idea was exposed to intellectuals.

      “The project seems to have two clear-cut faces – environmental and the technical.  Let us take up the environmental face first and compare the contents of the project against relevant recommendations of National Seminar on Resources Development and Environment in the Himalayan Region (New Delhi, April 10-13, 1978) and the seminar on Science and Rural Development in Mountains (Nainital, November 5-6, 1978).”

      This Souvenir introduction to the 12th Chapter of the Detailed Project Report of the UP hill project was meant to give a broad outline only.  There were other documents to provide in-depth information.  One of them was “Focus on devising the operating system for Utilizing S&T Resources and the Action Plan”.  This focus on the operating system for industrialisation of UP hills needs extensive R&D inputs and this fact was realised by the Department of Science and Technology in the shape of a three-day workshop on Vision Uttarakhand 2020 at Almora (April 21-23, 2000).  The 1988 NPL seminar cum workshop on TNORD is located between the 1978 Nainital and 2000 Almora events and it may be useful how this 1988 event projected the perspective of a new economy for UP hills – the generalised version of which has been mentioned in the CSIR Foundation Day Lecture 2000.   It may be useful to understand the philosophy of  the new economy with reference to large countries like India and China.

Continued..................

ramprasad

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Managing new economy in a large country

      TNORD discussed the CSIR Foundation Day Lecture para by para in a letter addressed to Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi, Minister for Human Resource Development, Science and Technology and Ocean Development.  The following table reproduces an excerpt of the lecture along with the TNORD comment.
Excerpt from the CSIR Foundation Day Lecture    TNORD Comment
For our medium term competitiveness, we have to focus on our technological prowess.

During the last 9 years, a new generation of companies, representing the new economy, has come into existence.  Information technology, Telecommunications, Pharmaceuticals are the new kids on the block.  They are driven by knowledge.  They are all surging ahead on the basis of technology.  Technology can completely rewrite out competitiveness.

Today it is not enough to have good technology.  We need to have better technology than that of our competitors.

What does this mean to the researcher, to the scientist?

It means that the marketplace has matured, it is discerning and it is demanding.  Technology must be understood in its totality. It encompasses design, process engineering, production, logistics and even marketing and after-sales service.

I believe, technology will transform the economic and industrials face of our nation like never before.  It will impact every facet of our life.  It will accelerate the process of change.

Internet is making possible the “anytime – anywhere” paradigm.  Huge inefficiencies in the way we run our lives and our businesses are being removed.

The S&T community should dream and convert their dreams into reality using the vehicle of technology.

Investment in R&D is the bedrock of creating a better tomorrow.  US spends 2.9% of GDP on R&D, Japan 2.7 %  and Europe 1.2%.  We spend 0.8%.  Furthermore, 80%  of our R&D is done in the government, while their ratio would be 50:50.  70% of their R&D is directed towards an industrially useful product or technology.

Of course, in absolute terms our R&D investment is niggardly.  But, unless we have focussed R&D, increased spending on R&D by industry and better CSIR-Industry interaction, we will not be getting the value that this R&D spend should generate.

I believe that managed efficiently and provided with the necessary internal liberalisation, there are a few Indian companies in many sectors of our economy, which can successfully compete against global competition.

A few words about the young people who drive technology.

Though I would like the rate of growth of our population to come down substantially, India has a tremendous comparative advantage in the fact that, unlike the West, a large percentage of our population will be very young by 2015.  What we need to do is to harness these young, bright minds for promoting innovation in all spheres of our activity.

Young people will need to be trained, trusted and empowered.  They must be given the freedom and the space to innovate and create.

Issues on the global agenda have become more numerous, more complex and more inter-dependent.  Dealing with all these pressing issues has become an overwhelming task before the society.  The role of civil society, including the business sector, has expanded tremendously.  Governments have lost ground for the reason that their structures and operating procedures are often inappropriate to anticipate and resolve such multiple, complex and systemic problems, let alone manage them from a global and long-term perspective.  Facing all these challenges, the world needs competent frameworks for bringing all the interested global stakeholders together for a collaborative, ongoing effort to deal with the global agenda at the interface of business and society.

Neither business nor government nor civil society alone can meet the challenges of the global economy in the 21st century.  They have to act in partnership.

Over the past decade, the world has witnessed a growing interest in pluralism and new approaches to governance.  Companies have become aware that in order to succeed, they have to manage not only their businesses but they have to contribute to ensure the environmental and social sustainability of the global economy.

According to the World Economic Forum, which has a Meeting of World Leaders every year in Davos, Switzerland, it has become clear that moral and ethical challenges are assuming a global dimension, requiring a more direct and deeper involvement from business and political leaders as well as scientists and the media.

CSIR should lead the way for R&D institutions to look at the future in a scientific and entrepreneurial manner.  Future strategy must be developed now.

If we are to succeed in building a truly globally competitive India, we must approach the whole area of Science & Technology as an innocent and curious child would do.  We must accept that we do not know everything and that there is no end to the.  Having a PhD degree is not the ultimate.  What PhD degree must do is to ingrain in us a desire to constantly learn and enrich ourselves.
   The 14th National Conference on In-house R&D in Industry organised by the DSIR in association with FICCI will consider how to synthesise the old and new economies in three sessions (1) Challenge of Creating the Synthesis between Old and New Economy, (2) Preparing Indian Industry for the Global Challenges, (3) Barriers to Growth of Knowledge Industry and (4) Indian Knowledge Industry in the wake of Emerging IPR Challenges.

It seems that the organizers of the above conference understand the role of industrial research laboratories when they say that the In-house R&D system of the industry has to orient itself to the needs of the industry and the changes taking place in the industrial scenario.   They do not; however, seem to place enough stress on the role of industrial research laboratories of the corporation (or that of technological nurseries in developing countries) to meet the competitive world, which is becoming more and more competitive.  For a large country like India it is important to learn how to cross the river by feeling the stones.  We are richer than China in terms of our scientific infrastructure but we resist the concept of technological nurseries and industrial orchards as we find from our actual experience in the example of TNORD.  Let us learn how the Chinese worked for science driven industrial development in their practice of economic reform in following three phases:

      1949-1978 Collectivization and Large-Scale Heavy industrialization

      1979-1990 “Crossing the River by Feeling the Stones”

      1990-1997 Rapid Economic Growth

By considering the following details of China’s industrial reforms: 1979-1995

1979. Law on joint ventures: price liberalization starts in agriculture.

 

1980. Fiscal autonomy to local governments:  Special economic zones created; private income tax introduced
1981. Individual enterprises encouraged in urban centers
1982. Price liberalization of industrial products starts: patent law and trademark law enacted.
1983. SOEs begin to be taxed instead of turning over profits; bank lending to SOEs begins to replace allocation from State budget; collective enterprises are encouraged; People’s Bank of China begins to assume some of the functions of a central bank.
1984. 14 costal cities are opened up to overseas investment; director-responsibility system and “above plan” pricing and production autonomy introduced; TVs created
1985. –
1986. Labor contract system replaces virtual lifetime employment for urban new recruits
1987. –

 

1988. SOE contract responsibility system begins; on the basis of negotiated multiyear contracts, managers (and sometimes workers’) right of control and obligations to the state defined: regulations on private enterprises published; enterprise and bankruptcy laws passed.

 

1989. Regulations on mergers, joint-stock companies and commercialization of banks.

 

1990. Copyright law enacted.

 

1991. Delegation of direct foreign trade rights to (some) SOEs; beginning of pensions and housing reform; encouragement of enterprise groups and corporatisation, whereby the state’s ownership rights take the form of shares managed by state asset administration bureaux and state investment companies and the firm has management autonomy, Establishment of the Shanghai and Shenshen stock markets.

 

1992. Deng’s southern tour; new operating mechanism and autonomous rights to SOEs give SOE managers authority to “use and dispose of the property entrusted to them by the state for management and business purposes”, phasing out of production targets and price controls; patent law and trademark law revised.
1993. Principles of “socialist market economy” replace “socialist commodity economy”; decision of the third plenum on establishing modern enterprise system; promulgation of a competition law; new accounting standards introduced.
1994. Foreign exchange reform; fiscal and tax reform; implementation of company law.

 

1995. New commercial banking law; People’s bank of China law; provisional regulations guiding foreign investment; insurance law; move to a five-day week; legislation to regulate the securities and debt markets; draft of ninth five-year plan.

 

TNORD’s 10 years’ experience should be studied by all concerned to know why China succeeded.
Operating System for the new economy
 

      The 1988 NPL Seminar-cum-Workshop was held at a time when the Soviet Union was very much there but there was some organizational turmoil within that country.  This turmoil was discussed in the operating system note of the 1988 NPL event as follows:

      “At the 1988 Science Congress, which had "frontiers in Science and Technology" as the focal theme, the Prime Minister drew attention of the scientific community on the opposite frontier by emphasizing the need for taking science to the villages.   The stress on the development of the countryside before an audience, which is focussed on frontiers in science and technology, is a new trend.

      “The term "frontier" has necessarily to be used in a global or three dimensional sense.  The general tendency is, however, to regard the issues that are important from the point of view of military and political power of the industrially advanced countries as the frontiers of science and technology.  The frontiers that lead to peace and prosperity of masses are considered unimportant.  It is significant, therefore, that our attention is drawn to this unproductive trend by the Indian Prime Minister himself.  It is hoped that the scientific community of the country will listen to the Prime Minister and regard this frontier as the worthiest area for its endeavours.

      “On the global frontier such issues were occasionally raised -- for example, Alvin Wienberg felt development of Indus Valley was more challenging frontier than the conquest of the space.  Even in India such issues have come up for special consideration only in recent years particularly following the formation of state committees for science, technology and environment in several states.  Some of the state governments and union territories are organising seminars to focus on these issues.

      Taking science to the countryside

 

      “Taking science to the villages is, however, a less understood and difficult task from the simple consideration that there are not many success stories to emulate on this frontier.  Moreover, it will be very difficult to bring about village by village development in a literal sense of the term and an operating system similar to the instrument of war or defence is required to carry out the opposite function.  To overcome the obvious problems of such an attempt the Association of Scientific Workers of India has preferred to use the phrase "taking science to the countryside" in which a special agency called "technological Nursery" is to be organised for building a chain of factories in the countryside and build what may be defined  as the "industrial orchard" to symbolise the green culture of the countryside.  Such an industrialisation process can work to reduce economic pressure on the villages as well as on the towns and the metropolitan centres.  It can also work as a machinery to check the erosion that the process of industrialisation brings about on environment and repair the damage done during the earlier phases of the  industrialisation process.  The seminar supported the argu

ramprasad

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      Definition of Operating System

 

      “We may now, deliberately use computer terminology to discuss this mechanics of the development of the countryside.  A new wave of fifth generation computer is around the corner and in coming years we expect that the artificial intelligence of computers will be used more and more to cut across psychological barriers which separate the remotest from the frontiers of knowledge.

      “It is an irony that the industrialised countries are spending so much of their time and energy to find new chips that will store enormous amount of information and knowledge to match with he human intelligence but are conceding at the same time that the best computing systems can hope to achieve only a part of the natural brain of a human being.  The population rich societies of the third world would not have been so backward had they found ways and means to utilise the labour and intelligence of the masses.  Computer systems owe their power not so much to the powers of their intelligent chips but to the excellence of the organisation of their structure, operating system and management of resources.

      “The government of the country can itself be regarded as a computer.  According to Peter Bishop, a computer is a collection of resources, including digital electronic processing devices, stored programme and sets of data, which under the control of the stored programmes automatically inputs, processes and outputs data, and may also store and retrieve data.  The Government, too, is a collection of resources, including its bureaucracy and the rest of its infrastructure, five year plans and sets of data, and performs its computer-like functions in a computer-like manner.

      “Operating systems of computers have two major objectives.  These are to make possible for the resources of the computer to be used efficiently and to obscure difficulties of dealing directly with the hardware of the computer.  The functions they do include memory management, input/output control, backing store managed resource allocation and scheduling and protection.  The function of an operating system may be loosely classified as time allocation, resource control, error handling and protection, operator-interface and accounting.  Desirable features include efficiency, reliability, maintainability and small size.

      “The operating system of the government has also to have similar features and functions.  The existing operating system does not fulfil these requirements and that is why there is no performance parity in the governmental system.  It is often argued that the democratic system of the does not allow it to be effective.  This may not be a correct picture because the computer system, too, is democratic organisation.

      “We can compare this situation with computer memory.  Almost all microcomputers have some sort of very primitive programme stored in ROM (Read only Memory or permanent memory in which values are written once by the manufacturers and then can be subsequently read).  It is permanently in-built in computer at the time of its production.  It stores a set of instructions permanently, which instructs the computer, how to work.  In ROM permanent data and instructions for computer are stored and are ready for use when computer is switched on.  The constitution of the country can be compared to this type of computer memory; computer has this type of memory in addition to RAM – random accessible memory, which goes off with power.  The bureaucracy to some extent has ROM-like built-in feature in the sense that it does not change with the change of governments following general elections.  Likewise the masses provide the hardware which carries RAM-like memory for the ruling party as the power of that party goes with the next elections.

      “The ROM-like features of the bureaucracy should have been able to have full control over the people as it is the case with dictatorships.  In democracies, however, bureaucracies cannot function as a ROM.  They function as what computer terminology defines as PROM, that is, programmable ROM.  The implication of this provision is that the ruling party can partly modify the ROM.  In the process it also has some EPROM (i.e., Erasable PROM)-like features as well. The confusion of the operating system of the Parliamentary democracies can be seen in satirical form in BBC serials, "YES MINISTER" and "YES PRIME MINISTER".

      “Normally, successive modifications in the ROM of the bureaucracy would have resulted in improvements because every ruling party tries to give better service to the people after giving the vested interests their due share.  But no conscious effort has been made to change the fundamental ROM of the colonial machinery in Indian context.  We may, perhaps, refer to the views of an authority on this point.

      “One of the best representatives of Indian bureaucracy exists in the personality of Dr. I.H. Usmani, former chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission.  In his presidential address at the symposium on the Role of Science in the Development of Natural Resources with particular reference to Pakistan, Iran and Turkey (Lahore, January 1962) he observed:  "I remember when I was young and junior ICS officer in undivided India, the first lessons taught to me as a probationer were: (a) collect your land revenue; (b) maintain law and order at all costs; (c) keep away from the people; (d) if you don't want to get something done, either raise queries on the files or entrust the matter to a committee.  When the British ruled here, they had no interests in the planned development of national resources.  They set up administrative machinery, which suited their ends. They wanted every policy case to be examined by an under secretary, then by a deputy secretary, then by the joint secretary, the additional secretary, the Viceroy's Council and finally by the Viceroy himself before it was sent to white-hall in London for orders.  The torturous procedures have since then become sacred to our administrators...".

      “This is what can be described as the "default" or "obvious choice" in computer terminology.  The organisational structure described in the above words speaks about the course in which things will go if there is no conscious effort to over-rule the instructions already built in the system.  What can be the mechanics for overcoming the limitations of the colonial "default'?  We may refer to the machinery the Government itself built in the shape of its community development programme.

      The community development programme.

      “The community development programme, which aims at the individual and collective welfare of India’s vast rural population can be taken for the term "electronic processing system".  Launched on October 2, 1952, it is a programme of aided self-help to be planned and implemented by the villagers themselves' the Government offering only technical guidance and financial assistance. Its objectives are to develop self-reliance in the individual and initiatives in the village community.  Community thinking and collective action are encouraged  through people's institutions like the Panchayat, Cooperative Societies, Vikas Mandals, etc.

      “Resources for the programme are drawn both from the people and the Government.  For each block area, development schemes are conditioned by a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from people in cash or kind or labour. When State assistance is offered for execution of such projects, expenses are shared by the Central and State Governments equally in respect of recurring items and in the portion of 3:1 in the case of non-recurring items.

      “The organisation of the community development programme has been structured in a top to bottom hierarchy – from the Centre to the State, from the States to the Districts and from Districts to the Blocks.  But it also had a limited scope for democratic functioning through the extension organisation and block development committees.

      "National Council for Study and Research in Community Development supervises the entire training programme implemented through a network of training centres.  The National Institute of Community Development, which is the apex institution functions through the Study and Research Wings at Mussorie and the Institution Wing at Rajpur, Dehra Dun.  The Study Wing offers orientation courses to key personnel-administrative, technical and non official.  The Research Wing undertakes investigations of current problems through its own staff and through universities.  Orientation and study centres and social education organisers' training centres.  The Institution Wing conducts courses for instructors as also for District Panchayat officers and SDOS."

      “The community development programme is well designed and well constructed but it is operated by state governments which have had, thus far, limited interest in science and technology.  Even at the central level organisations like he Council of Scientific and Industrial Research are taking interest in the countryside only now.  The concept of technological nursery and industrial orchards in the countryside in the joint sector has the potentiality of energising the community development programme.  Let us study the problems and find solutions.

Continued.........
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ramprasad

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      Bureaucracy vs. Development

 

      “The failure of the community development programme to initiate a development chain activity in the countryside can be attributed to the colonial structure of management.  We have already discussed what this type of management means in actual words of Dr. Usmani himself a noted civil servant.  Its after-effects exist in deep rooted form both in the administrative hardware and in the psychological framework of our minds.  It directly comes to the fore whenever an attempt is made to design an architecture for change.  We need an operating system for erasing this psychology of mind and rededicating the machinery to the task of nation building.

      “The editors of this report have already discussed in one of their papers how to over-rule the basic "default' of our bureaucratic structure.  It was argued that first of all it has already been corrupted by the vested interests of the successive generations of administrators who tend to force their own understandings or limitations on the system without even understanding its original features.  After the country's independence even the fundamental faith on the crown is gone.  This is what we have described as PROM in computer terminology of this chapter.

      “The editors then went on to suggest an operating system for changing the basic default by quoting Dr Shinsuke Horiuchi, Minister, Embassy of Japan who has described the importance of long-range planning for industrial development.  There is some perception gap between the technology and the process of transfer.  Technology is a system which consists of hardware and software parts and this software part is more important in the transfer of technology such as identification of products to be produced, supervision, control of manufacturing process, its marketing and finally product development.  And this whole system is to be transplanted in the Indian context.  So only the transfer of hardware and the training of personnel for this hardware is not sufficient.

      “Dr Horiuchi's observations are specially relevant in the context of the problems of this seminar and they clearly emphasise the importance of long range planning.  Though we have Central and State Planning Commissions and National Development Council to oversee the process and implementation of the plans, it is not effective enough.  Things seem to be so because no conscious efforts have been made to make common men aware of the role of planning.

      “The developing country like India should follow the comprehensive planning pattern of USSR and Japan who focus on perspective and long-range planning with primary focus on a rhythmic interaction between scientific research and industrial development.  Following the observation s of Jawaharlal Nehru on the need to link training with employment in order to solve the problem of unemployment in the countryside in early fifties, the Association of Scientific Workers of India has already suggested a plan for taking science to the countryside.  This is plan that seeks establishment of what are termed as "industrial orchards" through a special agency described as "technological nursery" and fulfils the requirements of Dr Horiuchi's 'software'.  Scientists from national laboratories and research institutes and retired scientific workers are to assist those nurseries on tenure terms and young scientific workers are to be associated with these nurseries as apprentices.

      Role of Research and Development

 

      “The necessity for introducing this jargon arises from the consideration that the relationship between research and development is not being understood properly even by former researchers inducted in bureaucratic machinery to look after the peculiarities of the field in the changing scenario in the industrialised world.  Even before developing countries are to make a start in the industrial field, a rationalisation process has already set in the advanced countries and the problems like environment protection and energy conservation are receiving top priority in industrially developed countries.  This jargon links industrial development with life and rhythm and goes one step forward in finding life and rhythm even in inanimate systems to link conflicting demands of industrial development on one side and of environment and energy conservation on the other.

      “The jargon does not, however, plead for retreating on scientific or industrial fronts.  On the contrary, it recognises that research scientists are people who like to read, think, and create in a detached, contemplative existence, free from the worries of the real world – a life concerned with ideas rather than money and profit.  The research institutes have, therefore, to provide an environment of ivy-covered towers that allow brilliant minds to consider whatever they liked regardless of its significance to the world outside.  A national laboratory or a research institute depends on the reputation of its faculty members expect them to be researchers first and foremost.  As the material necessary for research have become more complex, it has become more difficult to equip, renovate or even maintain a laboratory without vast sums of money.

      “It is also to be emphasized that research needs huge investments but it is only a minor part of the investments that are required to be made in development.  Our country is certainly not making sufficient investments in research and development – investments in development outside the sphere of R&D.  Besides in the wake of current rationalisation wave in industrially developed countries, both socialist and capitalist, which has been created by the Japanese challenge in the field of automobiles and computers, there is a danger that the whole process of R&D may suffer a set back in developing countries even before reaching the take off stage.

      “A developing country cannot afford to abandon trust on research institutes.  It has also to be understood that when R&D efforts do not yield expected results, the public funds available for research are bound to be cut back severely and restricted.  It is also natural for a greater emphasis on research that yields short term results.  At the same time it is to be realised that this pedestrian way of funding cannot take the country far.  The country must find resources to finance long term projects which may take research efforts last for ten years or more.”
       

      “To set up these technological nurseries in the countryside a wave of rationalised has to pass though the entire structure of the country's management and governance.  It has to start from the central Planning Commission, which has to plan the total strategy of change and development as long term perspective.  Some of the countries of the industrialised world are planning for the middle of the next century.  Out country has made the year 2000 as a developmental target.  A moderate programme for this target can also be quite helpful provided the aimed objectives are fulfilled by overcoming the resistance of local vested interests as well as the international market forces using them.

      “Most of the people are patriotic basically but they are liable to get frustrated when the expected value systems are suppressed by forces of corruption.  In practice it is difficult to perceive the threshold accurately.  An individual must be given ample freedom to express his or her total personality but he cannot be allowed to cast his shadow on others or on the society as a whole.  It is important to know at what point did certain people overstep the boundary between their confidence in their social guarantees and outright parasitism and how does the notion of "right to work" comes to be replaced by one of "the right to paid idleness". One of the basic training that the technological nurseries should provide is to ensure that at no point counterproductive social attitudes get the upper hand?

      “It is because of such people who do not want to work conscientiously but still lay claims to a share of the common good.  Opinions are voiced that the Soviet economy needs a certain amount of unemployment to get rid of the idlers. "Those who work conscientiously and display appropriate and seek to acquire new skills and know-how should be give better work places and positions.  Whereas slipshod workers should be given less prestigious and less well-paid jobs.  In this way, without violating the universal right to work, we shall be able to make people compete for more prestigious and better paid positions." Writes Tatiana Zaslavskaya, an eminent Soviet economist.

      “Such solutions are obviously not applicable in Indian situation.  Unemployment is one of our basic problems.  We have to find employment for a large proportion of our population and we all know that this requires long-term solutions.  In computer terminology the "default" like governmental system is on short-term solutions and the individuals who work for short-term objectives are encouraged.

      “The decision makers are to be reminded that short-term solutions are important but they are so within the framework of medium-range and long-range objectives only.  The successes of the Soviet Union and Japan are the examples of the long range planning.  The research institutes are required to fulfil objectives for which they are built.  There cannot be permanent objectives in a developing society; the objectives are to be updated rhythmically with the changing society.

      “All scientific endeavours are supported by the society and it is natural for the society to seek returns from the progress made at frontiers of science.  The advancing frontiers have usually been used for war efforts liberally financed by the establishment as issues of war and peace are related to its very survival.  The opposite frontiers, which relate to the betterment of masses are attended by thoughtful minds working at leisure for spiritual rather than material gains, with the ascending wave of peace movements and rise of democracies all over the world, however, the other frontiers are also gaining importance.  The Prime Minister’s call is an expression of the new wave.

      “The architecture defined by the jargon “technological nursery-industrial orchard” carries some of the latest trends in the frontiers of science like artificial intelligence and environment reconstruction and is programmed to serve as an operating system for development of countryside.  Emphasising that development itself is an artificial process requiring man-made solutions with long range planning for the development of countryside and discusses  how technological nurseries can be planned to set up industrial orchards in the countryside making use of the district and block level apparatus already in existence as a consequence of the community development programme of the government.  Operated with the help of this new software it can be argued that the community development machine can work as link between R&D activities of our universities, national laboratories and research institutes and the development of the countryside.”

ramprasad

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Virtual death of Indian Science
 

      It was remarked, before making the above exposure of the operating system note for utilising the S&T resources, that the 1988 NPL Seminar-cum-Workshop was held at a time when the Soviet Union was very much there.  The note highlighted the growing discontentment within the Soviet Society  “because of such people who do not want to work conscientiously but still lay claims to a share of the common good.” The prosperity of a nation is dependent on its productive capacity and efficiency and in the context of the Soviet society  “Opinions are voiced that the Soviet economy needs a certain amount of unemployment to get rid of the idlers.” This unemployment has to come by taking up productive adventures beyond the country’s capacity and introducing competitive spirit in the society.   "Those who work conscientiously and display appropriate and seek to acquire new skills and know-how should be given better work places and positions.  Whereas slipshod workers should be given less prestigious and less well-paid jobs.  In this way, without violating the universal right to work, we shall be able to make people compete for more prestigious and better paid positions." Has a similar situation arisen in the science establishment of the country?

       

      The cover of the weekly newsmagazine OUTLOOK dated October 23, 2000 boldly displays “Spurned, choked, abused, starved Indian Science is Dead”.  The inside of the cover story has been given the headline The Devil’s Laboratory by Rakesh Kalshian with the remark “Behind the noises of self-aggrandisement lies a story of slow poising: idle minds, skewed priorities, misdirected funding and an atmosphere that stifles independent thinking”.  The story has an extensive reference to the writings of Professor P V Indiresan whose presence at the Almora Convergence found prominence in the press as well as in the recommendations.  TNORD has, therefore, not found it necessary to go through the Outlook story.  It instead chose to study two pieces that appeared in the centre page of the Times of India on October 11, 2000.  One of these pieces is a question answer session with Professor C K Prahalad, a celebrity and management science guru on managing the poor.  The other piece is an article “An Achiever Model: Blueprint for Uttaranchal State” by Ranjan Joshi.  TNORD made the following study of Ranjan Joshi’s article using comments of Professor Prahalad in the study.   
Text of the article “An Achiever Model: Blueprint for Uttaranchal State” by Ranjan Joshi, Times of India, October 11, 2000    TNORD Comments
Of the three new states in the offing, Vananchal and Chhattisgarh, with their natural resources and rich industrial base, do not present formidable issues of economic viability.  Uttaranchal, however, does force the question as it does not have any industries worth the name, nor apparently is it endowed with an unusual bounty of mineral wealth.  Its once abundant forest cover has been significantly reduced and degraded.  So can it succeed with such odds staked against it?    In Shri K C Pant as the Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission, Dr Murli Manohar Joshi, Minister for Human Resource Development, Science & Technology and Ocean Development, Bachi Singh Rawat as Minister of Science and Technology and fully developed Detailed Project Report of Technological Nursery for Optics Research and Development (TNORD) – the pioneering example of 1958 Scientific Policy Resolution concept, we have a formidable resource.
The stock response is that it will rely on tourism.  But there is no indication of what’s going to be difference now after all these years of pushing tourism in the region.  There is talk of selling power and a casual mention of water resources as potential sources of income.  While there is no clearly discernable plan to achieve specific goals.    According to the preamble of the 1958 Scientific Policy Resolution “the creation and adoption of new scientific techniques can, in fact, make up for a deficiency in natural resources, and reduce the demands on capital” and this eventually led to the concept of technological nurseries.  TNORD seeks to establish a lens industry in UP hills.
This uncertain economic scenario, however, presents an exceptional opportunity to develop a visionary plan that embraces change and innovation in all areas.    Government of India is playing a key role in the establishment of the three states and the above mentioned three individuals can help in developing TNORD as visionary plan towards industrialization.
There is no reason why a task force of government and private sector representatives, specialist organizations and professional consultants cannot be constituted to look at relevant issues and provide well-considered recommendations for the new state.  This will not only help the new state to priorities and channel resources in the most effective manner, but can serve as a pilot for new models of governance, especially e-government, for possible adoption by other states.    This exercise has already been done in the shape of a three day Workshop on “Role of Science & Technology in the Integrated Development of Uttarakhand”, was organised by Department of Science & Technology, at Almora during April 21-23, 2000. The recommendations of this workshop are being processed by a task force working at the Department of Science and Technology and the detailed project report of TNORD is working as a role model for the whole country.
Uttaranchal comes into being at a time when it is extraordinarily well-placed to benefit from the new information economy if it is able to play by the rules of the new era and is responsive to the demands of the global services economy, which when it seeks the best locations for itself looks for several factors.    Technology is a culture and it needs a cultural environment to sit.  The problem of creating a cultural environment for technology is, therefore, a primary requirement and this is why the concept of TNORD has come up.  It had to struggle against the prevailing culture for over three decades.
The first is excellent physical infrastructure, top-notch communication facilities including high capacity bandwidth, modern roads and transport, water and power on demand.  The second is effective governance with an efficient and consistently helpful government, a secure environment and a quick and reliable legal and judicial framework.    This requirement of the emerging global service economy and e-business cannot come overnight through some magical spell.  But it can certainly be demonstrated by implementing the detailed project report of TNORD to establish a lens industry in UP hills.  The state government will have to play a key role in the industrial development of Uttaranchal but the DST has to guide it.
The third is superior support systems, the convenient availability of good quality housing, medical services, shops and restaurants, schools and colleges, as well as leisure and entertainment facilities.

These are simple but fundamental requirements and the primary aim of the new state should, therefore, be to foster, encourage, and develop these within the shortest period.  By creating the right infrastructure and ensuring a secure environment, it will find that the third condition will usually emerge on its own.  In fact, the new economy enterprises and other non-governmental entities will themselves tend to be the key players in helping achieve this.
   TNORD has maintained that the deep planning and long struggle that has gone in its formation will lead to the shallow planning by individuals themselves.  Deep planning is the society planning and the shallow planning is private planning of individuals.  Deep planning is meant to create opportunities and environment for the shallow planning of individuals in the private sector.  This was the basic philosophy of the 1952 community development programme.  But there has been extraordinary implementation shyness in the country.  The struggle of TNORD lasting over three decades has shown how this shyness can be overcome – even China had to go for cultural revolution to make development possible.
Uttaranchal has some other things going in its favour.  It has clean, pollution-free air and water and spectacular natural surroundings that will help it attract the less knowledge based industries – think of IT powerhouses like California and Colorado, and closer home, Bangalore.  A big pull for all these places has been the natural environment.  Uttaranchal is thus a natural location for the IT and software industry.  R&D establishments, hospitals and educational institutions.  In fact, it already boasts of some of the most well-known schools in the country – Doon, Sherwood and Woodstock are a few that spring to mind.    In one of her Almora visits as the Prime Minister of India Smt Indira Gandhi talked about intelligent industrialization of UP hills and this statement was used to make a case for creation of Hiltron.  The same statement has been repeated over and over again to establish technological nurseries for a lens industry in UP hills.  The 1978 Nainital Seminar on Science and Rural Development in Mountains made general and specific recommendations in this connection.  The main problem is of building a new culture for understanding the role of science, technology, industrialization and development as a whole.
If a clean pollution free environment is going to serve as a competitive advantage, it stands to reason that the new state should do everything it can to promote it.  This might include a programme to encourage cleaner, environment-friendly transportation systems and efforts at large-scale afforestation.    The new economy would find the environment of Uttaranchal very attractive but the lack of industrial culture and infrastructural facilities will create some problems.  This industrial culture and basic infrastructural facilities can be created through R&D centred technological nurseries on the pattern of TNORD taking benefit of TNORD experience.
While the focus on infrastructure and effective government will certainly bring in the investors and industry in due course, the immediate focus of the economy will have to include afforestation, energy supply, agricultural and horticultural development, as well as delivery of educational and health services.  Some intelligent, short term income generating schemes will be needed to better utilize the unemployed, especially the educated youth.  For example, major afforestation initiatives could be planned under an employment guarantee scheme.    TNORD has shown how state driven deep planning can help the entrepreneurs to do shallow planning according to needs of the market competition. The investors and industries are customers – they are relevant only when the shop is ready and carries all ingredients of customer friendliness.  Deep planning needs a lot of R&D investment in technological nurseries to cover the weaknesses of the under developed system in which we work.  Once road is clear, private enterprise can, on their own, take over many steps towards development.
A state can have a big government but little governance, just as there can be too many laws but little justice.  A disservice the fledging state can do to itself is mindlessly to repeat all the mistakes.    This requirement also needs removal of the barriers of under development.  The corporate world has developed the concept of virtual organizations to improve governance of the large business.
The focus should be on a lean and agile government.  It should have a few, but high caliber executives, with a mandate for change and responsiveness to the needs of the people, who can steer the economy successfully in the face of global competition.  The government must not be allowed to generate into a low quality employment provider for every vested interest group.  Less is truly more.    On the very page of Times of India that carries this article, there is Q&A session with C K Prahalad who said, “ If you have a resource-short economy you find alternative ways of meeting your needs.  Nepotism is a market mechanism thus employed.  If there are too few jobs, and too much competition, nepotism becomes the means to achieve the goal.” TNORD has done experimentation in this direction.
The politicking and posturing that we see today, arguably unavoidable in a democracy, should not become the main focus of government, without concomitant action.  Instead, by having a few but well-chosen goals to start with and meeting these within a sufficiently challenging timeframe, more will be done for alleviation of poverty than by any amount of populist slogans.    This means giving free hand to the executive as regards the choice of his team and making him responsible for output.  “If there are quick responses to demands and if transactions are transparent, there is no need for corruption.  Delays and shortages are the root causes for corrupt practices,” adds Prahalad.  The System Director, TNORD, had to work with the team of family member and other part time workers.
The mindset of poverty with its inevitable pettiness, distrust, paralyzing controls, nitpicking delays and, above all, corruption must not be allowed to take over.  The attitude has to change to that of achieving societies, which think of increasing the size of the pie for everyone, and aim for an enabling environment that facilitates balanced economic, social and individual growth.    According to Prahalad, “Firstly, there must be a mind shift in the way we look at our poverty.  Rather than considering the poor as a problem, they should be seen as an opportunity to innovate over old technologies or imitate western ways… We must go in for a creative bundling of the most advanced technology with a local flavour.” TNORD has been working in accordance with this mindset.
There are just a few quick sketches for a more elaborate strategy that the new state needs to develop and work hard to execute successfully.  A task force of professionals can help deliver a well-thought-out strategy quickly.  Though it will start as one of the most backward states in the country, Uttaranchal has the potential to be one of the most successful.  Whether it lives up to its credible promise or becomes just another marginalized underachiever will depend on the script that is written for it and how well it is able to translate into reality.    At the Almora Convergence mentioned earlier in this interaction, Professor V S Ramamurthy, Secretary, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India said a task force would be constituted to monitor the progress in implementation of the projects in four areas – infrastructure, Bioresources, Georesources and the Social sector.  This Almora Convergence was preceded by the NPL Convergence that created TNORD.  The Uttaranchal Chief Minister has thus the strength of the S&T and the presence of persons from UP hills in key positions in Govt. of India.
 

Creating an Achiever Model

      The conclusion of Ranjan Joshi’s places stress of the script that is written for utilization of the potentialities of Uttaranchal.  Intervention of science and technology is a must for this purpose. What about the criticism of Indian science and technology sounded in the CSIR foundation day lecture and the newsweekly?  The death of Indian Science announced by the Outlook cover is not a real death.  Scientists are very much alive.  All of them are potential achievers and nobody denies this potentiality.  But the organization of science that can use this potentiality is not there and this amounts to a virtual death of Indian Science.    This is why the article “An Achiever Model: Blueprint for Uttaranchal State” by Ranjan Joshi, Times of India, October 11, 2000 was discussed under the head “virtual death of Indian Science”.  Even in this discussion the focus is on the  ‘Script of the Almora Convergence’ of the science departments of the central government for formulation of Vision Uttarakhand 2020 and the real play of the struggle of the pioneering technological nursery, TNORD, located in the region.   Scientists are individual achievers and TNORD is system achiever – both these achievers are at R&D level.  This elementary    achievement is to be converted into a real achievement in the crucible of Vision Uttarakhand 2020 – an elementary achievement of the Department of Science and Technology.    But this is not the first time that the DST is writing a script for UP hills.  As Dr Swaminathan has questioned: “Where do all these scripts go?”   

      The Almora Convergence of the science departments and the ongoing follow up by the DST taskforce is a virtual virtuality of the correcting process.  The recommendations are potential achievers and not real achievers.   This virtual virtuality is to be converted into real reality.  The TNORD experiment shows, as the indicated in above comments, there is a weakness in organization of development.   This weakness can be removed by the concepts of technological nurseries and industrial orchards.   These concepts are yet to be appreciated by the people, media and the government.    The point to be resolved is how could China become an achiever in this direction and not we?   

Continued......

 

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