Author Topic: Articles By Bhisma Kukreti - श्री भीष्म कुकरेती जी के लेख  (Read 633496 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali, Uttarakhand, Himalayan literature
Bhola Dutt Devrani : A Garhwali poet of melody and imagery
                                                       Bhishma Kukreti
   Bhola Dutt Devrani was born in Village-Dundekha of Palla Langur, Pauri Garhwal,  in 1904,
 Bhola Dutt Devrani worked in Central Secretariat , New Delhi.
Devrani published Garhwali poetry collection books by the names- ‘Pakha Ghaseri’. Bhola dutt Devrani also published ‘ Juo ar Janani’ based on the story of Nal Damayanti, maletha ki Kool. Devrani also translated rhymes of abhigyan Shankutalam and Shrimad Bahgwad Geeta in garhwali poetic form. His poems are with full of symbols, imagery and are melodious.
 Bhola dutt Devrani expired in November, 1956 , in New Delhi
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali, Uttarakhand , Himalayan literature
         Atma Ram Gairola : The Inspiring Garhwali Poet
                                            Bhishma Kukreti
                  Atma Ram Gairola is the Garhwali poets who initiated creating garhwali poetry in the form of Hindi. He is the contemporary creative of Satya Sharan Raturi,, Mahant Harsha Puri, Daurgadutti Rudola .
Atma Ram Gairola was born 25th April, 1855 in Lal Dhung, Pati Badiyargarh of Tihri Garhwal.
 He used to  publish his Garhwali poems in a monthly magazine- Garhwali , His Garhwali language poetry collection as Garhwali Kavitavali. His poems are called as inspiring poems in Garhwali. He used to inspire other Garhwalis to write poems in Garhwali rather than in Khadi boli.
Chala gwero ! Goru hum charola bhyun ki raw, vakhi machha marla, dhungali bhi vakhi pakaula
Tara Dutt Gairola is famous for his uses of pure Garhwali words in poem and was stern advocate of Garhwalism , Gairola pointed attention on the village system of Garhwal by his poems.
Tara Dutt Gairola expired on 22 June, 1922
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali, Uttarakhand, Himalayan Literature
                   Leela Nand Kotnala : A Garhwali poet of initial stage
                                                              Bhishma kukreti
       Leela Nand Kotnala is the contemporary of Atma Ram Gairola , Chandra Mohan Raturi , Daurgadutt Rudola .
He was born in Shrinagar and used to use nick name ’ Aleksandra -tat-Vasi’
His poem ’Lat Ripan ’ is famous Garhwali poem wherein he advocated the equality between white and black skins or he attacked on discretion for black people by  white people.
 Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009   

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali , Uttarakhand, Himalayan Literature
Prof. Bhagwati Prasad Panthari : Garhwali , Story writer, Poet, Dramatist, Editor , Freedom Fighter, Historian  and Educationist
                                                        Bhishma Kukreti

   Professor Bhagwati Prasad Panthari was a very versatile and respected of Garhwal. . He wrote  dramas and  stories in Garhwali language, was one of the founder editors of  Yugvani a weekly newsletter along with Acharya Kothiyal and Tejram Bhatt, wrote many history books on medieval era and was Vice Chancellor of kasha Vidya Peeth. He also fought the fight of independence from Tihri King along with Shridev Suman, Gairola and was poisoned by Tihri king.
Bhagwati Prasad Panthari was born in Tihri in 1914.
 He studied in Kashi and was brilliant scholar . He was worried about the poor conditions of Tihri Garhwal and for making awareness among people he wrote two dramas in Garhwali .
Garhwali Literature by Panthari :
His dramas Adhah Patan (1938)  and Bhuton Ka Khoh (1941)  are masterpieces of drama and are very inspiring . The language is pure Tihryali (spoken in Tihri district) . The dialogue are very simple bur effective to make audience  emotional to act upon against devils. However, his both the books were banned in Tihri regime. He also wrote stories in Garhwali  language . He published his story collection in Garhwali - “ Panch Phhol’.
‘Bansuli’ is his poetry collection published in 1942. Panthari  used to distribute pamphlets regarding freedom movement in Garhwali language and he arranged many mini conferences for the development of garhwali literature along with late Damodar Thaplaiyal Tejram Bhat and late Acharya Gopeshwar Kothiyal in Dehradun and Mussurie area. Bhagwati Panthari founded a literature organization by name - Garhwali Sahitya Kutir in 1938
Panthari’s  all works in Garhwali language literature are mile stones in Garhwali literature
As Educationist and Historian :
Bhagwati Prasad Pantahri  became professor in Kashi Vidyapeeth, Banaras and retired from there as Vice Chancellor.
 Professpr Panthari was a profound historian and was expert of  Medieval era. His books on history Yavana Itihaskaron ka Bharat varnan, Harshvardhan -Shiladitya, Kalpi, Mughal Rajmahlon Ka Jeewan, Ashoka, Harshvardhan aur Unka Yug, Rajvans Maukhari aur Pushyabhuti, Maurya Smarajya ka Smskrika Itihas  are gems of Indian History .
Bahgwati Prasad Panthari expired in 1997
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009


Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali, Kumauni, Uttarakhand, Himalayan Literature
Vinay Prasad Joshi :  Creator of  Astrology Book in Garhwali  Language
                                                   Bhishma Kukreti
             Garhwali society will always remember Jotishacharya Vinay Prasad for his contribution to add astrological subject in Garhwali language literature.
 Vinaya Prasad Joshi was born in Sandhar village, Sandhar Patti of salan , Pauri Garhwal Uttarakhand in 1920.
  Vinay Prasad is a true social worker . Inspired by Vinovba Bhave, Vinay Joshi  donated a sizable portion of his land to landless Sohan Lal of Saindhar village.
  He wrote and published Garhwali Panchang (astrological book in Garhwali ) . In this treasure book, we may find the data of past thousand years and coming thousand years too . The reader may find complete information of date, time, day, month  of thousand years back and future .
                 This Garhwali Panchang by Vinay Joshi  is unique from the point of view of astrology and Joshi did hard work for years to write such memorable book on astrology in Garhwali language.
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali, Kumauni, Himalayan Literature
Damodar Prasad Thapaliyal: The Dramatist and Editor
Damodar Prasad Thapaliyal is one of the Garhwali creative of post independence era who spent his whole life for development of Garhwali literature . He wrote dramas and staged them and is famous editor of Garhwali magazines.
 Damodar Prasad Thapaliyal was born on 2rd March, 1923, in village Palkot, Khatsyun Patti of Tihri Garhwal.
 He was teacher in Gandhi Inter College Dehradun and retired from there.
Along with Professor Bhagwati Prasad Panthari , Thapaliyal established Garhwali Sahitya Parishad, Dehradun . This organization staged many Garhwali plays, did mini and large conferences, kavisammeans,  and motivated Garhwali creative for writing in Garhwali language. Garhwali Sahitya Parishad also distributed pamphlets in Garhwali language related to freedom movement of Tihri Garhwal.
 Damodar Thaplaiyal edited two  Garhwali language magazines --Phyunli and Ranko.
He wrote dramas in Garhwali, staged them  and those are -‘Mankhi ‘, ‘Auns Ki Rat ‘, Tibbat Vijay’, ‘Prayaschit’
 Damodar Prasad was also prose maker in Garhwali. His articles and stories as Garhwali Bhasha Kilai, Magna Pween, Baiju bamnee are the class prose of Garhwali literature.
Damodar Prasad Thapaliyal expired  on 12th November, 1977 in Dehradun
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukrti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan literature
Shridhar Jamloki: Poet and Drama creative of Garhwali language
                                                           Bhishma Kukreti
  A profound scholar of Sanskrit, Shridhar jam Loki is remembered in Garhwali literature for his poetries and drama writing .
Shridhar jam Loki was born on5th January 1920 at Ukhimath, Chamoli Garhwal of Uttarakhand.  Jamloki was Sanskrit teacher in Uttarakhand Vidyapeeth, Ukhimath, Chamoli Garhwal and retired from there.
 He published four poetry collections in Garhwali language -- Ashrumala (Khandkaya)  , Dundabhi Dimdim (Khandkavya) , Vritmala (Garhwali Chhandshastra), and Ek Visi (Khandkavya).
Jamloki also wrote a drama in Garhwali - Sita Parityag based on the episode of discarding of Sita by Ram .
His work in Hindi literature is unpublished
Shridhar Jamloki expired on 10th January, 1984 in Ukhimath.
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali, Kumauni, Himalayan Literature
Ghananand Augean : A Drama writer and Prose maker of Garhwali language
                                                          Bhishma Kukreti
  Ghananand Bahuguna was fluent in Garhwali, English and Hindi writing. Garhwalis remember him for his drama writing in Garhwali language.
Gahnanand Bahuguna was born in Pokhari village, Chalansyun Patti of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand. After completing LLB, Ghananand  started his law practice in Pauri city and became very famous advocate of his time. Bahuguna was a respected social worker too.
Ghananand Bahuguna  published many articles in English, Garhwali and Hindi.
 Ghanand Bahuguna wrote a very sensible drama in Garhwali language- Samaj
 Samaj drama is an inspiring, with social awakening subject and the dialogues are in simple but pure Shrinagarya Garhwali.
Gahanand Bahuguna expired on 13th February, 1964, in Pauri
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009
   


Bhishma Kukreti

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Great Garhwali Personalities of Uttarakhand -1
 Jeet Singh Negi: First Garhwali singer of gramophone and Akashvani
                                                        Adaptation -Bhishma Kukreti
         “ Too wheli Beera uchi nisi dandyun man ghasiyaryun ka bhesh man…” stirred so much the insight of Uttrakhand written by Jeet Singh Negi that not only common men but even the knowledgeable Uttarakhandis perceive that this famous song is folk song .
        A couple of  few people knew  that Jeet Singh Negi created this song on the road, Agara road, Bhandup , Mumbai at  around 11PM. This author is fortunate that he listened the autos-story of Jeet Singh Negi about creation of this song by Jeet Singh himself at the residence of Mrs Pushpa Dobhal and her husband Professor Radha Ballabh Dobhal, Garhwal Darshan, Mumbai. Professor Dobhal have the recorded tape told the story of creation of ‘too wheli beera…” by Negi .
He was the initiator of creating Garhwali song, singing, performing cultural shows in various parts of India
   I tried for  searching on the net about complete biography of Jeet Singh Negi. However, my surprise that nothing  much is written about this great personality of India in web-world.
  This write up is to provide full honor to a legendary creative ever born in Uttarakhand.
  It is Negi’s  popularity that census department (jangana vibhag)  of government of India (1961) in its Vol.XV, Uttar Pradesh, Part V, Gramya Survekhsan, page48, describes the popularity of  song “too wheli beera…”
        Great Uttarkhandi personality Govindh Ballabh Pant was fond of the talent of Negi and he used to call jeet Singh Negi for performing of welcoming cultural show before foreign delegates as cultural show by Negi’s troop before Chines delegate, when Pant was home minister of India.
Father-----Sultan Singh Negi
Date of Birth: ----27February, 1927
Place of birth or village: Village-Ayal, Paidalsyun,Pauri Garhwal
Present address----108/12,Dharmapur, Dehradun
Education---
Primary education---Myanmar (Burma)
High school in Pauri and d A V College Dehradun
                            Garhwali literature or creativity
Published :
Geet  Ganga (Song collection)
Jaul Mangari (Song Collection)
Chham Ghungru Bajala (Song Collection)
Maleth ki Kool (Historical musical drama (geet natika )
Bhair Bhool (social musical drama)
Manuscript ready for publication:
Jeetu Bugdwal  (historical musical play)
Raju Postman (Drama)
Rami baurani (Musical play)
                       Unpublished Hindi work
Pativrata Rami (Drama form)
Raju Postman (Drama)
                               Dramas staged by Negi and his troop
1- Bhari Bhool:  Staged in, 1952, damodar hall, Mumbai in the program of Garhwal Bhratri Mandal . The play was instant hit and the drama  stirred not only the mind set of migrated Garhwali Mumbakrs but across the India, migrated Garhwali became aware about the importance of drama in their cultural programs. The dialogues are in hindi and Garhwali and that was the unique experiencing point (UEP) , Jeet Singh Negi was conceptulizer, writer, director and stage manger of Bhair Bhool. Bhari Bhool is a mile stone in the history of Garhwali stage and cultural programs. Himalaya Kala Sangam, Delhi staged this drama in 1954-55. Later on this drama was stage many places and many times.  Sudharani a research scholar of Garhwali drama writes, “ Is natak ko dekhne sabhi jagah darshak toot pade and this was the reason that Lalit Mohan thapliyal entered in Garhwal drama taking leave from Hindi drama.
2-Maletha Ki Kool: This is historical drama and based on famous Maletha canal built by Chief of army staff of Garhwali a sovereign kingdom, the winning warrior  of Tibet and father of brave bhud Gajendra Singh Madho singh Bhandari . The dram is staged 18 (eighteen ) times in Dehradun, Mumbai, Delhi, Chandigarh, Mussorie, Tihri and many places. Jeet singh Negi wrote and directed this drama.
3-Jeetu Bagdwal: Jitu Bagdwal is famous folk lore of Garhwal. Jeetu Bagdwal was a brilliant flute player.  Singh wrote the musical drama on this folk lore and more than eith times this melodious drama is staged at various places under his direction, stage administration.
4-Pativrata Rami: Parvatiya Munch Delhi staged the Hindi drama Rami  Baurani conceived and created by Jeet Singh Negi in 1956 and staged many times.
5-Rami : At the occasion of Tagore centurion year , Rami a Garhwali musical drama (geet natika ) was staged first  in Narendra Nagar in 1961 . Later on more than hundred of stage shows have been all across India.
6-Raju Postman: This is a Dhabadi Garhwali drams and dialogues are mixed Hindi and Garhwali. Raju Poastman Garhwal sabha Chandigarh staged this dhabadi drama first and more than ten times this drama is staged
7-Relays from Akashvani : His first Garhwali song was relayed from Akashvani in 1954. His dramas and songs are relayed more than six  hundred times and it is great achievement for any regional language artist. Jeetu Bagdwal and Maletha ki Koo  the radio-geet-natika are  also relayed more than fifty times from Akashvani
8-Relay from Doordarshan: The Hindi version of Rami was relayed by Delhi Doordarshan
                                  Achievements fo Jeet Singh Negi

1-He is called swar samrat. He collected many lost Garhwali folk music methodologies notes  and preserved the for our future . . He also showed many Garhwali music instruments to our generation and showed that our conventional instruments are important to create Garhwali music . Jeet Singh Negi is  great admirer of late kasha Anuragi the expert of dhol Sagar .
2-Jeet Singh Negi is first Garhwali folk singer whose six songs were recored by His master Voice (HMV) in 1949
                                  Cultural Activities 
1942- Started cultural programs, staging dramas, and singing programs in Pauri city
1954: Worked as assistant director in Khalifa and Chaudaheen  Rat (Hindustani Movies) in Mumbai
1954: He worked as Deputy Music Director in National Gramophone Company , Mumbai
1955 : First Garhwali Song Batch Singer  in Akashvani Delhi
1955 ; Directed cultural program in Raghumal Arya Girls School, Delhi
1955: Lead the cultural show before Chinese Foreign delegates in Kanpur
1955-56: was connected with cultural programs of Sarswati Maha Vidyalaya Delhi
1955: Sung Garhwal land reform  related progressive songs at Garhwali progressive front conference in Delhi
1956, Lead the Garhwali Cultural Team for participating in  Parvteeya Lok Geet program , Delhi, inaugurated by Indian Home minister Govind Ballabh Pant 
1956: Participated and sung in Buddha Jayanti program in Lansdown
1956; All India tour for organizing Garhwali musical and cultural programs in many cities
1956: Uttarapradesh lok Sahitya Sameeti Lucknow recorded those songs which were created  sung and provided music by him only
HMV Mumbai recorded his song (music by him) in 1956 and 1964
1957: Participated and lead the singers and Garhwali cultural team in the program of Uttar Pradesh Suchana Vibhag and Lok Sahitya samitee, Lucknow
1957: Participated in first Greesma kalin festival, Lainsdown
1960-He represented and led the Garhwali cultural team in participating in historical Viraat  Sanskrit Sammelan Dehradun and later, Negi Ji  on became secretary of this organization
1962-He organized and participated with zeal in Parvatiya Sanskritik Sammelan
Trained the child artists for participating as Garhwali performers for collecting money for Rashtriya Surakhsa Kosh through Harijan Sevak Sangh Dehradun
1964-Organized a famous Garhwali cultural show for arijan Sevak Sangh in Shrinagar Garhwal
1966- Led the Garhwali cultural team for participating in cultural program of Garhwal Bhratri Mandal Mumbai
1970- Member of organizing body of Sharad Utsav Mussurie
1972-Led the cultural team of Dehradun for Garhwal Sabha Moradabad
1976- Trained the local Mumbai performing team for the cultural show of Garhwal Bhratri Mandal Mumbai. In Garhwali society, this is historic moment that local performers Mumbaikars came out on the stage
1979- Led the cultural team at occasion of inauguration of Door Darshan TV tower in Mussorie
1979-Particpated by staging  cultural program in Central Defence Account Sahtabdi celebration , Dehradun
1979-lded the Garhwali cultural team for Sharadotsava in Mussorie
1980-Staged a Garhwali cultural show in Chandigarh for Garhwal sabha
Organized piratical Kala manch Dehradun and staged four Garhwali cultural shows in that year
1982-Staged a cultural show in Chandigarh
Selected secretary of piratical kala manch
1986 Presided Garhwali  Kavi Sammelan Kanpur
1987 led the Garhwali cultural team for participating in Uttar Madhya Sanskrit sammelan of Government of India in Allahabad
One of the organizer of cultural program in Rashtriya Drishtibadharth sans than Dehradun
                                     Garhwali Movies
He wrote dialogues and song for Meri Pyari Bwai
Total creation of Cithara (Video cassette ) of Rami and  maletha Ki Kool
Wrote song for Samaun (till now, un-exhibited  )
                                      Awards /Appreciations     
       
 1955-Raghumal Arya Kanya Pathshala
1956-Garhwal sabha , Dehradun
 1956 District Magistrate Dehradun for program in Prantiya Raksha dal
1956-Parvitiya jan vikash delhi
1956 Sarswati mahavidyalaya Delhi
1957 Prashastrti patra by Bhagta Darshan (MP) and Naredndra Dev Sgashtri (MLA)
1958, Parvatiya Sanskritik sammelan Dehradun
1962  Lok Vidyalaya Chamoli awarded hi by“ Lokaral’award
1970, himalaya kala sngh awarded him for Maletha ki Kool
1979, Central Defense Account Department Dehradun awarded him for his contribution in promoting cultural program
1980-Akshvani Naziabad awarded as “Lok Sangeet Swar”
1984, Doon memoranda club
                                       Vishishtha samman
1990, Gadhratna, by garhwal Bhratri Mandal Mumbai
1995 Academy award by uttar Pradesh sangeet Academy of Uttar Pradesh government
1995, Doon Ratna by Nagrik Parishad  SanshthanDehradun
1999, Meeel ka Pathar award by Uttarakhand Mahotsava Dehrdun
2000, First “ mohan Upreti lok Sanskriti Puruskar” by Almora sangh
2003, Eighteen social organizations of Dehradun facilitated him by “ samuhik Nagrik Abhnandan ”
Uttaranchal government
2007, New Tihri club facilitated him on 25/5/2007
                  His relation with social and cultural organization
Manonranjan Club Pauri
Shail Suman Mumbai
Himalaya kala sangam Delhi
Parvtiya jan kalyan samitee Delhi
Garhwal Bhratri Mandal Mumbai
Himalaya Kala sangam Dehradun
Parvatiya Sanskrit sammelan
Sarswati mahvidyalaya Delhi
Garhwal Sabha dehradun
Garhwal ramleela parishad Dehradun
Garhwali Sahitya mandal Delhi
Uttar Pradesh Harijan Samaj Dehradun
Bharat Sevak Samaj
(Curtsey by Hilliwood  News , Mussorie, Vars-1, edition-4th,March, 2009, pages 8-12  )

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali , Kumaoni, Himalayan literature
                                  Jaggu Naudiyal: The master of Pathos Rapture
                                                                               Bhishma Kukreti
       In one of my most memorable  cartoons  ‘ek chor ki kal kali katha’ published in Garh Aina and Dhad, I showed that a thief goes various Garhwali creative for burglary and has unusual experiences . When the thief goes to Puran Pant’s house, instead of fearing  from the thief, the poet becomes happy that somebody is there to listen his poems and the poor  thief has to listen poetry from Puran Pant for whole night. The thief has to offer his whole day’s earnings to Kanhaya Lal Dandariyal after seeing the materialistic condition of the greatest Garhwali poet. The poor thief becomes mad by listening the Garhwali grammar lessons  from Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna. The thief has to smell terrifying bad smell of sweating  Chinmaya Sayar.
        When in the same cartoon, the thief comes out of Jaggu Naudiyal ‘s house weeping, with full of sorrow , grief, sadness and  was crying in mental agony , “ The police should not use tear gas but the poems of Jaggu Naudiyal are enough instead of tear gas.” There is no exaggeration in my cartoon about the poems of Jaggu Naudiyal. No doubt, Jaggu Naudiyal  wrote poems related to patriotism, chivalry,  devotion to deities, development, and growth but he will always be remembered in Garhwali literature for his displaying grief, sadness, awe, fatigue, depression, detachment, stunning, anxiety, dejection, death , terror, epilepsy and tears in his Garhwali poems written in tens of places of Garhwal region.
       Jaggu Naudiyal was born in the year 1940 in the remote village Bheemali Talli of Paino patti, Pauri Garhwal then called British Garhwal. When Naudiyal was just two years old , he lost his mother and Jaggu tells that he is the samlon (the souvenir) of his mother. Jaggu Naudiyal had to suffer the bearings of motherlessness for his whole of life. Even after being the father of children , he could not digest  that he lost his mother at the age of two years and Jaguu never forget his pain of being chhwara (parentless) from point of view of motherless. We may see the pain of separation, memoir agony of aloofness, sadness  generated by separation, fear, oppressed conditions  in his many poems such as samlaun, dheera ko dharm, beti bidai, beti ka bol, bhai banaiun ki mausyan, o din ni ando pher, chhantwa bwau, nirdayee baba, man ki chakhulee.
           The emotional  pain of his childhood is displayed everywhere in his poetry. Even, we may find some kind of emotion dejection his patriotic or poetries written for inspiring people to take part in the village development . No doubt, jai badrinath, bharat ka beer jawan jaag uth, chal meri pyari syali Garhwal are not the peoms of sadness or grief but without fail we may feel the philosophy generated by detachment, non-affiliation, aloofness in these poems too . 
    His poem samlaun  is the master piece of rapture of pathos and the feelings are expressed by the poet in the simplest form. A dieing mother is telling to her husband about his two years child:
Rakhyan ye sambhali thukrai ni diyan
Meri nauki dali seenchada rayan
Smalaun mero adhkhilo phool
Triveni man gadnai si kool
Barr bijli joo nind waiki
Taprali tap tap si aankhi waiki
Chamm uthiki man man bahtyalo
Halka si hathan thupthei liyan
I don’t think except Jaggu Naudiyal other poet could express such caring words from a dieing mother . He experienced the pain of motherlessness and that is why he could express the same in such simple words and symbols in his poems.
     As far my knowledge is concerned, I know only two collections of Garhwali poems published by Jaggu Naudiyal -Geetu ki Gaad  and Samlaun .Naudiyal  also wrote Sudama ki gareebi and translated  Soor Sagar but till date they are unpublished
   From form point of view, Jaggu Naudiyal wrote his poems either in Doha or chaupaya only. It seems that Jaggu’s whole intention was for displaying the emotion in poems and not doing any experiment for style or form . Jaggu believes in expression in the simplest way than playing with words, linguistic charm, experimentation, bringing variations, giving shocks to the readers etc.
     The specialization of Jaggu Naudiyal  in Garhwali poetry is creating pathos and pathos.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

 

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