Author Topic: Articles By Bhisma Kukreti - श्री भीष्म कुकरेती जी के लेख  (Read 744893 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali Folk Literature-1
 Garhwali -Kumauni Folk Dramas :  Uttarakhand Lok Natya Mahotsava-2005
( Folk Drama of Garhwal , Folk Plays  of Kumaun, Folk Dramas of Jaunsar Babar)
                                                                         Bhishma Kukreti
      Akhil Bhartiya  Garhwal Sabha , Dehradun , an oldest  Garhwali social organization  of Dehradun have been acting as a strong medium to popularize and preserve Garhwali-Kumauni culture and folk literature. For quite a few years, the organization have been organizing the staging of  Folk Dramas of Garhwal and Kumauni regions of Uttarakhand.
     The Akhil Bhartiya Garhwal Sabha organized staging of seven  Garhwali and Kumauni  folk  dramas from 2nd November to 6th November , 2005 . In this occasion, the organization brought a special souvenir and provided various insights attached to Garhwali Folk Dramas and Kumauni Folk Dramas .
 The author is pleased  to review the souvenir:
Natak kal aur Aj by  Bahgwati Prasad Nautiyal: In his brilliant article, rverend Garhwali language critic Nautiyal first briefed about the initiation of drama by deities (Devta)  and devils (Danav) as the dramas were seen as common entertaining medium for the both. He explained how Bharat Muni created Natyashashtra with the aid of Rig-Veda ( Story plot), Sam-Veda (Music), Atharva-Veda (Aesthetic or dialogues social views) and  Yajurveda (Characterization) .
  Bhagwati Prasad Nautiyal touched the shortest possible history of modern Garhwali dramas in the last century. His main stress , which I do agree that while staging folk dramas based on legends or folk stories , we should not criticize the   supporting stories connected to main story because there are not availability of proof of  exact evidence of the folk stories.
Garhwali Rangmanch by Sudha Rani and translated by Bhishma Kukreti:   Sudha Rani provided details of starting of modern Garhwali drama and she provided a well researched historical details of Garhwali dramas from 1930 to 1985. She should be congratulated for her place wise date wise detailing.
Uttaranchal ka Paramparik Loknatya by Dr D R Purohit:  Dr Purohit is an internationally acclaimed  authority on Garhwali folk Dramas specially mask/religious folk dramas and he teaches Garhwali Folk Dramas in foreign Universities too. He featured with examples of dramas and their places of stage playing . He classified  the Uttarakhandi (Garhwali Kumauni ) Folk Dramas into following sets:
1-Pandav Lila
3-Mask dramas based on Jat yatrayen
4-Mask dramas on festivals and specific events
5-Swang and Khel (Villager’s Plays and games)
6-Beda, hudkiyon aur Damayiyn ke Veer gatha vachan ( Oration of heroic lures or events by specific classes of Garhwal and Kumaun)
7-Radha Khandi Ras
8-Danusthano ke manchan ( Dramas in Rituals)
Dr Purohit his famous for popularizing  and exploring mask Folk dramas of Kumaun and Garhwal and he explained the Pandav lila, Folk dramas of Sor ghati of Pithora garh, mandola shaili’s mono folk dramas of Pithora Garh, Lstar ghati and Bhilangana valley. He told us the names of performers too, It is called research .
Dr Purohit stated us the names who perform the Radhakandi Ras . D R  Purohit explained about Bagdwali dramas too.
Ramwan: Ramkatha based Folk Drama by Nand Kishor Hatwal : The folk literature , Chamoli’s cultural expert and film maker Hatwal narrated the folk dramas related to Ramayan . The Ramwan folk drama is a mask drama played in north garhwal I.e  Paanudanda patti of Chamoli Garhwal.  He says that Ramwan style of Garhwali folk drama is elite, marvelous and spectaticular .
Ramwan is blends of many sub plots along with the main historical and cultural events of Ramayan.  This type of folk drama is partly in prose form and mainly in musical form. Among the sub plots, Pattar, Mal, Kr Jogi, Narshingh pujai or Pattar, and Bhumyal are main dramas along with main plot of Ramayan
In this type of drama, the roles of Jagariya, and Bhalla are important and Dhol, Rauntali/Damau, Bhakor and Majere like traditional music instruments are played.
Lok Sanskriti ke vivid Ayam and sanrakhshan (Various dimensions of Folk literature and their preservation/Protection) by Surendra Pundir:  The expert of cultural, history and folks of Jaunsar Babar,  Surendra Pundir explains the significance and relevancy of Folk literature in modern time specially in Uttarakhand.  Pundir exposes the diminishing factors of folk related events from Garhwal and he tells us the startegies and application for preservation and protection of folk literature in Uttarakhand .
                                Dramas played in the events
  The following dramas were played in this Natya Mahotsava of 2005 and the editors provided the details of stories etc of those , which are mostly based on folk stories or oral  legendary stories or lore. 
Kaffu Chauhan: The play is revised of the drama written by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna’s drama “ Antim Garh’ . the story is suppression, autocracy of king Ajay Pal and bravery, love for freedom of Kafu Chauhan  of Uppugarh in Tihri region.
Ajuva Baffaul: Ajuva Baffaul is the story of brevity of twenty two Baffaul brothers ,  fear of weak kings, conspiracy for the crown of Champawat kingdom .
Dandya Ka Maiti:  Dandyan ka maiti drama is based on the legendary lore of Uttarkashi. The story centers on the bravery , sacrifice, strength of two valiant, heroic brothers- Naru and Bijula   
Pandav Gatha :  This is the dramatization of stories of Pandavas and adaptation as the folks play dramas in Jaunsar Babar
 Panch bhai Kathait: this drama is based on the events happened after the death of Garhwali king Durlabh Shah . The story is the evilness, greed, conspiracy for the kingdom  of five Kathait brothers,  the sacrifice of Bhajan singh the grand son of great Madho Singh Bhandari , the fight by people of Garhwal the righteous deeds and political scenario of that time.
Thul Chulia and Veer Badhu Devki are based on the lore (lok gatha ) of recent times.
The souvenir is edited by  Madan Duklan and Ranu Bisht
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, 2009

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali Folk Literature-2
                  Types of Garhwali Folk Dramas : A Literary Discussion
                 (An examination  of Clasification of Garhwali Folk Theatre)                                             
                                                                        Bhishma Kukreti

   There have been abundant literature available on the themes of Garhwali folk poetry , Garhwali folk stories but there is least written about Garhwali Folk Dramas or chronological detailing on Garhwali Folk Dramas or Theatres . Very recently, Madan Duklan, Ranu Bisht, Prem bahuguna, Veena Pani Joshi, Bhishma Kukreti, Khushal Rawat tried to collect the articles about Garhwali Folk Dramas from learned personalities. At  Dr D.R. Purohit is leading  learned personality who has collected many folk dramas, transformed them in contemporary theatrical mannerism and managed to stage many plays. Dr Nand Kishor Hatwal is also one of the industrious collector of Garhwali folk dramas based on religious events.
       The commentators classified drama into following types (Brown, 2007):
Historical or lore based dramas
Melodious , Farce,
The author will review the types, kinds of Folk Drama available in Garhwal and Kumaun regions.
                                 Classification By Dr D.R. Purohit
   D.R Purohit (2005) classified  Garhwali folk Drama into following types:
1- Pandav Leela: The dramas related to Mahabharata saga are included in Pandav Leela types of folk drama  of Uttaranchal (Kumauni and Garhwali). There are around thirty stories for Pandav Leela dramas  and main dramas are- Chakravyuha, Makrvyuha, Garud Vyuha, Suchivyuha, Laxagriha, Hathi-Duryodhan, Kalangari, Keechak badh, Bailon Ki Ladaee, Pinddan etc . These plays are staged mainly in the areas of vallys of Aleksandra , Bhilangana, Mandakini, Laster, balganga, Bhagirathi (Mostly in northern part pf Garhwal ). The dramas are basically music oriented plas and traditional music instruments are used.
2-Bagdwali: This form of folk play is related to events of religious rituals. The dramas are based on the life sketches of brave Bagdwal and purchasing of bulls, Tilanga, nauniya Bagdwal, budera, sali Bharana , Ropani Karuna are the characters of Bagdwali
Mask Dramas:
3- Mask Dramas related to religious and ritually travel procession of  pilgrim events (Jat Yatra Mukhauta Natak)
4- Mask Dramas related to Events and festivals (Utasvaon ke awasar par dikhaye jane wale mukhauta natak)
  This types of dramas are common in Pindar valley of Chamoli Garhwal ,Malla Danpur in Bageshwar of Kumaun region,  Sor valley of Pithoragarh, komodo, Bajeti, Balakot and kanaleechina villages of Pithoragarh. In thses types of dramas the characters use mask of famous deities, goddesses,  heroic characters or animals. These dramas are heroic and melodious dramas .
5-Swaang or Khel:  Surprisingly, Dr Purohit did not detail about Swang and Khel types of dramas
6-Heroic melodramas by traditional Singers and musicians (Beda, Huddkiyon, Damayiyon ki Veer gatha Vachan) : Purohit did not provide much details on this type of folk dramas of Garhwal .
7-Radhakhandi Ras: Again, D R Purohit did not provided any details about Radhakhandi Garhwali Folk dramas.
Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal ( 1981) , a prominent and profound personality of Garhwali folk literature described  Radhakhandi ras in details. The lyrical drama is based on the love stories of lord Krishna . The specialty of this type of drama is that it has more lyrical dialogues between the two or more singers. He main dramas of Radhakhandi Ras are Radha-Krishna, Rukmani-Krishna, Chandravali-Krishna
8-Dramas at the time of ritual events (Anusthanon ke manchan): Purohit failed to provide any examples of such dramas . However, the dramatization of stories in Satya Narayan Vrat Katha or Ghadelas etc come under this category.
                                Classification by Dr Rajeshwar Uniyal

Rajeshwar Uniyal  (2009) tried to classify the Garhwali folk dramas but his classification is a way of generalized way of classification and he classified the Garhwali Folk dramas into two types:
1-Dramas based on Folk stories/legends : He describes that the dramas which are based on folk songs, folk lore, traditional or oral stories, faith, customs are under in this category as the stories of bhad bhad Madho Singh, Tillu Rautella, Gangu Ramaula,
2- Dramas of based on Imaginary Folk oriented  Elements ( kalpanik Lok tatwaon par adharit) : This is the weakest point of Uniyal’s commentary on Folk Dramas of Garhwal . Without providing any example he described this category and misinterpreted Ramlila as initing point of Garhwali folk dramas
       Classification of prose Garhwali Folk Dramas by Bhishma Kukreti 
           Bhishma Kukreti tried to classify the prose or semi prose folk dramas played by a specific Garhwali professional class-Badi and women of Garhwal based on the emotional and rapture bases of  Bharat’s Natyashashtra. Bhishma Kukreti provided the examples of stories, plots and dialogues.
1- Folk Based on love raptures including tragedy
2-Based o chivalry rapture
3-Fear Based dramas
5-Abhorance based dramas
5-Progeny based love
6-Preaching or inspiring dramas
7-Wrath based folk dramas
The main importance of Bhishma’s classification is that each point is having example from his own experiences of watching dramas of Badis and women.
He also classified the Garhwali folk dramas into three types
A -Pure prose folk Dramas
B- Pure musical or lyrical folk drama
C -Combinations of lyrical and prose folk dramas
However, he stressed that it is better that the classification of dramas played by Badis and women in Garhwal are classified by the raptures and emotions of main plots.

As happened in any Folk literature, there is no agreements among the taxonomists of Garhwali folk dramas for classifying them. There is need of more researches and studies for knowing the characteristics of folk dramas of Garhwal

 1-Brown, Larry, A., 2007, Types of Drama,
2-Purohit, D.R., 2005, Uttaranchal ka Paramparik lok Natya, Veer Thakur Singh Lok Natya Mahotsava , (a Souvenir) published by Akhil Bhartiya Garhwal Sabha, Naishvila Road, Dehradun, India, pages-26 to 27
3-Nautiyal, Shiva Nand, 1981, Garhwal ke Lok Nritya Geet, hindi Sahitya sammelan, Allhabad, India, Pp-368-370
4-Uniyal , Dr. Rajeshwar, 2009, Garhwali Lok Natya Ki Samkshaa, Hamari Chitthi, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, pages-25-27
5- Kukreti, Bhishma, 2009, Badyun ka Swang, Jananyun ka Swang ar Bharat ku Natyashashtra,  Hamari Chitthi, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, Pages-5to 18

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Dr. B L Jalandhari

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यह मंगढ़ंथ लिपि नहीं है ! हमारी उत्तराखंड की दोनों बोलियों की लिपि देवनागरी ही है, परन्तु देवनागरी में उत्तराखंड की दोनों बोलियों के प्रनाक्षर नहीं हैं ! यह आखर क्षेत्रीय बोलियों की ध्वनियाँ ही है! जो केवल मात्र के रूप में देवनागरी की वर्णमाला पर प्रयोग की जाएंगी ! यह उस प्रकार की प्रथक लिपि नहीं है जिस प्रकार आप समझ रहे हैं ! जिस प्रकार मराठी भाषा, नेपाली  देवनागरी में लिखी जाती है परन्तु उसके साथ मराठी या नेपाली की  स्थानीय भाषा के शब्द (अक्षर) जोड़े गए हैं उसी प्रकार उत्तराखंडी गढ़वाली-कुमाउनी लिखने के लिए स्थानीय ध्वनियों की पहचान और उनको प्रयोग करना है ! यहाँ हम पहचान और प्रयोग की बात कर रहे हैं !

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali Folk Literature: 3
                                               Collection of Garhwali Folk Stories
                                                                Bhishma Kukreti
    The credit goes to European learned persons for initiating the collection and protection of folk literature. Later on, the learned persons of each area started to collect, edit and publish the folk literature of their own areas.
  The following is brief of collection, writing commentary on Garhwali Folk Stories:
Himalayan Folk Lore: Okely and Tara Dutt started for publishing the Garhwali Folk Stories. Around 1930, they published a book, “ Himalayan Folk Lore” Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral in Uttarakhand ka Itihas and Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna in Langadi Bakari provided the reference of this starting initiation for collecting and publishing Garhwali folk literature.
Pundit Hari Ram Dhashmana and Pt.  Keshava nand Naithani:  Though Dhashmana and Naithani did not publish any collection of Garhwali folk stories but they were first to write history of Garhwal based on folk stories of Garhwal. On the basis of Garhwali folk stories, they  tried to prove that Garhwal is the area where Vedas were created and Vedic culture was started from Garhwal region. Dhashmana and Naithani provided the examples of following folk stories:
1-Indra Dhanus
2- Sat Mataun kaa ek Putra
Folk Stories in Historical Books: Pundit Harikrishna Raturi in book ‘Garhwal ka itihas’, Bhakta darshan in ‘Garhwal ki Divangat Bibhutiyan’ and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral in all eight volumes of Uttarakhand ka Itihas presented the examples of many folk stories.
Dr Govind Chatak:  Govind Chatak published a book ‘Garhwal ki lok Kathayen’ in 1970 . now, Garhwal Jagar Dehradun has been  republishing those stories.
Hari Dub by Dr Hari Dutt Bhatt ‘Shailesh’ : Hari Dutt Bhatt collected and published more than ten stories related to Garhwali lore in Hari Dub.
Shri Dant Nipodu:  Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna writes in Gad myateki Ganga and Langadi Bakri that Dant Nipodu published a few humorous Garhwali folk stories in ‘Raibar’ (edited by Shakunt Joshi) before 1960.
Langadi Bakari by Abodh bandhu Bahuguna: Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna collected and published 19 folk stories in Langadi Bakari . Thee book was published by premium Publishing House Varansi in 1961:
1-Langadi Bakri
2-Sunna Didi
3-Lindarya Chhora
4-Sweeli Gham
5-Ladki Paksi ban gayee
6-Apni Man
8-Him Kahan se Aya
9-Sarp Dev Raja
10-Jhutha Sach
11-Uski Khoj
13-Hari Hindwan
14-Dur ka Deepak
15-Ghugtee Basauti
16-Panchayat Nama
17-Patta aur dhela
19-Kaful Pako
Bahuguna also provided in details the  classification of Garhwali folk stories.
Gad Matyeki Ganga: Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna published six stories in Gad Matyeki Ganga (1975) and all were already published in Langadi Bakari
Dant Kathayen by Chakradhar Bahuguna and Veena Pani Joshi: Modrn Prakashan Dehradun published eight stories of Chakradhar Bahuguna and Veena pani Joshi in 1981. Later on Garhwali Jagar Dehradun republished all eight stories.
Garhwali Lok Kathayen by Bhishma Kukreti: Aleksandra Prakashan published a book’Garhwali Lok Kathayen by Bhishma Kukreti in 1984. There are twenty four stories in this collection:
2-pathya Chinkhu
3-Anubhav ki Mahatta
4-Bhratri Prem
5-Ganv ka Sayana
7-Gapodiyon ki Gapp
8-Barat tinka aur Keeda
9-Gay ki Punchh aur Bhut
10-Bhim aur Rakhsash
11-Kaful Pako
12-Ulti Ahilya
14-Chhipkali ka Ghar
15-Bogus Vidya
16-Champa ka ped
17-Jaise ko Taisa
19-Nath Ban gaye
20-Siyar va reechh
21-Gyana -Binjara
22-Meri Ganga
23-Ag aur Bhians palak
24-Bhemata aur Ped
Community Stories by Bhishma Kukreti: Bhishma Kukreti published two folk stories of Malla Dhangu or related to Kukreti families in
1- Road between Jaspur-Gweel is still troublesome
2-Dallya are Kukreti

Salan Batin Lok Katha (Under publication) by Bhishma Kukreti:  Apart from collection of 22 stories, Bhishma Kukreti throw  lights on some critical points such as
   1- Please don’t say Garhwali is daughter of Hindi (Garhwali ko Hindi se nijat Dilao)
2-Brahman ad by collectors of Garhwali Folk Stories as these scholars avoided collection of Dalit kathyen
3-He analyzed Garhwali folk stories from management angle
There are following stories in Salan batin Lok Ktaha:
1-Vani Vilash Puran
2-Nrankarai Tapasya
4-Beej Ni Khan
6-jantar mantar ki Seekh
7-Kheer ki Thali
8-Ghweedau chanth Pyaro
9-Chhwaya band kilai hwen
10-Putha dekhik nakhush
12 -Atau Bald
13-Bhut Buba
15-Apadi apdi Chalaki
16-Myar Bughthya
18-Dwee baman halya
19-rikk ko ek I Batu
20-Jaspur man Devik mandir kilai nee cha
21-Duryodhan ko janam pathar kilai?
22-Ogal ki Katha
Family trees: There are publications of family trees as Bahuguna Banasvali, Kanthola Bansavali or Kukretis of Gweel-Jaspur, Nautiyal’s family tree wherein there are few folk stories published by the editors.
Manoj prakashan Delhi : manoj Prakashan also published three Garhwali stories with other stories
Chitth Patri: Chitthi Patri published a special issue on Garhwali Folk stories ( October-December 2007). There are following interesting chapters besides eight folk stories of Garhwal region:
1- Garhwali lok Sahitya aur waiko Adhyan by Bhagwati Prasad nautiyal
2-Garhwali lok Katahun par ek najar (a classification and characteristics of Garhwali folk stories) by Nand Kishor Dhaundiyal
3- Antarrashtriya Lok Katha Vargeekaran (Classification of international folk Stories) by Himanshu Sharma
4-  Garhwali lok Kataun ko Sankalan (Collection of Garhwali folk stories) by Rohit Gangasalani
5-Garhwali lok kataon ka vargeekaran (Classification of Garhwali folk Stories)
6-Lok Kataun ka sarbhaumik tatwa gun aur Garhwali lok kathayen (elements of Univarsal characteristics of folk Stories and Garhwali Folk Stories ) by uma Sharma
7-Garhwali Lok Kathaun man prabandh Shastra ki suchna ( Management teaching in Garhwali Folk Stories) by Bhishma Kukreti
8-Janvarun Samadhi katha Mahbahrat se pwan lag ( Mahbharat is the initiator of animals in folk stories and not Panch Tantra ) by Bhishma Kukreti
9-lok Kathaon ka samjik Vinyash par prabhav ( Effect of folk stories on social structure) by Rakesh Gairola
10-Garhwali lok Katha : Jaunpur ka parpexya man ( Garhwali Folk Stories in context of Jaunpur ) by Surendra pundir
The following stories are there in this edition:
1-Kafal pako min ni Chakho
3-mahasu ar Huna hat
4-beera baini ar Paanch Bhaiya
5-Madhu Ghuma Bhad
6-Fur Phatai meriKundali Kathain
7-Suni garud
8-Gaithai dali
Apart from the above time to time regional papers have been publishing Garhwali folk stories
There is satisfactory works on Garhwali Folk stories .
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali Folk Songs -4
         21  Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Song as stated by Dr. Mahan Babulkar
                                                                  Bhishma Kukreti
   There have been many research scholars who did research and wrote criticism about Garhwali folk literature including Folk Song and music. Dr Govind Chatak, Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal and Dr Mohan Babulkar are the main pillars of doing extensive surveys for Garhwali folk literature . However, Dr Mohan Babulkar is credited not only for his serious researches and exposures of Garhwali Folk song but he is exalted for providing extensively the characteristics of Folk Literature in any society or area concern. In his famous book “ Lok Sahitya Sidhant aur Prayog” published in 1980, Dr Shri ram Sharma writes about the extensive works of Dr Mohan Babulkar, “Dr. Mohan Babulkar increased  the characteristics of Folk Song up to twenty one. Honestly , Dr Babulkar  provided the name of researcher who gave the name to a particular characteristic of Folk songs….After this comprehensive characterization of folk songs, there is no space for anybody to add new characteristic of folk songs. The integrated analytical work of Dr Mohan Babulkar is very appreciable.”
  Dr Babulkar provided following twenty one characteristics of folk songs (Garhwali Lok Sahitya ka Vivechanatmak Adhyayan, page-11):
1- These are traditionally ballad  in nature and not of written form
2-these are non-masculine (apaurishiya)  in nature (as per conventional definition provided in  Vedas for apaurishiya)
3-The creator does not creates for name or fame
4-These are created and diminishes or continuity is fundamentals of creation of folk songs
5-This is the reason, we can not get manuscript of these types of  literature
6-the songs are lyrical and melodious
7-These lacks the long story or dialogues
8-There is no boundary of time and place in these songs
9-These are created by women
10-These songs communicate  the struggle or lacking something in life but don’t mark or count the lacking in life
11-These folk songs express the simplicity of human culture and emotions
12-These songs narrate the nature and ethnicity of the land
13-in the absence of artificiality , these songs are reflection or approval of spontaneosity  and decorationlessness .
14-The language of these songs are of country folk men ,therefore, folk songs don’t have    the language of meteoric poetry .
15-These are away from cities or towns. Therefore, there is nature, landscape, human-life, seasons of village or rural regions.
16- According to Shri Devendra Starchy , the girls of region carry and bring (transfer) the symbols from one place to other places.
17-These are the narration by and of nature. According to Shyam Parmar, the main properties of folk songs are--without tawdriness, transparent or pure as glass, simple, ecstatic , melodious.
18-  Dr. Shyam Parmar appraises another property of folk songs that history is hidden into them,. The narration of big heart of female, the human relation from birth to death, the asset of human evaluation , immense stock of emotions and melody are their other properties.
19-Dr Yadu Nath Yadav suggested that the domain of folk songs are with high speed of management skill, effortless word construction, universal delight of  nature and human, subtle but very effective  characterization , enormous narration of sport ground, relegating of artificiality and insincerity.
20-According to French critics Mr. Ayere , the creator of folk song uses synchronizing style in sound instead of using rhymes in verses, repeated uses of numbers--three, five and seven, inclination of adding the name, waiting for somebody, questions and answers in verses are the characteristics of folk songs.
21- Collective wisdom, benefits to people, inclination to universal cooperation and freedom are other characteristics of folk songs
 Though, there are a few repetition in the above twenty one characteristics of folk songs but nothing is left to describe the characteristics of folk song after the laying down the characteristics by  Dr Mohan Babulkar.
    The above characteristics are also the characteristics of Garhwali folk song
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India 2009.

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali Folk Literature-6
              Bajuband poetry or Geet : The Initial Garhwali Folk Poetry/Songs
(This write up is dedicated to late Shri Mal Chand Ramola who collected and published more than 250 gaarhwali bajuband poetry)
                                                              Bhishma Kukreti
       The folklores as Bajuband Geet in Garhwal are earlier than the alphabets would have started (Ramola, 1989). Ramola provides example of saying by Sinjwik that Bajuband folk songs are earliest for of Garhwali folk songs
“ ..These folklores are older than literature, older than alphabet .It is lore and belongs to the illiterate folks”.
                          Ramola says that these folk songs are there in Garhwal from the initiating point when the human beings started to live there in Garhwal . 
   Govind Chatak  and Shiva Nand Nautiyal state that Bajuband Geet are equal to Nyaoli of Kumaun. Nautiyal  (1981) positions  that Dudo or teedu/teedo are another style of Bajuband Nritya Geet (Dance-Song).
    Chatak, Nautiyal and Ramola agreed that these songs have been part and partial of Garhwali society. However, Nautiyal states that there is no more existence of dance, drama with these songs . Nauiyal and Chatak states that Bajuband but not Deedo/teedo are love-dance-songs are of  Ravanee -Jaunsar-Jaunpur but Ramola proves that these are common songs of each Garhwali folks. This author also supports Ramola that even today, at one or more times a common Garhwal creates Bajuband poetry in his/her lifetime. The process of being poetic is nothing but to create Bajuband song or verse. It is natural to create poetic statement by all. Though, Ramola says that education becoming the medium of educated Garhwalis to ignore these initial Garhwali rhymes, however this writer feels that Garhwalis are not stopping to create newer types of Bajuband verses and these educated Garhwalis may not be using these verses as entertaining and communicating medium as used to be in older Garhwal.
  No body will disagree with Ramola that there is musical experiencing in Bajuband songs . Ramola says that Bajuband songs are poetry by providing examples of Sanskrit experts
      “ vakya rasatmak kavya”, which means that the sentence which provides delight is poetry and “ Ramaniyarth pratipadakah shabdah kavyam’ ad it means that when the meaning of words provide delight , the composition of words is poetry.
   The Bajuband songs are truly expressions of emotions, perceptions, knowledge of the creator and the wordings for Bajuband verses originate from the heart and not by intellect.
Ramola says that we should put Bajuband Kavya in the category of Mukta Chhand or stray poems.   
    There are two stanzas in Bajuband (couplets in Hindi) poem but the first part does have any relation with the poetry except it provides the musical alliteration or the first part of Bajuband poem is used for rhyming for the poem. Second part is meaningful. That is why it is said:
Bajuband ka geet jan rambans ka teer
Dikhan man chhwata ghau karam man ganbheer
Means the last stanza of Bajuband is smaller but is full of meaning.
A few examples of Bajuband poems are  as follows  :
1- Dahi khaee makhyun- duniya khandi gichhan tu khandee ankh
2-Dathuda ki dhar-ankhi teri futi jaya najar ni mar
3-banduki ku gaj- galvadi ko til, mukhdi biraj
4-khandit kadhaee-onthano par onthani mili, dantuni na ladaee
 By analyzing we may understand that the second part of Bajuband is effective .the last stanza has five to seven words and are enough to express the whole expression of communicator.
  There are all types Bajuband poems in Garhwali that there are  all types of raptures
i.e. love, wrath, humor, tragedy, abhorrence, chivalry, humour and surprise. However, the rapture of love is found more  prominently.
Some example of other raptures in Bajuband song are:
1-Paliingo sag-- mankhi jauli maya hondi purush jaula bhag
2-Pani bharun dibul-nag dikhya taiku pakyun timul
3-Panch ar panch das--kha guaoko ras
4-ringali ki mani-bain ankhi  farki sua aund jani
Shiva Nand Nautiyal provides an astounding knowledge that there used to wars between two or two groups through Bajuband or Duda Dance-Song.
  The Bajuband poetry is our heritage and the sensitive Garhwalis should not only take care in preserving or protecting these poems but there should not be stoage in creation of these poems
1-Ramola, Malchand, 1989, Bajuband-Kavya,
2-Nautiyal, Shiva nand, 1981, Garhwal ke Lok Nritya Geet,page-279
3-Chatak, Govind, Garhwal ke Lok Geet, page 132-135
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Great  Personality: of Uttarakhand  22
Shiva Nand Nautiyal : A Poet, Folk Literature Expert, Writer, Journalist and Politician
                                                                                    Bhishma Kukreti
                          A versatile and rarest personality of Indian politics, Shiva Nand Nautiyal was born in 1936 in a remote village Kothala, Patti -Walla Kandarsyun, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand . After completing post graduation Shiva Nand Nautiyal became teacher in Assam . However, because of ill health he settled in Delhi and started his own weekly new paper Shailodaya.
     Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal is famous for his voice for hill districts of Uttarakhand . His famous wordings after Uttar Pradesh government created a separate department of ministry that is  Parvatiya Vikash Mantralay, “ Pahadon ko Jhun jhuna Pakada Diya  UP government handed over a playing toy for child” made him the hero in the heart of people of Garhwal and Kumaun regions. People of Karnaprayag elected him as independent legislator . He was also minister for higher education in Uttar Pradesh government. He was very honest politician and a politician for common man.
    Hi e is remembered not as a politician of Uttarakhand but he is acclaimed as the scholar, researcher of high order in the field of Folk Literature of Uttarakhand . Without his reference, we can not think research on Folk Literature of Uttarakhand. He collected folk songs, folklores, folk stories, folk dances, folk musical instruments and folk tones (dhunen) of Uttarakhand and published his researches with logical analysis. He had published the following books on folk literature of Uttarakhand
1- As Garhwali prose writer : Nautiyal  wrote many articles in Garhwali. His drama in Garhwali language Baun Ka Phool, stories as Chandra Devi, Pagal, he Jagdish, Daini hwai Ja, seli ya Ag were appreciated very much by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna for his realism, story telling capability and using pure Garhwali words. His novel “Karj Ko Byau’ still is unpublished.
2- Garhwal ke Lok Manas (1979) (1981)
3-Garhwal ke Nritya  (1974)
4-Badrinath Kedarnath Yatra Darshan (1988)
5-Garhwal ke Lok Geet (1964)
6-Garhwal ke Khuded Geet (1965)
7-Chham Ghugharu Bajala (1964)
8-Kamal (1957)
9-Lata (1957)
10-Hisar (1966)
11-Leela Ramayan (1966)
12- Nefa ki Lok Kathayen aur Parvati (editor)
13-Garhwali baramasha (1965)
14-Klali Das ka Janma Sthan Garhwal
15- Articles published in Raibar, Maiti, Amar Ujala, Karmbhumi, dev Bhumi, Satyapath, Dharmayug, Sanskriti, Tripathga, Panchjanya
16-Kumaun Darshan  (1988)
17 -Uttarakhand ki jan jatiyan (1991)
18-Tapobhimi Garhwal  (1988)
19- Vansampada (1991)
20- Garhwal ka Lok Sangeet aur Vadya
21- Garhwal ke Lognritya-Geet:  680 pages book is a classical and very  comprehensive book, which details many aspects of Garhwali Folk Dance-Songs. Uttar Pradesh government awarded Garhwali ke Loknritya-Geet book by Hajari Prasad Puruskar .
Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal expired in 2004 AD
Mrs Rachna Balodi is doing research (Ph.D ) on the workd of Dr Shiva Nand Nnautiyal
Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal had been a researcher for life and he had written fifty two books but yet, all are not published.
His contribution on folk cultural, art, music of Garhwal and Kumaun is appreciated by folk literature pundits as Dr Satyendra, dr Jay Chandra Rai,  Dr Harish Sharma Dr Prem Narayan Shukla, Dr Vasudev Sharan Agarwal, and sculpture artist Avtar Singh Panwar,  Dr Govind Chatak, Dr Nand Kishor Dhoundiyal, Dr Shashi Shekhar Naithani, Bhagwati Charan Nirmohi and many scholars in Garhwali literature.
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Garhwali Folk Literature-8
                        Classification of Garhwali Folk Songs: A discussion
                                                                    Bhishma Kukreti
          Garhwali folk songs are so varied and are in such numbers that  there had been debates and discussions for classifying Garhwali folk songs 
  The credit goes to the city of Dehradun that most of the important works on collection of Garhwali folk songs and publishing was done  in Dehradun except the work of Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Bhajan Singh Singh and the works of analysts of modern time . Garhwali a periodical (1905) used to publish the Garhwali folk songs regularly. ‘Sadei’by Tara Dutt Gairola  is the first collection of folk songs published from Dehradun.
 Out of ten twelve scholars, there are five research scholars -Dr Govind Chatak , Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Dr Mohan Babulkar and Dr Hari Dutt Bhatt ‘Shalies’ and Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna who did thorough study and classified them scientifically. Bhajan Singh , Keshav Anuragi also collected folk songs but thet either did not classify them scientifically or as Keshav Anuragi who focused more on Dhol Sagar and its music. Today, we have many scholars who studied Garhwali folk songs but the works of five scholars is always referred for discussion.
Let us find out how these scholars classified the folk songs of Garhwal
 Taxonomy by Abodh Bandhu Augean (1954):  Analysis of Garhwali folk songs started by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna:  Dhunyal (1954)  is first  work of analyzing and classifying the Garhwali Folk Song . Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna classified Garhwali Folk Songs on the following types:
1- Mangal (auspicious songs)
2-Kula char (Introducing and description of family tree)
3-Panwada (praising achievers)
4-Khuded (sad song)
5-Jagar (Awakening songs sung in Ghadela)
6-Tantra Mantra
7-Hori (Humrous and sung at Holi time)
8-Chakhulya (Personification of animals)
9-Naya Geet (New)
  The main flow on this classification is that it is not analyzed on scientific basis but on conventional basis .

Classification by Dr Govind Chatak: Dr Chatak (1956): Dr Chatak is credited for doing depth research , study in collection and analyzing Garhwali folk songs . Dr Chatak classified Garhwali songs on the basis of local names as he accepted in introduction of his classic book ‘Garhwali Lok Geet’ and he classified the Garhwali folk songs on the following divisions:
1-Puja Geet (prayer and worshiping of deities/goddesses)
2-Mangal (Auspicious)
3-Prem, Roop, Ras (Love songs)
6-Vasanti (Spring)
8-Dampatya Jeewn ( Family life)
11-Samajik Geet
12-Vividh Geet
Classification by Dr Mohan Babulakar: Dr Babular (1967) classified Garhwal Folk Song as below in his famous boo ‘ Garhwali Lok Sahitya ka Vivechanatmak Adhyayan’ :
1-Sanskaron ke geet
2-Devi Devta stuti , Tyoharon ke Geet
3-Khuded geet
4-Ritu (season) and Virah (pain of separation)
5-samuhik Gey geet (group or community songs)
6-Tantra Mantra Geet
7-Laghu geet (short songs)
8-jatiyon ke geet (songs created and sung by specific class)

Classification by Dr Hari Datt Bhatt ‘Shalilesh:  In his book ‘Garhwali Bhasa aur uska Sahitya’ ,  (1964)D Bhatt bifurcated the folk songs of Garhwal into following categories:
1-Mangal: k-Awhahan Geet. Kh-Puja geet, G-Vivah Geet, H-Loriyan (very rare),
2-Jhumailo: (sad and Love songs): K-Jhumailo, Kh-Chhopati, G-Laman
3-Thadya ya Vasanti geet 1- Vasnti 2-Hori
4-Bajuband  (Rhymical dialogues)
5-Chaufala ( Achieving right objectives, ambitions, economical benefits and final solutions)
6-Khded geet
8-Chaumasa (Songs of rainy season)
9-Baramasa (songs for every season)
10-par Updeshatmak (Inspirational)
11- Samayik (Songs of contemporary subject or happenings by Badis)
12-Rashtriya geet (Patriotic songs)
Classification by Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal:  Dr shiva nand Nautiyal had been also collecting Garhwali folk songs and his edited books are 
A-Garhwal ke Lok Geet (1964)
B-6-Garhwal ke Khuded Geet (1965)
C--Chham Ghugharu Bajala (1964)
D-Garhwali Baramasa
 Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal never thought of analyzing Garhwali Folk Songs as his above contemporary scholars were classifying songs. Only, in 1979, dr Shiva Nand classifed Garhwali folk Songs in Garhwali Manas (1979, page 52) and surprising ly his classification is more scientific, more subtle, more clear than his contemporary researchers. He divided following  songs and dances together as follows:
1-Mangal Geet: K-Awhahan Puja geet, Kh-Puja Geet, G-Vivah geet
2-Jagar : Narsingh, , Ngarja, Devi, Hantya, Pandav, Bhairon etc
3-Panwade (Chivalry songs ): Historical and non -historical
4-Tantra Mantra
16-Lori geet
17-Patkhai men Chhuda
By the above analysis we may state that dr Shiva nand Nautiyal’s classification is appreciable in terms of terminology and subtle .
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Great Garhwali Personality-25
Mohan Babulkar : Profound Expert of Garhwali Folk Literature, Writer and Editor
                                                       Bhishma Kukreti
                      There are four pillars of collecting and analyzing Garhwali Folk literature-Govind Chatak, Mohan Babulkar, Hari Dutt Bhatta Shailesh and Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal who are referred for each and every aspect of folk literature in Garhwali language. However, other three paid attention more on Garhwali folk songs and dance by Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Mohan Babulkar analyzed Garhwali folk stories, their characteristics and classify them scientifically. He is referred more on characteristics of folk stories in Hindi critic world.
   Mohan Babulkar was born in 1931 in the family of Panda in Devprayag. After completing his post graduation he perused his Ph.D degree  on Garhwali folks. He served in education department of Uttar Pradesh
Till date, he has published more than three hundred articles related to Garhwal, Garhwali personality and Garhwali language.
  He is famous for following books on the folk literature of garhwali language:
1- Garhwali Lok Sahitya ka Vivechanatmak Adhyayan
2-Garhwal ki Lok Dharmi Kala
3-Paschami Pahadi ki Upboli ka Loksahitya aur Kala
He also published following books:
4- Jamuna se Ganga
5-Himalaya men Matmatantar
6-He wrote twelve books for Uttar Pradesh education department
He also edited following books
1-Dev Prayag Sanskritik Sammelan
2-Padya calamari
3-Pundit Vrindavan Dhyani Smiriti Grantha
4-Acharya Chakradhar Joshi Smriti Granth
5-Pratap Singh Mehta Smriti granth
6-Parvatiya Sahityakar Kosh
He also edited Vasudhara, Sarhadi Saptahik and many such periodicals
Dr Babulkar was also on the borad of Mukandi Lal Smriti Granth.
7-Garhwal ki Jeewit Vibhutiyan aur Garhwal ka Vaishihthya:  His another major contribution is editing and publishing the life sketches  of amous Garhwali personalities in 1981
Standardization of Garhwali language and Confrontation with Bhishma Kukreti: Hew as the strongest supporter of Shrinagarya dialect as the standard for Garhwali writing. He wrote a write up in Hilans that editor Arjun Singh ji should not publish such Garhwali, which is not Shrinagarya or standard. In retaliation,  Bhishma Kukreti published ‘Cha Chha Tau’, ‘Been Barpbar Garhwali’ and ‘Asli Nakali Garhwali’ in Dhad magazine. In satiric and provocative style, Bhishma Kukreti argued inhis article’ Asli Nakli Garhwali’ . that if at standardization is necessary, Salani should be the standard Garhwali . Dr Mohan Babulkar criticized all the three articles. Babulakr is still support Shrinagarya as standard Garhwali and Bhishma Kukreti still supports that each Garhwali writer should write on her/his won regional dialects for enriching Garhwali language.
 Dr Baublakr loves his motherland and after retirement, he is settled in Kankhal Haridwar
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Garhwali Poet-34

 Netra Singh Aswal: The poet of Neo-Modernism in Garhwali
                                                                      Bhishma Kukreti

 Along with  Vindod Uniyal, Kanhaya lal Dandariyal, Pareshwar Gaud , Prem Lal Bhatt, Lolkesh Navani, Netra Singh Aswal provided new temperament , new disposition to Garhwali poetry world. Natra singh Aswal is the poet of that era when we saw the new wave in Garhwali poetry and poets tried to connect poetry with the life of common man or the life of contemporary time. These poets left the preaching and teaching practices as their predecessors used to acting as ‘Master Sir’ in creating Garhwali poetry.
No doubt, Netra Singh wrote very less but whatever he wrote that became witnessing to give new direction to Garhwali poems.
      Aswal shown his expertise in providing new form to Garhwali language I.e ghazal form which was new to Garhwali poetry. Apart from geet, conventional poetry, Netra Singh  also create Garhwali poetry in prose form too.
Aswal was born in Tachhwad, Jaitulsyun of Pauri Garhwal (Uttarakhand ) in 1958. After completing his junior school education he came to Delhi and completed graduation here . His inclination to poetic field brought him nearer to Vinod Uniyal another Garhwali poet famous for neo-modernity movement in Garhwali poetry.. Aswal assisted Uniyal in editing a magazine Burans (1978-1980) and later on Mandan a Garhwali monthly periodical.
He joined a central government service and is still there .
Netra Singh published first poetry in 1977 in Badrinath Express and later on one poetry was published in a poetry collection of GarhBharati
Hilans monthly edited by Arjun Gusain published his more than twenty poems regularly.
The first and last poetry collection of Aswal was published in 1988.His poetries are not limited to garhwal or garhwalis but to the nation and essence of nation too
            Though, Aswal published around forty poems but no body can deny his power of influencing poetries and are heritage for Garhwali language because these poems were the source of bringing new modernism in Garhwali poetry world
 Aswal describes himself in one poetry:
Sukin dauni galwadi udyar, min chhaun garhwali marad
Lhi ni jau kwee chilangun chyan, kavita hafrol kardu
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