Author Topic: Jagar: Calling Of God - जागर: देवताओं का पवित्र आह्वान  (Read 211126 times)


Bhishma Kukreti

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Hantya Jagar: A Garhwali Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors

                                       Bhishma Kukreti

[Notes on Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Garhwali Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Kumauni Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Uttarakhandi Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Mid Himalayan Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Himalayan Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; North Indian Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Indian Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Asian Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers]

 ‘Hantya’ means the unfulfilled desire of deceased one. Many times, the future teller speaks that there is ‘Hantya’ problem for the bad days of a family or families the family perform the ‘Hantya’ Ghadela ritual. The jagri (Ghadela performer) first sings the following songs before the stories of Hantya Jagar. In the initiating chants the Jagri calls the souls of deceased died by accidents or with unusual death.  Jagri and his assistant play the Daunru and bronze plate.                           
              हंत्या जागर का प्रथम भाग


मृत पितर अथवा पुरखों की लालसा को गढवाली-कुमाउनी में हंत्या कहते हैं
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
गाड का बग्यां को ध्यान जागि जा
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
भेळ का लमड्याञ को ध्यान जागि जा
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
डाळ का लमड्याञ को ध्यान जागि जा
फांस खैकि मरयाँ को ध्यान जगी जा
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
जंगळ मा बागक खयां को ध्यान जागि जा
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
घात प्रतिघात का मोर्याँ को ध्यान जागि जा
आतुर्दी मा मरयाँ को ध्यान जागि जा
भूत देवता परमेश्वर महाराज
हरि का हरिद्वार जाग -- धौळी देवप्रयाग जाग
जै रण का मोर्याँ तै रण का ध्यान जाग ..

  After the above initiating chant the Jagri tells the Jgari /stories of Dashrath-Shravan Kumar, Mordhwaj or Abhimanyu.
 In all the stories, the last stage of Jagar is of pathos rapture and creates a tragedy among the listeners and dancers

Reference-
Dr Anil Dabral

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti.4/7/2012 
Notes on Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Garhwali Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Kumauni Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Uttarakhandi Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Mid Himalayan Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Himalayan Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; North Indian Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Indian Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers; Asian Folk Ritual for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors/Forefathers to be continued….

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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गढ़ गढ़ प्रसिद्ध यख मेरी गौरजा भवानी
 सची ध्यायी हवेली मैं तू गौरा प्रकट हवे जेई
 गौंत मोला कु घंसू धोली लालु तेरु रौंसा
 
 तेरी ध्यणी बुलोलू गौरा दूर दूर बनि मैता
 स्नान करली गौरा तब पैतालि तू पैता
 तेरी रौन्सुल्या थाली हल्योलू सवा टोला कांसो
 किल्क्वारी मारी की आली लगलू तेरु रांसो
 
 नौ दिना कु थौलू तेरु नौ बाजा लागोलू
 नौ दिन नौ रति त्वेकू भार्दारी पट नचोलू
 प्रकट हवे जली गौरा नयी थौला आज
 
 नौ दिना कु थौलू तेरु नौ बाजा लागोलू
 नौ दिन नौ रति त्वेकू भार्दारी पट नचोलू
 
 जय हो मैठयाणा माँ जय हो चन्दरबदनी माँ
 जय हो धारी देवी माँ जय हो सुरकंडा माँ
 
 प्रकट हवे जली गौरा नयी थौला आज
 प्रकट हवे जली गौरा नयी थौला आज

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Ved Bhadola सुप्रभातम...
 
 जाग रे पहाड़ जाग...
 
 शिव को कैलाश जाग
 बदरी और केदार जाग
 यमुना को वेग जाग
 गंगा को मान जाग
 
 खोली का गणेशा जाग
 भूमि का भूमिया जाग
 दयब्तों का हुड़का जाग
 वीरों का रणसिंघ जाग
 
 जाग हरूहीत जाग
 भडों की तलवार जाग
 राजुला मालूशाही जाग
 प्रेम की मशाल जाग
 
 जाग रे किसान जाग
 खेत अर खलिहान जाग
 सारियुं कु भाग जाग
 अन्न कु कुठार जाग
 
 बांज अर बुरांश जाग
 देवों का देवदार जाग
 मालू का पात जाग
 फ्योंली का फूल जाग
 
 हैरी-भैरी सार जाग
 दाथुलै की धार जाग
 घसियारियुं की न्योली जाग
 मैती की याद जाग
 
 पाणि का पंधेरा जाग
 गाड़ अर गधेरा जाग
 पंदेरियों कु गीत जाग
 पहाडे को भाग जाग
 
 
 जुलाई ६,२०१२

Bhishma Kukreti

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   Garhwali-Kumaoni Folklores about Brahmkunvar
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-7
Religious, Spiritual and Mythological Folklores of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand – 7 

                                        Bhishma Kukreti
             From the old days, Mahbharata, Shiv Puran and Gorakhnathi sects influenced Garhwal and Kumaon. There are folklores, folktales related to Krishna.
                One of the popular folklore about Krishna is Brahmkunvar folklore.
             कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ -7

                                                 ब्रह्म कुंवरलोक गाथा
(सन्दर्भ- डा गोविन्द चातक , गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ  )


 लाडलो बर्मी पौंछे कृष्णा का पास
बोल बोल दिदा क्या काम होलु मैकू?
तब बोल्दा कृष्ण भगवान मन की बात
त्वे जाणु होलु बरमी हिंवचल कांठा
xxx                        xxx
मोतिमाला पथरमाला द्वी बैणि
चली ऐन दखिण द्वारका
मोतिमाला ब्याहेण कृष्ण तैं
ब्र्मीन ब्याहे पथरमाला
इना रैन भगवान कला का पूरा
द्वारका बीच लोग मंगल गांदा
 The story starts by worshipping of God, Krishna, and Ganga.
  One day, lord Krishna was playing dice in Dwarka. Narad said to Krishna,”There is a princes Motimala in Jaulatal in Himalaya. She has gold dices and silver stool. She is beautiful as fairy and her fame is as sun light.”
          Brahmkunvar the brother of Krishna came with chariot and asked Lord Krishna,” Tell me the reason you called me.”
The Lord said,” you have to travel Himvnhal Kantha for me. You have to win Motimala for me from there.”
 Brahmkunvar flew to Himnvchal by his she horse. Brahmkunvar was taking bath in Jaulatal. Sharada the maid servant of Motimala reached there and she saw handsome Brahmkunvar.
 Sharda ran to Motimala. Motimala was very beautiful as star among black cloud, white as rice, golden as Fyunli. She was as butter and sweet as Hisar fruit.  Motimala was the beautiful most among beauties.  Sharda informed the arrival of Brahmkunvar.
 Motimala asked Sharda to call Brahmkunvar. Sharda came to Brahmkunvar, Brahmkunvar told to Sharda,” I am son of Vimla and belong to Yadav cult. I came here to meet my sister in law Motimala.”
Sharda said,” Motimala is unmarried. How come Motimala is your sis in law? There came three hundred sixty kings to marry her and everybody lost the battle and many are now, her slaves.
  Sharda told to Brahmkunvar that Motimala loved playing dice. She informed that Motimala would ask him to  play dice with her and cautioned not to sit on silver stool while playing dice with Motimala.
 Brahmkunvar reached to palace of Motimala. Motimala took out golden dices, silver stool. Brahmkunvar sat on another stool. One by one,Brahmkunvar lost his horse, ear ornaments, hand ornament, leg ornaments against Motimala in dice game. Brahmkunvar started remembering lord Krishna.
Brahmkunvar requested to Motimala to bring fresh water for him as he never took water from servants. Motimala went to bring water from oak jungle. Barmi (Brahmkunvar) sat on the stool of Motimala. When Motimala came with water she told Barmi to leave her stool but Barmi refused and asked to restart the game of dice. One by one Brahmkunvar won over all his ornaments and horse too. Now, one by one Barmi won the ornaments of Motimala barring Ghaghra for her honor. 
Brahmkunvar made ready the Raghukanthi horse and asked Motimala to go to Dwarka.
Motimala put the condition that when Barmi would won and married her sister Patharmala from Chandragiri she would go to dwarka.
 Barmi reached to Chandragiri. The king of snakes  Bhupunag was the king of Chandragiri. There were seven circles around the palace. Brahmkunvar broke the seven circle with the aid of horse and reached to Patharmala.
Patharmala saw the innocent Brahmkunvar and said, “he Barmi! Why did you come to enemy region? Have you lost your path? My poisonous snake will bite you”
Brahmkunvar said,” No! I did not lost my path. Your sister Motimala told me to win over you and marry with you. Your snake is in Naglok at this moment”
She told Barmi to win her and marry. Suddenly, Nag came there. Barmi hid below the cot. The nag smelled the human smell and challenged Barmi.
Barmi came out and Nag took Barmi in Nagfans. Barmi became blue due to Nagfans.
Mother of Barmi Vimal Rauteli understood the danger of her son Barmi. Vimla Rauteli remembered guru Gorakhnath and asked guru to protect her son Barmi. Krishna sent a bee to Ramoligarh to tel the story to Siduava . Frend of Krisna,  Sidwa reached Chandragiri,  first killed Nag and then medicated Brahmkunvar.
 Brahmkunvar (barmi) married to Patharmala and Motimala along with Patharmala reached to south –Dwarka. Motimala married to Krishna. People started singing auspicious songs Mangal.

Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahity
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet 
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen
Dr Urbi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyan
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Ravain) 
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 19/4/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaun-Garhwal, Uttarakhand- to be continued…8
Religious, Spiritual, Mythological Folklores of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued… 8 
Notes on Folklores/folktales of Uttarakhand; Folklores/folktales of Kumaon Uttarakhand; Folklores/folktales of Mid Himalaya; Folklores/folktales of; Folklores/folktales of Himalaya; Folklores/folktales of North Indian region; Folklores/folktales of Indian region; Folklores/folktales of Asian region; Folklores/folktales of Oriental region to be continued...

Bhishma Kukreti

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Kadru and Binta Episode: A Religious Folklore of Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-2
                                        Bhishma Kukreti
                 Dr Mahendra Kumar Mishra (PhD) rightly states that Mahabharata and Ramayana influenced every culture in Indian subcontinent. Dr Mahendra Kumar Mishra (PhD) provides proves of influences of Mahabharata on the folklores of Parimalagiri, Gond,  Konds (Bugsas), Koyaput, of Orissa. There is total influence of Mahabharata on Cambodian folklores.
          The research scholar Alexandra van der Geer, Michael Dermitzaki and John de Vos suggested the Mahabharata societies in Shiwalik shrine just below Himalayas (Fossils Folklore from India, The Shiwalik Hills and the Mahabharata, Folklore, April 2008). Therefore Mahabharata era  played  a great role in culture of Uttarakhand.
 Mahabharata influenced the most the culture of Garhwal and Kumaon (Uttarakhand). That is why there are folklores based on the stories of Mahabharata.  Kadru-Binita folklore is one the examples of Mahabharata influence on Garhwali and Kumaoni culture.  The story of Kadru-Binita is taken from ‘Sauprnyakhyan’ of Mahabharata. However, the folklore creators created story with local culture.
 कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ -2
 कद्रू और बिनता की लोकगाथा का एक अंश

मूल -डा गोविन्द चातक   
 कद्रू का नाग ह्वेन, बिनता का गरुड़
कद्रू बनिता द्वी ह्वेली सौत
सूती डाह छै  तौमा
कद्रू बोल्दि तब -
हे भूली बिनता तेरो बेटा भानपंखी
रंद सूर्या का लोक मा
सूर्य भगवान को रथ चलौंद
बोल दौं हे भुलि
सूर्य को रथ कै रंग को होलो?
तब बिनता बोलदे
सूर्य को स्वेत  रथ होलो
तब नागु की माता कना बैन बोदे -
आज भुलि तेरा मेरा बीच
कौल होई जाला
मै सणि तू भुलि धरम दियाल
सूर्य को सुफेद रथ होलो
तब मै तेरी दासी होई जौलो
अर  काळो   रथ होलो तब तू
मेरी दासी बणी जाली।
तब कॉल करार करिगे नागु की माता , रौंदड़ा लगौंदी तब छुयेड़ा चारदे
मन मारिक अपणा काल्गिरी नाग .......
                     Story of Kadru and Binta Folklore of Garhwal-Kumaon
        Kadru and Binta were co-wives or Sautiya sisters.  Kadru was mother of Nag (snakes) and Binta was mother of Garud (eagles). They had Sautiya Dah (strong jealousy) between them. Once, Kadru asked Binta the color of Surya’s  Rath  (Sun’s chariot) as Binta’s son Bhanupankhi was chariot driver of Sun. Binta informed that the color of Sun Chariot is white but Kadru denied and said that the color of Sun Chariot is black. Both ended in betting for the colour of Sun Chariot. The bet was that whoever would lose would become the slave of winner of bet.
  Kadru the mother of Nag (snakes) was worried as she was afraid of losing bet because the color of Sun Chariot was white. She called her son Kalgiri Nag and told her the incident of betting between her and Binta.  Kadru ordered Kalgiri to make Sun chariot as black. Kalgiri went to Sun galaxy along with his brothers and they all surrounded Sun. By the surrounding of snakes the Sun Chariot seemed as blackish chariot. 
  Happily Kadru called Binta and showed the black colored Sun Chariot. Binta lost the bet and told that from tomorrow she would be slave of Kadru.   
             Binta was sad as her step son Bhanupankhi (son of Kadru) informed in past that the color of Sun Chariot was white.   
      Mishri Garud (eagle) became restless in heaven (with lord Vishnu). He tells his boss lord Vishnu that there is something wrong with her mother and she is in some dire situation. Mishri Garud reached to his mother Binti but his mother did not show love for him. After perusal Binta told that his step brother Bhanpankhi deceived her and covered sun Chariot for showing black color and now she is slave of Kadru.  Mishri Garud. Misri Garud took the vow to free his mother from slavery of his step mother Kadru.
 Mishri Garud reached to his step brother Kalgiri Nag and said,’” kalgiri! Why did you make my mother slave of your mother by deceit methods?’”
Kalgiri answered, If you bring Amrit kalash from heaven and give it us, we shall free your mother from slavery.”
 Mishri Garud brought Amrit Kalash (Nectar Pot) to Kalgiri Nag. Kalgiri Nag became happy and decided to take Amrit after bathing. Kalgiri Nag went for bathing. In the mean time lord Vishnu came and advised to Garud that he should also deceive Kalgiri. As per advice, Mishri Garud took Nectar Pot to heaven and came back to Naglok.
   When kalgiri came back after bathing he did not find the Nectar pot and he became angry on Mishri Garud. Kalgiri started attacking garud for battle. There was stif battle between Mishri Garud and snakes. Mishri Garud killed all snakes.
 Kalgiri snake hid near Mishridah pond. A fish came near Mishridah pond. Mishri Garud killed that fish and its blood and flesh fell on a sage. The sage cursed Mishri Garud that if his shadow fells on the pond the Garud would die.
 Lord Vishnu brough back Kalgiri Nag and told,” Nag and Garud! You all are brothers. You should live together with discipline. Garud should only kill a snake in a month. “
         

Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahity
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet 
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen
Dr Urbi datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyan
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Ravain) 
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal
Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 8/4/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaun-Garhwal, Uttarakhand- to be continued…3
Notes on Religious Folklore of Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of Pithauragarh Kumaon Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of  Kumaon, Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of Champawat,  Kumaon, Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of Almora  Kumaon, Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of  Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of  Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of  Haridwar/Hardwar Garhwal , Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of  Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of Pauri Garhwal , Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of Chamoli Garhwal , Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of Tihri Garhwal , Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of Uttarkashi Garhwal , Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of Jaunsar Garhwal , Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata; Religious Folklore of  Rudraprayag Garhwal , Uttarakhand influenced by Mahabharata to be continued….



Bhishma Kukreti

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Sristhi Nirman: The Folklore about Universe creation and discussion on Cross Fertilization

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-3
Religious and Mythological Folklores of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand – 3 
(Notes on Universe Creation in folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Uttarakhandi folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Kumaoni folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Garhwali folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Mid Himalayan folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Himalayan folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Indian regional folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Asian regional folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Oriental folklore /Mythology]

                                        Bhishma Kukreti
             In every society, there are mythological stories about universe creation. Maori mythology states that the primal couple Rangi and Papa originated the world/universe.
                There are many stories in Chinese mythology for creation the universe as Pangu separated world egg like Hudan the primordial chaos into heaven. There is also Chinese mythological story that Yin and Yang (female and male) are founder of world.
     In earlier Egyptian mythology, the Goose came out of Milky Way and became source of universe creation.
 Finish mythological epic Kalevala states that universe was created from an egg laid by divine duck on the knee of limatar –the goddess of air.
   Greek mythology speaks that in the beginning there was chaos, an amorphous void encompassing the entire universe and surrounded by an un-leading water stream ruled by god Oceanus and then god created  Gaia (Mother earth)  heaven etc.   
         According to Norse Mythology, Fire and Ice Meeting is cause of universe creation.   
In Philippine mythology, supreme God created world and earth. In one mythological story of Philippine tells that the universe was mad because of struggle among many forces.
 There are mentions of universe creation in Vedas, Upnishads, Purans and other Sanskrit classics or later stage the Buddhist and Jain literature.
                         Garhwali-Kumaoni Mythology for Universe Creation
       In Kumaoni -Garhwali folk literature as in Upnishads there is discussion on Universe as in Dhol sagar. There is also discussion on cross fertilization in Garhwali –Kumaoni folklores or in Garhwali folktales as in Champa dali.  The Srishti Nirman Gatha discusses the universe creation and importance of cross fertilization together.

                          कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ -3

                                               सृष्टि निर्माण गाथा
                                                    मूल शम्भू प्रसाद बहुगुणा
--------------------------------------
 बोला बोला सगुन बोला कैलास मा भोला शम्भु रे नाथ
भोला शम्भु रे नाथ रौंद -देखा तौंकि धुनी रमीं च
तब त बोनी च देवी पार्वती बोनी च
हे महादेव जी यखुला कैलास मा रेगे विष्णु
त तुम अपणा संग कु क्वी चेला बणै देवा
 दैण जंगा मांग वैन गाड़े मैल कि बतुली
मैल बातुली गुदड़ी का पेट राखे
गुदड़ी का पेट ह्वेगे सूनी अर जम्बू गरुड़ सोभनी
तरुण द्वी भै बैणा ह्वेगेना
जम्बू का दिल मा पाप आयि ग्याय हैक दिन
एक दिन मा इनो समय आये जम्बू पुछण बैठी गे
सूनी बोनी च
बोल बोल हे जम्बू गरुड़ तू आज क्या बात बोदा
जम्बू बोनु च सुणी लेदी सूणी
तू अर मै होइ जुला पति बरता नारी
हे जम्बू तेरो कुटलो सी टूंट च
तू और मैं होला भै बैणो का नाता
जम्बू ना द्वी नेत्र छोड़ी याली सूनी का बोल्यान
  The above Garhwali folk prose song is starting paragraph of universe creation. The further story about universe creation is as follows
  In the beginning there was void and there was no earth, no sky and no water. The Goddess Parvati was bored by aloofness. Parvati requested God to create universe. Nirankar or formless created female eagle from dirt of his right thigh and created male eagle from the dirt of left thigh. The Name of Female eagle was Soni and male was Jambu. Shiva was shocked as he wanted to create human beings. 
  When Jambu (male eagle) became young he offered to marry Soni. Soni the female eagle became angry as they were brother sister. Jambu started weeping.  Soni  (female eagle) felt sorry for Jamboo (male eagle). She took tears of jambu (male eagle) and drank those tears. Soni (female eagle) became pregnant. Jambu (male eagle) went away from Kailas (where Shiva and Parvati live). Soni (female eagle) left kailas in search of  Jambu (male eagle) and at last she met Jambu. Soni eagle soothed Jamboo. Soni asked the place of delivering eggs. Bothe searched the place but could not find suitable place and came back to Kailas. Soni asked ‘Where to lay egg?” Jambu spread his wing and Soni laid egg on wing. However, the egg broke down. The upper white portion of egg became sky and lower egg portion became earth. The ocean was created by white portion and land by yellow yolk.  This way Nirankar created universe.   

Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahity
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet 
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen
Dr Urbi datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyan
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Ravain) 
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 8/4/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaun-Garhwal, Uttarakhand- to be continued…4
Religious Folklores of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued… 4 
Notes on Universe Creation in folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Uttarakhandi folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Kumaoni folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Garhwali folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Mid Himalayan folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Himalayan folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Indian regional folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Asian regional folklore /Mythology; Universe Creation in Oriental folklore /Mythology to be continued…


Bhishma Kukreti

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           Shiv Gatha: Kumaon-Garhwali Folklore on Lord Shiva 
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-4
Religious and Mythological Folklores of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand – 4 

                                        Bhishma Kukreti
                         Folklores on Lord Shiva in Non-Indian Territories
                There are classic literature and folk literature available about Lord Shiva in all parts of Jambudweep (India, before 1 B.C). For example, there are folktales and folk dances related to Shiva in Cambodia as the kings before Asoka era were Shaivya or Vaishnva. There are temples of Shiva of ancient time in Cambodia. 
            There are various types of temples and symbolic sculptures of Shiva in Thailand. There are folklores related to lord Shiva in Thai literature as ‘Cha Larm tri Pob’.
  St. Andrew and St. John provide the folklores of Burma or Myanmar about Lord Shiva (Indo Burmese Folklore, 1889).
 There are folklores/folktales related to lord Shiva in Javanese and Balinese cultures. Thaipusam festival in Malaysia is definitely related to folklore related to Lord Murugan son of Lord Shiva (Pierced by Murugan’s lance by Elizabeth Fuller, 1997).
 It is said that the Trusul folklore of Romani or European gypsies is related to Trident of lord Shiva.
Taking clue from Persian and Arabic pronunciation (Shiva=Hiva, Sindhu=Hindu, Asura=Ahura), a couple of scholars are of opinion that there are instances of Shiva in Old Iranian folk literature as in Zoroastrian literature.
                           Shiv Gatha: Kumaon-Garhwali Folklore on Lord Shiva 
                               Shiva Marriage Story in folklore
Shaivism influenced very much the Kumaoni and Garhwali societies from ancient time. There are hundreds of Shiva temples or temples related to Shaivya cult in the region. There are tens of folk stories/folklores around lord Shiva in Garhwal and Kumaon. One of folklores is about lord Shiva marrying Gauri.
The Shiva marriage event starts in folklore as
 कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ -4
                       शिव गाथा
मूल संकलन: डा कृष्णा नन्द जोशी
--------------------------------------
  शिव गौरी विवाह प्रसंग
 हे शिव भगवानु लै की रथ बणायो
गुरु घिंगालीनाथ बणाया, तिन लोकी तिरसुलनाथ बणाया
तिरलोकी त्रिसूलनाथ गुरु हिमांल में बसा
तवी गुरु का भगवानु लै दियि हाली हतेंडली में तीन तला धरती
तब गुरु जप करनी
हात  में रुद्रांछ कि माला जपी दैनी हाल
तिरसूल बीराज्ये छ बौ आडुली गुरु
पंचचूली बैठ हिमांल हे पंच नाम देवतो
हे बरमा .  बिष्णु , चित्रगुप्त . भगवान हिया रचा
तब नारद रिखी जु थै कयो   होलो महादेव सिवजी को ब्याह
हे प्रजापाल की साटी चेली भया
तब सिव भगवानु लै धरो कलंगी को रूप
तब गया महादेव ज्यू प्रजापाल का घर
सबूं को मन लागौ हौरन कै
गौरी सब ज्येठी चेली को  मन महादेव लागो
तब शिव ज्यू का संग में भगवती गौरी महादेव को ब्या है गयो
महादेव ज्यू लै प्रजापाल कन ढोक नि दी कबेर
प्रजापाल को मन रीस लै भरी गयो

O Lord! What did you create new universe? He created Guru Ghigaali Nath, Trilokpati, Trishulnath. Trilokpati and Trishulnath started living in Himalaya. O guru! Then God he put three based earth on your palm. Then, Guru took long Samadhi. He took Rudraksh on right hand and started Jap and took Trident on left hand. The O Thirty three Crores deities! Panchdevta- Brahma, Vishny, Chitrgupt and shakti asked sage Narad ,” tell us the story of Shiva-marrigae”.
    Prajapti had sixty daughters. There was Swamvar of his daughters. Shiva went there as leprosy man. Other girls of Prajapti choose other deities as their husbands.  The eldest daughter Gauri loved Shiva. Shiva married Gauri.
             Mahdev did not salute Prajapati . Prajapati the father of Gauri became very angry. However, it was not possible for Shiva to salute as he is consumption god too.
     Prajapati thought to insult Shiva. Prajapati organized a Yagya to be run for twelve years and did not invite his eldest son in law Shiva.
                The heavenly chariots of goddesses and deities were making noise in the sky. Gauri asked Mahadev about the movement of chariots in the sky. Lord shiva disclosed that her father organized a twelve year Yagya but did not invite the, Gauri said,” it is not possible. Father should have invited me first and then others.”
Laughingly, Mahadev said,” If you don’t believe me you should go to your mother place.” 
Angrily Gauri went to her father’s place.
Prajapati was busy in sacrifice for Yagya.
Offering respect to her father, Gauri touched her father’s feet. Prajapati asked, “I never invited you. Why did you come here without my invitation?” Her mother also fired her for coming without invitation. The sisters also accused her coming to father’s Yagya without invitation. Gauri was feeling insult and guilty that she did not obey lord Shiva (her husband).  Gauri jumped into hot boiling oil pot and died.
Lord Mahadev saw Gauri in dream. She was repenting her disobeying the advice of Shiva. Lord Shiva came aware from Samadhi and fell sorry. He went to Prajapati place. Shiva started doing Tapa and Japa. Gauri’s soul showed sorry to Mahadev.  Gauri took new birth as daughter of Himalaya and married to Shiva.   


Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahity
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet 
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen
Dr Urbi datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyan
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Ravain) 
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Tony Samantha Phim andamp, Ashley Thompson, 2000, Dance in Cambodia, Uni. Chicago, NY.

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 8/4/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaun-Garhwal, Uttarakhand- to be continued…4
Religious Folklores of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued… 4 
 Notes on Folklore on Lord Shiva; Folklore on Lord Shiva from  Kumaon; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Garhwal;  Folklore on Lord Shiva from Mid Himalaya; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Himalaya; Folklore on Lord Shiva from  India; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Asia; Folklore on Lord Shiva from  Oriental countries; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Burma/Myanmar; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Indonesia;  Folklore on Lord Shiva from Bali; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Java; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Malaysia; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Cambodia; Folklore on Lord Shiva from Thailand 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Goril , Gwill, Golu  Deity : Justice Deity of  Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand )
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-5
Religious and Mythological Folklores of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand – 5 

                                        Bhishma Kukreti
             Usually, every society has a deity for justice among Idol worshippers.  Gwill, Gwall, Golu, Goril deity is the deity for justice in Uttarakhand.
  Nepal has Mankamna goddess as goddess of justice. Adastria is Greece goddess of justice. D ike is also Greece goddess of justice. Lady Justia is Roman goddess of justice. Mayet, Mat or Maat is ancient Egyptian goddess of justice and moral. Nanshe was the Sumerian goddess for justice. Anby and Haukim were pre Islamic deities for justice in Arab region. Forseti is mythological justice deity of Norse. Honos was military Roman deity. Issitoq is Inuit mythological justice deity Shamash was justice deity in Babylonia and Asyyria and Mandanu is justice deity in modern time Babylonia. Shezmu is Egyptian mythological justice deity. Nahundi is ancient Persian mythological deity for justice.
                          Goril , Gwill, Golu  Deity : Justice Deity of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand)

    Due to his law endeavoring character, Goril was worshipped as deity from his life time. The following folklore prose- song tells the story of justice deity Goril, Gwill, Golu or Gwal. Goril is believed to be Nathpanthi deity. Along with Goril, Kalindra devi is also worshipped and the female Paswa dance as soul of Kalindra too in Jagar of Goril/Gwill.
कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ -5

  गोरिल . ग्विल्ल , गोलु , ग्वल गाथा
(सन्दर्भ  :शम्भू प्रसाद बहुगुणा  विराट हृदय )


यो हंसुला गढ़
सूरजवंशी हरू
सैम ज्यू दिवान
भानिज कैलास
xxx   xxx
द्वि मामा भानिज अब बैराठ का देश
राजा हरिचन
सैंम ज्यू दिवान
रंगीली चौरड़ी बैग्या शिलंगी का सेल
रात ब्या उज्याळो   हैग्यो
घुमंण पैग्यान बैराठा का देश
हरिचन साथ में त लडन पैग्यान
राजा हरिचन आब विभूति फुंकाला
हुंलो मैं हरिचन राजा सूरज को पूत
इथगी लिंगा तिरलोकिनाथ
छतीस रौताण तनरी बतीस पैरुणी
xxx  xxx 
गोरिया महाजन के राजा तुमारौ नाम लिनों
दुदाधारी कृष्ण अवतारी तुमारौ नाम छ
ग्वेल गोरिया भनरिया गोरिया चौरिया गोरिया
राजवंशी देव छ जसकारी नमन का भोगी
नेपाल धोली  धुमाकोट में तुमरो जनम
थात बतौनि भगवान इष्ट देवता कुल देवता
बु बु हाल राई बाबु झालराई माता कालिंका
अवतारी जसकारी भगवान तुमारो नाम च
छतीस सौ रौताण  सौ ऐड़ी चौसठ योगिनी
फैलिका भूमिया बावन बियर सोळ सौ भैरों
सोळ सौ कलुवा जो तुमार दगड़ चलनी
गुरु गोरखनाथ बटी जो तुमौल  गुरु की 
दयावान तपवान नंगा का सर ढक छा भूका का पेट भर छा
निर्धनी कै धन दि छा , अपुत्र कै पुत्र
There was rule of Jhalarai the Katyuri king in Champawat. The king had seven queens. They were childless. One day, Jhalrai went for hunting near Kali River. He reached to Dubachaur village and was hungry and tired. He saw that two buffalos were firstly fighting. The king tries to disentangle their fights. However, the king failed to disentangle the fight. The king ordered the servant to bring water from the river.
  The servant went to Kali bank and started filling water into pot. By carelessness, the drops fell down on a girl bathing into the river. The girl sarcastically said,” When the king is so weak who can’t disentangle two fighting buffalos his servant definitely would be discourteous. The servant angrily said,” If you were so strong and brave then go and disentangle the fighting buffalos.”
        The brave girl went there and disentangled two fighting buffalos. The king was stunned to see her bravery and beauty. The king asked the girl about her details. She was niece of another king, her name was Kalindra. However, she had skin disease. King Jhalarai went to her uncle and asks for marrying Kalindra. Jhalarai married to Kalindra and came to his capital. After some time Kalindra became pregnant. However, the king Jhalarai had to go outside the kingdom at the time of child delivery of Kalindra. 
  Other seven queens shifted Kalindra in dark room and told her that she had to put cloth on her eyes for auspicious purpose. Kalindra obeyed her co-sisters. When Kalindra delivered child, other queens took away the child and told to Kalindra that she delivered pumpkin. The seven queens put the child into iron box and threw the box into Ganges.
 When the box was flowing a fisher men family caught the box. The fisherman family was childless and became happy to see the male baby boy. Fisherman family adopted the boy. They took every care for the boy.
 When the boy crossed childhood he was taking a wooden horse to river and asked the wooden horse to drink water. There were seven queens of Jhalari. They asked the boy –how the wood horse would drink water. The child answered as the human mother could deliver pumpkin and same way wooden horse could take water. The queens were shocked to know that boy knew the reality.
 That boy came to Jhalarai and told the real story. King gave the death sentence for punishing his seven queens by throwing them into boiling oil.
  Later on this Goril boy became king. The king became famous for his laws, true justice. People started worshipping Goril in his time.

Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahity
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet 
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen
Dr Urbi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyan
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Ravain) 
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 8/4/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaun-Garhwal, Uttarakhand- to be continued…6
Religious Folklores of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued… 6 

 

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