Author Topic: Articles By Bhisma Kukreti - श्री भीष्म कुकरेती जी के लेख  (Read 402098 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Indian Literature
History of Himalayan literature
Critical History of Garhwali Poetry
Gangu Ramola : A Poetic Drama by Lalit Keshwan               
              Bhishma Kukreti
         There is less written literature in Garhwali before 1900 AD. However, there are innumerable folk stories in prose forms, folklore, folk songs, folk poetries legends, proverbs in Garhwali. There is urgent need  to collect , edit and publish such folk literature.  Garhwalis of modern age have been trying to do so. Ganga Datt Upreti published ‘Proverbs of Kumaun and Garhwal’ (1890),  Tara Datt Gairola, Patira, Hari Krishn Raturi, Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Dr Janardan Kala, Shaligram Vaishnav , Kunvar Singh Negi ‘Karmath’, Dr Govind Chatak, Mohan Babulkar, Dr Hari Datt Bhatt Shailesh, Keshv Anuragi, Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Pitamber Datt Devrani, Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Adity Ram Dudhpudi, Chakrdhar Kukreti, Vimal Juyal, Mal Chand Ramola, Swarup Dhoundiyal Dr Yashwant Katoch, B.S Kandari, Radha krishn Vaishnav, Dr Vishnu Datt Kukreti, Dr shiv Prasad Naithani, Chakrdhar Bahuguna, veena Pani joshi, Bhishma Kukreti, Madan Duklan (Hamari Chitthi), Dr D.R.Purohit, Dr Rajeshwar Uniyal, Dr Dinesh Baluni, Dr Nand Kishor Dhundiyal Tota Ram Dhoundiyal, Dr Ranveer Singh Chauhan, Dr Sadho Singh and many more collected various types of folk literature and published them .
  From the collection of folk legends and jagar etc point of view Lalit Keshvan has done tremendous job in collecting the stories related to legend and brave hero Asha and Hari Hindwan and created a play called hari Hindwan.
Recently, Lalit Keshvan published the poetic drama around Gangu Ramola (famous for Seem Nagraja) and got praises from critics as Bhagwati Prasad Nautiyal, Nand Kishor Dhundiyal etc. Keshvan published  Gangu Ramola - Geet Natika  along with other poems of a poetry collection of Daini Hwe Ja Daini.
               In fact Gangu Ramola is along poetry related to bravery of hero of Seem Nag raja  and lord Krishna . Seem Nagraja is very auspicious place for all Garhwalis.
    The story is related for social awreness and letting the readers know about the bravery of Garhwalis of old age. Famous Garhwali critic Bhagwati Prasad Nautiyal states that the long poetry Gangu Ramola is effective in enhancing the self esteem of Garhwalis. The language of long poetry is very simple and has all potentiality for staging the play in poetic form. The style of poetry is jagar saily which make the poetry lyrical.
   Over all,  the effort of Lalit Keshvan for collecting and publishing the folk literature is appreciable.
Daini hwe Ja Daini (poetry collection by Lalit Keshvan wherein gangu Ramola is part of poetry collection)
Year of Publication: 2009
Publisher: Vinod Nautiyal, 257, Shalimar garden, Extension,  -1, Shahibabad, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010.
       

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Indian literature
History of Uttarakhand languages Literature
History of Garhwali literature
Critical History of  Garhwali Poetry
Anjwal: One of the Great Satirical Poetry Collections of World Literature
(Review of  Anjwal -Garhwali Poetry collection by Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal ‘The Great Poet’)
                                 Bhishma Kukreti
   No doubt, Sada Nand Kukreti (1923)  initiated satire as serious business in Garhwali by publishing first Garhwali story Garhwali That’ in Vishal Kirti but in true sense in modern Garhwali poetic field, Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal used satirical poems as to make serious and even frightening remarks on the dangers of the sweeping social, economical, spiritual  changes taking place throughout Garhwal and among migrated Garhwalis . Many critics as nathi Prasad Suyal state that we may find similarities in the work of Kanhya Lal Dandriyal and Horace, Persius, and Juvenal for  Dandriyal’s  satires about the life, vice, and moral decay Kanhaya Lal  saw around him as ‘Garhwali Sanstha’ of this volume.
  When Hindi critic Dr Manjula Dhoundiyal read poems of Anjwal, she said to this author “ I shall put Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal near to a French satirist of seventeenth century  Roger Rabutin de Bussy for his wit and calmness in describing the changes”
  Manmohan Jakhmola a post graduate in English literature, a literature lover and great admirer of Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal says that Dandriyal had to work hard for creating satirical Garhwali poems when most of the Garhwali  poets were either following Hindi literature  or busy in old style in terms of subject and versification, Kanhaya Lal came with new subject and the original satire of Garhwal into Garhwali literature.  Jakhmola further says that Dandriyal might have worked  hard in creating satire in Garhwali as eighteenth century American satirists as  Lemuel Hopkins,  Joel Barlow, Philip Freneau , John Trumbull, Hugh Henry Brackenridge did hard work in creating satire .
         The second edition  of Anjwal has fifty poems of Dandriyal. First issue was published in 1969 and Anjwal became a mile stone in the Garhwali poetic field that from here the Garhwali  poems transformed style , body, subjects ,  and creativity of Garhwali poems as well the thinking of Garhwali  poets . The Garhwali poems took new shape from conventional wisdom in many ways.
  The poems show that Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal was very sensitive, had the eyes ofa critic and had the power of  narrating serious and critical the subject through humorous and satirical methodology. Kanhya Lal show the putrefied social  system through effective wit that readers laugh but feel acute pain inside their mind, intellect and ego. Madan Duklan a garhwali critic and editor states that the  poems of Anjwal are provocative but do not create enmity among the society.
    Famous Garhwali folk literature expert, Hindi dramatist, Hindi poet, story teller, critic Govind Chatak says that the satirical poems as Satya Narayan Brat Katha, Mi Garhwali chhaun, Dhyabron ki Rally, Garhwali sanstha, Hamaru Garhwal are the world class poems and these poems are one of best poems among two hundred best satirical poems of world literature. Lokesh Navani a Garhwali critic and Puran Pant a poet and editor state about these poems and other poems that these poems are the classic poems for international literature.
 Girish Sundriyal a Garhwali poet says that his other poems Sarsu  Sanhar, Thyakra are best examples of bringing realism with the capsule of satire and humor into Garhwali literature in seventies.
 Harish Juyal a marvelous satirical Garhwali poet supports the statement of Dr Govind Chatak that  style of Jagar. Rakhwali and Tantra Mantra in many Garhwali poems of Kanhya Lal Dandriyal are very effective and readers enjoy those poems by heart.
   The garhwali critic and Garhwali literature publisher Nathi Prasad Suyal states , “ In the poems of Dandriyal , we find the mixer of realism, experiencing , pain for wrong changes happenings, and at the same time the poet provide suggestions to as teacher but differently than his predecessor Garhwali poets.”
  Bhishma Kukreti wrote in the special issue of Hamri Chitthi about Kanhya Lal Dandriyal that the poems of Anjwal of Kanhya Lal Dandriyal are the inner experiences of a Garhwali women, which no Garhwali poet could touch so marvelously as Dandriyal did . Kukreti called Dandriyal as Ardh NariIswar at the time of creating poetries.
    About the poems of Anjwal, Nathi Prasad Suyal and Dr Govind Chatak rightly said that Dandriyal did not leave any important aspect of life in Garhwal and life of migrated common Garhwalis.
  Jaipal Singh Rawat a famous Garhwali symbolic poet state that no Garhwali poets of past as Dandriyal used Garhwali symbols so perfectly that even a common person can fully understand the meaning and insight of poems of Dandriyal.
  Parashar Gaud the great admirer of Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal  finds that Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal was expert of creating real images of rural Garhwal and life sketches of common migrated Garhwalis so effectively that makes him one of the greatest poets of  all world languages.
 Each poems of Anjwal take the readers to one important aspect of garhwali life of sixties and before.
 Kanhya lal Dandriyal was the master of garhwali vocabulary and this poetry collection is the proof. The poems are so simple and under stable that a migrated Garhwali who never read Garhwali literature will also read all poems and will enjoy.
Anjwal is a heritage of world languages  literature and we should arrange proper distribution of this poetry collection all corners of world among Garhwalis.
Anjwal
Poet : Kanhya Lal Dandriyal
Publisher:
Maulyar Prakashan
7 D, L.P. Maurya Enclave
Peetampura, Delhi, 110088
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010
 



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History of Uttarakhand
History of Garhwal
History of Kumaun
Himalayan History
Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag -2 (Detailed History of Uttarakhand from Stone Age to 450 AD)
(Review of Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag -2 By Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral )
             Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral is the only historians who could provide us detailed comprehensive history of Uttarakhand from Ice Age tll Indian Independence. Dr Darla did not leave any thing which, is important for telling the history of mid Himalayan civilization from Ice age .
                  Dr Dabral published  History of Uttarakhand in thirteen parts. This review is all about second part of History of Uttarakhand
   There are seventeen chapters in  the second part of History of Uttarakhand.
           First chapter deals with the geographical aspects of Uttarakhand , which, once,  was extended beyond present territorial boundaries of Uttarakhand.
        In second chapter , learned Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral describes the archeological findings  around the world by various research scholars related to Uttarakhand, carvings on various medium, coins, utensils of various ages, old classical and historical literature and their relevancy in finding out the History of Uttarakhand, Vanshavalis (chronological details of family trees ) of various ages and biasless  analysis of all these materials in context of History of Uttarakhand.
 In this second chapter dr Dabral provided the names of 110 places of Uttarakhand where the relevant materials are available
  In Drishtikon Chapter, Dr Dabral analysis the theories of various historians , which were essential to dig out the history of Uttarakhand.
     In fifth chapter, Dr S P Dabral details us the classification the history of Uttarakhand on the basis of ages as :
1- Uttarakhand in Stone age
2- Uttarakhand in Paleolithic age, Mesolithic Age, Neolithic age
3- Uttarakhand in Metal Age
4- Iron Utensil civilization in Uttarakhand
 Dr Dabral provided full details how the civilization grew in all ages in Uttarakhand
     The sixth chapter (Prachin Nivashi) is very interesting as Dr Dabral tells in details with all proofs about blood mixing by various communities due to human migration from one place to other places and  the centre point is definitely Uttarakhand. Dr Dabral after discussing various theories classified the various groups of Uttarakhandis of old age as Nishad, Kol Mund etc . dr Dabral details about the human habitats of each class of Uttarakhand around 2000 BC .
  Seventh chapter of this book is devoted to Ruins of Malari Civilization in mid Himalayan regions.
 Dr Dabral describes extensively about Aryan Vedic civilization in Uttarakhand in the eighth chapter.
    Dr shiv Prasad with analysis tells about Defeat  of Asur by arya in Uttarakhand  in the ninth chapter.
 The tenth chapter is dedicated to the families, ages in Uttarakhand in context to Purans.
   In eleventh chapter , Dr Dabral details about Kulind  Janpad (1400-1000 B.C) and describes geographical, economical, spiritual, political and social scenario of Uttarakhand of this time
    The twelfth chapter deals about the kings, warriors, kingdoms of Uttarakhand at the time of Mahabharata .
  Dr Dabral tells all the historical details about Jatak Kathyen related to Uttarakhand
  The thirteenth chapter deals about the expansion of Jainism in Uttarakhand
  The last chapter deals about Buddhism in Uttarakhand
   Other chapters are related to literature and refrences required for this part of History of Uttarakhand
 In appendix, we find the photographs of various historical materials .
   Dr Shiv Prasad was of opinion that every human being should be emotional to find and write his own history but while writing history, the historian should be un bias or should not write as per the perception. That is why dr Dabral provides proof for his theories on History of Uttarakhand .
 Uttarakhand ka Itihas , Bhag -2 (450 pages)
By Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, M.A PhD
Year of Publication : 1968
Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand
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History of Indian Language Literature
History of Himalayan  Literature
History of Garhwali Literature
Critical History of Garhwali Poetry
Parvati : Collection of 100 Lyrical Garhwali Poems by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna
                            Bhishma Kukreti
           Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna does not need any introduction in Garhwali literature. Bahuguna did not leave any creative field of language literature in garhwali which, he did not touch. Parvati is poetry collection createdd by Abodh in fifties and sistees and published in 1966 (second edition published in 1994 with Hindi translation of all poems )
                    Famous Garhwali language critic Dr Govind Chatak rightly said that there is enthusiasm of youth and there is pathos in the poems because there are hundred Garhwali poems in Parvati and all are with different subjects, diverse emotions and raptures.  Dr Chatak further states that in this poetry collection, Bahuguna touched many known and unknown subject related to society and the hope or aspiration of developing garhwali society.
   Writing introductory note, dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal describes the poems of Bahuguna of Parvati as showing the reality of place (Garhwal) , time and aroma of Garhwal. However, this author feels that the poems are aimed for intellectual people than common men.
  Bahuguna narrates the life of Garhwali women very effectively and shows her different role as child she is sister of younger ones, lover, mother, grand mother , a hard worker, an economist, and warrior too . Bahuguna has been successful in showing the emotions of women’ pain, love, separation from her husband , waiting for good happening for her and family members, struggle in caring for family at all stages of life, sacrifices of Garhwali women.
 Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna reaches on his height when he recites the struggle of Garhwalis in their village. The readers  relate their life with the poems and that make Bahuguna  a successful poet of Garhwali.
    In totality there are more than hundred subject in this poetry collection, which Bahuguna touched efficiently .
   From language point of view, he used all types of words aimed mostly to intellectuals and even his experiment on creating new words are aimed to intellectuals rather than common men. This author is of opinion that nothing is wrong for aiming intellectuals by Bahuguna.
  From the points of view of poetic construction, subject and total effect  , renowned garhwali literature expert Dr Hari  Datt Bhatt Shailesh states that there is mirror of Garhwal in the poems of Bahuguna.  Balvant Singh Bisht stresses that the poems of Abodh Bahuguna are sensual and sensitive.
 This poetry collection Parvati has significance in Garhwali literature because after its publications the poets of Garhwali language got inspiration and hope that there is substance in creating and publishing Garhwali literature.
Parvati
Collection of 100  lyrical Garhwali poems
(first edition in 1966 and second edition in 1994)
By : Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna
Garhwali Prakashan
B-2, B 48, Janakpuri, New Delhi 110058
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010


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Folk Games of Himalaya
Folk Games of GARHWAL
Folk Games of KUMAUN
उत्तरा खंड  के लोक खेल , गढवाल के लोक खेल , कुमाऊँ के लोक खेल

Bhishma Kukreti

१- गारी खिलण
२- बाग़ बकरी को खेल
३- लुक्का छुपी
४- काणो बौणिक पकड़ण
४अ- पकडवा पकड़
५- इकटंड़या
६- छौम्पा दौड़
७- रिंगण
८- फाळ मारण
९- कुद्दी मारण
१०- झुळी खिलण
११- रीठा भैन्स्वळ कु गुच्छी क खेल
१२- गुल्ली डंडा कु खेल
१३- हथ गिंदी खिलण
१३अ- पत्थर की ढेरी गिंदी से फुडणो खेल
१४- खुट गिंदी खिलण
१५- हिंगोड़
१६- बा कटण (तैराकी )
१७- नाव चलाण
१८- पत्थर घुरैक चुलाण
१९- पटाळ /घास मा रौड़ण
२०- अयेड़ी खिलण
२१- माछ मारण
२२- खाडू बुखटयौ   तैं लड़ाण
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India,2010

Bhishma Kukreti

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  History of Indian Languages Literature
History of Himalayan Literature
History of  Garhwali Literature
Critical  History of  Garhwali Poetry
Keyed : Poetry collection of Dandriyal about Women’s emotions and Spirituality
                   Review by Bhishma Kukreti
              Offering tribute to one of the greatest poets of world literature Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal in special issue of Hamari Chitthi, Bhishma Kukreti wrote that Dandriyal has been a  ‘ardhnareshwar’ (Half man -Half woman) while writing poetry as his emotional description about women is totally from a heart of a woman. Reading Kukreti’s comments Hindi literature critic Dr. Manjula D Dhoundiyal agreed that the poems related to women’s subject of ‘Maha Kavi’  Knhaya Lal Dandriyal  are feminist in nature and paved the way of feminst movement in Garhwali literature.  After reading the women related poems of ‘KUYEDI ‘ (The Fog), it is easily could be said that from women related poems of  Dandriyal suggest that Kanhya Lal Dandriyal ia afeminist Garhwali poet to as Maya Angelou ,Elvia Ardalani ,Margaret Atwood Anne Waldman ,Alice Walker ,Phyllis Webb , Djuna Barnes ,  Elinor Wylie , Aphra Behn, Elizabeth Bishop ,Eavan Boland ,Sophia Elisabet Brenner ,Karen Brodine ,Olga Broumas ,Lucille Clifton ,Mary Collier ,Hilda Doolittle, Emily Dickinson ,Diane Di Prima ,Carol-Ann Duffy ,Rachel Blau DuPlessis, Fehmida Riaz ,Judith Wright ,  Kishwar Naheed ,Alice Fulton ,Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Judy Grahn, Barbara Guest, Marilyn Hacker ,Allison Hedge Coke ,Lyn Hejinian , Sophie Hannah, Melin W., Susan Howe Merle Woo ,Parveen Shakir ,Sue Lenier,Anna Maria Lenngren ,Denise Levertov ,Audre Lorde ,Mina Loy May Swenson, , Mitsuye Yamada ,  Chris Mansell , Rita Mae Brown, Gwendolyn Brooks, Elizabeth Barrett Browning , Charlotte Perkins ,Gilman Diane , Wakoshi Anne *ton , M.C.Gupta, Rabindra Nath Taigore, Edna St Vincent Millay , Robin Morgan ,Marianne Moore ,Lorine Niedecker , Nellie Wong Hedvig Charlotta ,Nordenflycht ,Alicia Ostriker ,Sylvia Pankhurst ,Grace Paley ,Dorothy Parker ,Katha Pollitt ,Adrienne Rich ,Dorothy Richardson ,Ethel Rolt-Wheeler ,Christina Rossetti ,Muriel Rukeyser ,Sonia Sanchez ,Sappho ,Jo Shapcott ,Edith Sitwell ,Stevie Smith ,Gertrude Stein , , Sara Teasdale ,Marina Tsvetaeva ,Rosmarie Waldrop , Maya Angelou are famous feminst poets for their voicing the significance of women in every part of life and narrating women’s empowerment through poetries.
    There are two distinctive types of poems in Keyed (The Fog) - the women related poems and spiritual or philosophical poems. Kanhya Lal  Dandriyal has been successful in communication both types of emotions to the readers. These poems were created around sixties by Dandriyal but could publish in 1990. However, the poems are as fresh and relevant as they were in 1953 when the poet created them,
  The poems related to women are created by a man but when the readers read them , the readers feel that a woman has written those poems which , are powerful to show the struggle of females in rural or other parts of India , the sacrifices of women for the society and family, the various pains of Garhwali women in Garhwal and elsewhere. Apart from narrating women’s life, Dandriyal narrates the images of life of Garhwalis and geographical aspect specially rainy season of Garhwal.
  The poet is on his peak for describing the pain of separation . His way of narration is very simple and he communicates with his readers easily. The symbols , images, figures of speeches, proverbs, wordings of all poems are commonly used by Garhwalis .
    The spiritual poems in this volume,  are marvelous pieces of poetry for Garhwali literature. The poet uses simple language that the readers easily understand the seious subject of philosophies and that makes Dandriyal the great poet of world literature.
  This poetry collection is one of the significant collection that the poems show us the realism of fifties of Garhwal and life sketches of Garhwalis .Kuyedi is perceived as confusing and frightening situation in huma’s life. Many poems show us Garhwalis standing on the crossroads of confusion and myopic situation.
Keyed (The Fog)
By  Kanhya Lal Dandriyal
Year of publication :1990
Arunoday prakashan Delhi  91
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                                                 Birth place of Kalidasa- Garhwal
Garhwal the Birthplace of Kalidas
Birthplace of Kalidas is Uttarakhand
                      Garhwal is Birthplace of Kalidasa  Part-1
                     Bhishma Kukreti
      Since, the great poet did not mention anything about his life the research scholars have been doing researches to find his birthplace and his childhood days. The researchers took the base that a writer write most about the places of his childhood and his motherland and his working place.  Kalidasa wrote about Ujjaini because it was his work land and it is logically fits with Kalidas who spent his youth there.
    However, barring a couple of poetry collections , Kalidasa wrote much about history, geography, social demography , economy , living style of Garhwal, Himalaya and those writings indicate that since, Kalidas spent his childhood or teens in Garhwal that  is why he could write so clear and in depth about Garhwal , Himalaya. If Kalidas would have not spent childhood and teenage in Garhwal ,Himalaya he could not describe Garhwal Himalaya so fine.
Let readers find what Kalidasa described about Garhwal Himalaya in his classic literature .
                       Garhwal in the literature of Kalidasa
Raghuvansh
The king Dilip reaches Vashishth Ashram of Himalaya (Raghuvans1/48). Kalidasa states that the Asharam is situated on Gauriguru at the bank of Ganges. Kalidasa describes about Devdaru trees nearby this Ashram. Devdaru is a pine tree and Gauriguru is a mountain and both are Himalayan in nature but the Bank of Ganges proves that  Vashishth Ashram of Raghuvansh was in Garhwal and here Ganga means  Alaknanda because whoever Kalidasa refers Bhagirathi , he wrote Bhagirathi.  Still in Garhwal, Alaknanda is called Ganges and Bhagirathi is called Bhagirathi only. Secondly, all Prayags are at the meeting places of Alknanda including Mahaprayag (Allahabad). Even in Mahabharat, the river Alaknanda  flowing near Badrika Ashram  or Vaishali is referred as Ganga
  Kalidasa described about Vashishth Ashram in last 48 Shlokas of first part and in first 71 Shlokas of second part.
There is description of battle between Raghu and king of hill and no body wins or looses the battle/war
 Kalidasa describes much about flora, demography, geographical aspects, economical richness. Human power of Garhwal Himalaya in Raghuvansh.
Reference:
1- Raghuvansh
2- Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2 and  3

   
Copyright @Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010



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Birth Place of Kalidas
Garhwal Birthplce of Kalidasa
     Birth Place of  Great  Sanskrit Scholar  Kalidas is in  Garhwal (Part-1)
         Original article by Dr Shiva Nand  Nautiyal
           Commentary and Translation by Bhishma Kukreti
Birthplace and Childhood of Kalidas and Various Views and Claims
Original article by Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal
Additional Commentary and Translation by Bhishma Kukreti
   Since, the English researchers wrote about Kalidas and scholars translated his works in various languages, scholars started  guessing the birth place of  the great poet ever born Kalidas.
 When Dr Jagdish Kumar published his article in Hindustan, Delhi (7th March, 1982), it became the subject of debate among learned scholars.
 Dr Jagdish Kumar wrote, “ The birth place and childhood days of Kalidas had been the subject of debate and description. There have been descriptions of many places of India creative works of Kalidas. That is why scholars claim one of such places as the birth place os Mahakavi Kalidas. Most of the researchers support the birth place of Kalidas either Himalaya or Ujjain. Our oppinion is that from the inner interospection or inner analysis, Sarswati Nagar (Sirsa) should be claimed the birth place of Kalidas.
  The custom believes that Kalidas was Sarswat Brahmin . Sarswati Nagar have been the central place of Sarswat Brahmins . By heart Kalidas is always attracted by reverend river Sarswati of Kurukhsetra. Kalidas suggested in epic Meghdoot  that by taking dip in Sarswati river the inner mind of human beings become stable or poise . Kalidas did not describe so poise about any other rivers as Sarswati . Even Kalidas uses Ganges and Jamuna as the symbols of  romantic beauty.”
( Comments of Kukreti-In any case, the affluent historian Dr Dinesh Baloni proved that the river Sarswati is Rig Vedic river and flew  near Badrikedar Garhwal area.( Shilvani, 7:3, 1st March, 2010, Kotdwara, India) If Kalidas described Sarswati the poisest river it should be among Saptsindhu or are of seven rivers - Sarswati, Dhauli Ganga, Vishnu Ganga, Pinder, Nandakini,Mandakini, Bhagirathi, Dhudhatauli ‘s Nayar)
  Dr Jagdish Kumar did not put any logic and proof for his statement but used his wayward or obstinate statements.. Instead of providing examples from the works of Kalidas , Dr Jagdish made river Sarswati and Sirsa as the subject of discussion and by one example of river Sarswati illogically proved that the birth place of Kalidas is Sirsa.
   Dr Jagdish did never provide any historical detailing to proove his views . He unneccearliy discussed Ayodhya and Ban poet which do not become the bases for proof for his statement but become irrelevant for his subject,  Most of the time, Dr Kumar connected Sarswat Brahmin with birth place of Kalidas.
 This is correct that Kalidas used river Sarswati only once in Meghdoot and once in Raghuvansam  .
However, dr Jagdish kumar ignored that Kalidas described rivers Mandakini and Malini many times with not only poetic metaphors but with inner emotions
 Dr Jagdish Kumar describes about Devasur Sangram in Kurukhshetra, peacock (transporting bird of Kartikey), black deers as described in Kumarsambhav and them dr Jagdish wanted to prove that Sirsa was the birth place of Kalidas. Here again dr Jagdish used wayward and not logic in his explainations. Dr Jagdish forgot or intentionally ignored that the whole story of Kumar Sambhav  is surrounding Mandakini valleys of Garhwal region. Same way, the story of Abhigyan Shakuntalam is based on the bank of Malini , (Bhabhr Garhwal).
  It is clear that the article of Dr Jagdish Kumar is bias and without proper logic required for historical subject. On the contrary, his article raises the question on the study of d Jagdish Kumar and his integrity for writing history.

Bhishma Kukreti

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Birth place of Kalidasa- Garhwal
Garhwal the Birthplace of Kalidas
Birthplace of Kalidas is Uttarakhand
                          Garhwal in Literature of Kalidasa Part-2
                               Bhishma Kukreti
                      Mountains in Raghuvansh of Kalidasa
     Kalidas was passionate about the shines of Garhwal, Uttarakhand the mid Himalayan regions . In Raghuvansh, Kalidasa describes the following mountains of Garhwal, Uttarakhand Himalayas.
There is description of Gauriguru shrine or where Uma the daughter of  Himalaya was born described in 2/26 Shlokas of Raghuvansh . Kalidasa states that there is strong Ganga Falls on this  mountain Gauriguru. Nepalese Scholar as Muralidhar Bhattarai claims that Gauriguru is in Nepal but did not mention that Kalidasa also mentioned Ganga Falls on this big moutai. Ganga falls on Gauriguru proves that Kalidasa belonged to Garhwal and that is why he could describe in length about the geography of that area (Raghuvansh  4/71-73)
                              Description of   Rivers in  Raghuvansh
  Being a born child of Garhwal and who spent his teen in Garhwal , Kalidasa describes about many rivers of Garhwal in his various literature .  In Raghuvansh, Kalidasa describes in details about  Ganges and this Ganga is Alknanda which is called Ganga by Garhwalis (Raghuvans 2/26)

                                    Description of Seasons of Garhwal in Raghuvansh
     Raghuvansh is about warrior nature of Surya dynasty. Therefore less is there about seasons in Raghuvansh but Kalidasa mentioned indirectly as description of Ganga falls, snow tell about the season automatically.
                                      Flora of Garhwal in Raghuvansh
  Kalidasa described the flora of Garhwal , Himalaya  for metaphoric uses too or for bringing emotion for nature in the mind of readers or audience. Readers may find the description of high altitude flora in Raghuvansh as  Bhurj (RV-4/73)Devdaru (Raghuvansh 4/75) and bombo family plant Keechakvenu (Devringal; RV2/12). In Garhwali Devdar means the wood (used for building the building) of deities
           There is description of shining herb or lamp without oil in stanzas 4/57 and 4/74. This herb is called Bury Khaud or Burya grass in Garhwali whose roots shine in the night
                             Fauna of Garhwal in Raghuvansh
  Kalidasa described less numbers of  fauna  as elephant, lions etc in Raghuvansh . (RV 2/37, 4/76)
                              Garhwali Places and habitats in Raghuvansh
The following places of Garhwal are found in Raghuvansh
1-Vashishth Ashram
2-Gauriguru
                                         Entertainment in Raghuvansh
              There is less description about entertainment but there is about celebrating the events as the army of Raghu celbrate after conquring Kamboj kingdom (Cambodia)
            The description of Garhwal in Raghuvansh is clear Kalidasa spent his learning age in Garhwal for long.
Copyright # Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010. bckukreti@gmail.com
           

Bhishma Kukreti

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Birthplace of Kalidasa- Garhwal
Garhwal the Birthplace of Kalidas
Birthplace of Kalidas is Uttarakhand,Himalay
                          Garhwal in Literature of Kalidasa Part-3
                               Bhishma Kukreti   
                                 Garhwal in Kumarsambhav   
   Kumarsambhav is based on a story of Skandpuran and is about bravery of Kartikey or Kumar the son of Shiv Parvati.
      Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral , in ’Uttarakhand ka Itihas part-3 , states that Kalidas describes beautiful images of Himalaya and beliefs, historical aspects of that area in the first fourteen Shlokas  of first Sarg of Kumar Sambhav (Kumarsambhav1/1-14).. Learned historian Dr Dabral says that the readers will relate these shlokas with any part of Himalaya. When readers read  from fifteenth  to fifty four shlokas of the first Sarg of Kumarsambhav(KS1/15-54) then only readers come to conclusion that the poet is describing the beautiful images of Kedarkhand mentioned in Skandpuran as the poet details about Bhagirathi-Ganga and the Deodar (Cedrus deodara) tress
    In seventh and eight sarga , the poet describes the incidents on the shrines of Mandrachal, Kailash or in Gandhmadan hills. In Vanparv of  Mahabharat Gandhmadan hill shines is near Badrikashram (Garhwal). Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral states that in Kumarsambhav , Kailash is part of Gandhmadan hills .
                                  Mountains of Garhwal in Kumarsambhav
Kalidas mentioned the shrines as Meru( KS8/22) , Mandar (KS8/23), Kailas (8/24), and Gandhmadan (KS8/28) in Kumarsambhav. According to renowned cultural historian  proves in his book ‘Kalidas ka Bharat 1-pp12’ that these shrines are of Rudra Himalaya of Garhwal .
                     Geographical Aspects in Kumarsambhav
 Kalidasa describes the sun rising, sun setting, darkness after sun set, moon light om the hills of Himalaya with great care and with emotion
                               Inhabitants in Kumarsambhav
          Kalidas states that Kimpurush/Kinnar used to stay in the capital Oadhiprast which was at the bank of Ganges of Himalaya (KS6/39)
         Kalidas describes in Kumarsambhav (1/15) that Kirat and Kinnar used to live together in the Bhagirathi valley.
 Kalidas states in Kumarsambhav ( 3/5,1/5/1/7) that Yaksha, Siddh, Vidydhar (Educated elites) and cafeteria girls used to live in the hills of Garhwal Himalaya
                                   Capital Area in Kumarsambhav
      Kalidasa states that the name of capital was Osadhiprasth in the valley of Ganges ((KS-6/38) and was more gorgeous than Alkapuri (KS6/37).  Gandhmadan forest was outside of the capital where the flowers used to bloom. The buildings used to touch clouds (KS6/40).
Kalidas says that the plants used to shine in the night (KS6/38). In modern Garhwal , this type of grass is called ‘Burya ghas’
 Kalidas describes lions, horses and elephants in Kumarsambhav. However, elephant in hills of Himalaya is nothing but a poetic imagination or the effect of plains on the poet for making poets more attractive. Even in modern era, Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna  mentioned elephants in hills of upper Garhwal in his epic Bhumyal.
 Kalidasa mentioned about pubs/bars (KS6/42), entertainments by musical instruments ass Mridang, songs and lusty life in Kumarsambhav (KS-6/42,6/40,6/38)
  Kalidas put light on many types of entertainments as making hills by sand and breaking those hill tops, toys of metal, mud and wood and the colorful toy of peacock was common for children (KS-1/19.1/29)
               Languages of Inhabitants in Kumarsambhav
            The description of Kalidas in Kumarsambhav about languages spoken by inhabitants of mid Himalayan region is  a clue to find out the history of languages of Garhwal, Kumaun. Kalidas sates that elites speak Sanskrit among themselves and common language was Prakrit (KS7/90)
                              Marriages I Kumarsambhav
          The marriages used to take place at young age and Gandhrv Vivah (Marriage by Choice or love marriage) and Brahmvivah (Girls side waiting proposals from boy side) were common
                       Poems of Kumarsambhav Indicating that Kalidas was Garhwali
  A child leans from his childhood experiences and the impressions on childhood mind become the part os subconscious mind. The behaviour of a person  is also governed  by childhood experiences. The human beings find ways and means to express those impressions to the  outside world . Kalidasa was a migrated Himalayan and in his youth or later stage of his life ,Kalidas finds poetry to express his memories of his motherland the Garhwal .
 The description of Bhagirathi, Gnges, Bury grass, Gandhmadan hills etc in Kumarsambhav make bases for scholars that Kalidasa was born in upper Garhwal and he traveled a lot in Himalayan regions  before settling in Ujjaini                   

Copyright # Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010  bckukreti@gmail.com.