Author Topic: How To Change Tough Agriculture Methodology - पहाडो की कठिन खेती  (Read 75524 times)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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I have recently seen demonstration of these tractors. I am sure that this can very much be used in our hill areas field. This is portable kind of tractor and is multi-purpose. However, it is costing around 1 lac or so.



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एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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The company manufacturing this tractors is as under.

BDJ INTERNATIONAL
E-3/8 NEW ARYA NAGAR MEERUT ROAD
GHAZIABAD -201001 (U.P)
PHONE: 01202830157
FAX: 01202752808
MOB: 9810610280,9810168713,9310610280
Web: www.bdjinternational.net
Email: enquiry@bdjinternational.net


I am sure such kind of Tractor can be used in UK hills.


 

पंकज सिंह महर

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मेहता जी,
     खेती का मैथर्ड थोडा बदलना होगा, पारम्परिक खेती (धान, गेहूं, मडुवा आदि) छोड़कर व्यवसायिक खेती अपनानी होगी, फूल बोये जा सकते हैं, जरबेरा, जिरेनियम, गुलाब आदि की खेती हो सकती है, जैट्रोफा की खेती करें, फल, सब्जी पर ज्यादा ध्यान केन्द्रित करें, क्योकि व्यवहार में देखा जाय तो हम लोग अपने खेतों में धान, गेहूं, मडुवा बोने काटने में सारा साल लगा देते है और सब्जी बाजार से खरीद कर लाते हैं तो थोड़ा सा खेती का कानसेप्ट बदलना होगा. हमें ऎसी खेती करनी चाहिये जिससे हमें पैसा मिले और पैसा होगा तो धान, गेहूं, मडुवा तो बाजार में पर्याप्त है, खरीदा जा सकता है. क्योंकि एक सूप धान बोकर, हाड़ तोड़ मेहनत करके भी एक सूप धान भी मुश्किल से ही पैदा होता है.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Mahar Ji,

Good suggestion from your side but some techniques has to be brought to working method.

मेहता जी,
     खेती का मैथर्ड थोडा बदलना होगा, पारम्परिक खेती (धान, गेहूं, मडुवा आदि) छोड़कर व्यवसायिक खेती अपनानी होगी, फूल बोये जा सकते हैं, जरबेरा, जिरेनियम, गुलाब आदि की खेती हो सकती है, जैट्रोफा की खेती करें, फल, सब्जी पर ज्यादा ध्यान केन्द्रित करें, क्योकि व्यवहार में देखा जाय तो हम लोग अपने खेतों में धान, गेहूं, मडुवा बोने काटने में सारा साल लगा देते है और सब्जी बाजार से खरीद कर लाते हैं तो थोड़ा सा खेती का कानसेप्ट बदलना होगा. हमें ऎसी खेती करनी चाहिये जिससे हमें पैसा मिले और पैसा होगा तो धान, गेहूं, मडुवा तो बाजार में पर्याप्त है, खरीदा जा सकता है. क्योंकि एक सूप धान बोकर, हाड़ तोड़ मेहनत करके भी एक सूप धान भी मुश्किल से ही पैदा होता है.

पंकज सिंह महर

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बिना जुताई कराए ही बुवाई संभव 

हल्द्वानी(नैनीताल)। अनाज उत्पादक किसानों को अब बुवाई के लिए भटकने की जरूरत नहीं पड़ेगी। किसान जीरो ट्रिलेज सीडड्रिल मशीन से जुताई कराए बिना ही बुवाई करा सकेंगे। सरकार किसानों को यह मशीन 50 प्रतिशत अनुदान पर दे रही है।

कृषि विभाग के अधिकारियों के मुताबिक किसान बीज की बुवाई करने से पूर्व खेतों की जुताई करते हैं। इसके बाद खेतों से खरपतवार निकालने में समय जाया करते हैं। इस प्रक्रिया में किसानों को धन व्यय करने के साथ ही परिश्रम भी अधिक करना होता है। इससे छुटकारा दिलाने के लिए विभाग ने कृषकों को जीरो ट्रिलेज सीडड्रिल मशीन देने का निर्णय लिया है। इस मशीन खासियत यह है कि कृषक बिना जुताई के बुवाई कर सकते हैं। कृषि वैज्ञानिकों का दावा है, इससे अनाज के उत्पादन में कोई अंतर नहीं होगा।

मुख्य कृषि अधिकारी डा. अभय सक्सेना ने बताया कि केंद्र सरकार के पहल पर 50 प्रतिशत अनुदान कृषकों को दिए जा रहा है। जीरो ट्रिलेज सीडड्रिल मशीन पर कृषकों को 50 प्रतिशत अनुदान धनराशि को 25 -25 प्रतिशत राज्य व केंद्र सरकार वहन करेगी। श्री सक्सेना ने बताया कि जो किसान धान की कटाई कर चुके हैं। वह बिना जुताई के इस मशीन के माध्यम से बुवाई का कार्य कर सकते हैं। विभाग ने इस मशीन को 50 प्रतिशत अनुदान के साथ बड़ी मात्रा में वितरित करने का निर्णय लिया है। जीरो ट्रिलेज सीडड्रिल मशीन की कीमत बाजार में 22 हजार रुपए है। जो विभाग द्वारा अनुदान दिए जाने के पश्चात 11 हजार में किसानों को मिलेगी। पिछले छह माह से अभी तक इस मशीन पर 30 प्रतिशत अनुदान किसानों को दिया जाता था।


हेम पन्त

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श्री कृष्ण पाण्डे (1800-1850 ई.)

मुलक कुमाऊँ का बडा-2 चैन
नौ नाली ब्वै भैर छै नाली भैन

कुमाऊँ के लोगों के बडे ठाठ हैं, वो 9 नाली अनाज बोते हैं और 6 नाली उत्पादन होता है.

हेम पन्त

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पिछले 150-200 साल में भी स्थिति में ज्यादा बदलाव नही आया है.
श्री कृष्ण पाण्डे (1800-1850 ई.)

मुलक कुमाऊँ का बडा-2 चैन
नौ नाली ब्वै भैर छै नाली भैन

कुमाऊँ के लोगों के बडे ठाठ हैं, वो 9 नाली अनाज बोते हैं और 6 नाली उत्पादन होता है.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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See this news in red below)



Hidden hunger exposed
 
Jayalakshmi K 
 
 
 
How do we address the poor health of our soils, still reeling under the onslaught of fertilizers and pesticides? Is organic farming the problem? If so, why has it taken so long to go mainstream?
 


Decades of intensive farming has led to a 'hidden hunger' in the soil. The NPK (in fertilizers) as dominant macronutrient has driven out most vital micro nutrients like boron, zinc, manganese, sulphur, calcium, etc from the soil. Heavy metal contamination in the soil has added damage. The soil plant symbiosis has broken down, says researcher L C Nagaraj of Svaraj.

All these can be traced to the doors of the much-flaunted Green Revolution. It addressed only the question of how to increase yields, irrespective of how it was done. Productivity was increased at the cost of the environment. High doses of chemical fertilizers and pesticides were deployed. The groundwater was squeezed out as irrigation became the mantra, whether the crop needed so much water or not.

From a modest 25 kgs of fertilizers in 1960 to 400-600 kgs per crop in 2007, irrigation pattern of once in 12 days then to once in four days is an example of how things have deteriorated.

 
 
 
 
 
 
Now,  as Nagaraj showed, was the urgent need to revive the soil. That is where chemical-free farming that is sustainable steps in. As Vanaja Ramprasad, director, Green Foundation puts it, this is something our farmers have been doing since ages. "Farmers know the plant species that can enrich plant species that enrich the soil, protect the crops from pests and diseases, enhance nutrient and use them successfully."

Organic farming, as Svaraj (formerly Oxfam India) believes, not only protects soil and groundwater from pollution but also increases the biological diversity of flora and fauna. "It can address the nutrition deficiency in food and soil," says Nagaraj. He notes how simply by having bird perches put up in the field, boll worm was controlled.

The worm is a delicacy sought out by some bird species. "This was done in half an acre but can easily done in larger holdings too. In this way we can do away with pollution and costs. In Gulbarga alone, endosulfan application costs Rs 65 crore."

A workshop organized by the two organizations last week sought to explore the many problems besetting agriculture in the country today, and if it was possible food sovereignty a reality for India.

Loss of diversity

The other damage that Green Revolution caused was cutting down diversity. There are said to be 4500 crop species in nature but only 18-20 of these are used by humans. "Even in this, few varieties cover 90 percent of the land," says Srikanth of Green Foundation.

The monoculture advocated by Green revolution and still adhered to a large extent can have many macro and micro level implications. Like the potato famine in Europe or paddy ecosystem wreckage in Indonesia last decade or the recent coconut mite devastation in India. At the farmer's level it means crop failures and high costs.

Basically when diversity is lost, any disease attack on a crop could mean the loss of the species. With a rich diversity, this does not happen. Survival is a game between the varieties.

Seed conservation

What Green Foundation has done is to initiate conservation of agricultural diversity by farmers through a network of seed banks across the state and other parts. Over 34 seed banks have been established in nine of Karnataka's ten agro-climactic zones in 200 villages. The varieties include 382 of millets, cereals, oilseeds, pulses, vegetables, etc. Some 2000 farmers took part in seed conservation programmes.

But as observed by many groups, farmers are under the belief that high yielding variety always perform better than local varieties. The Green Foundation has demonstrated that this is not so. Recently, at Maralavadi, they proved this by growing a high yielding variety like MTU1001 and a traditional variety of paddy called Chinnaponni. The latter was grown using only farm yard manure and the other using chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Chinnaponni showed more productive tillers than the high yielding variety, had no blast attack through the cropping season while the other suffered many. While yield of the traditional variety was slightly lower, the cost of cultivation was very less.

State initiative

The state agriculture department too has decided to encourage organic farming. Dr Rajanna, director of agriculture, points to the initiative of the Karnataka government under its organic farm policy 2004 to reduce cost of production. Around 176 bio-villages have been converted to organic farming from conventional practices and it has begun to bear fruits already. "Farmer's attitude have become better and productivity is improving."

Individuals like Rudra Aradhya, scientist from UAS, Bangalore have been doing their bit in spreading the message of sustainable farming that uses locally available resources. In an experimental plot of 100 x 40 metre he has shown how Rs 3500 worth of pulses can be obtained for any small farmer. Dividing the land into segments, creating water ways to carry the water to a pond, using vertically growing plants as the live fence, and bunds that grow green fodder, the plot can be made productive.

New Zealander David Hogg who has been in India from the 70s and practising the biodynamic method (see box) believes that making all food come from sustainable farming  a reality, management strategies have to be in place. "There is need to build a brand associated with safe to eat food. In Uttarakhand the farmers have got their act together. They have a production system in place. By end of this decade, there will be over 50,000 farmers practicing organic farming. In neighbouring places, people are buying the produce not because it is organic but because they have developed a trust in the group." [/b]
Ironically, while there are no questions asked for food available on market shelves grown using chemical fertilizers, pesticides, it is organic farming that has an associated certification system, both for exports and domestic market!

As to why organic or natural farming is only seen as sporadic attempts and not mainstream, some believe it is the lack of dedication. To begin with organic farming is not easy with yields being moderate and high organic inputs required. A lot of labour could also be involved. But eventually, optimum yield can be had without wrecking the ecosystem.

Others believe it is the politicization and influence of lobbies like the fertilizer one, etc that does not allow these alternate streams to become popular.  Hogg who has observed the system for some time believes there is need for linkages of small farmers.

Over 8 million hectares have been diverted to meet export demands while the total arable land has been stagnant and fast degrading. Cropland in India has declined from 0.22 hectares per person in 1950 to 0.10 hectares in 2000 and projected to fall further. The recent UNEP global environment outlook talks of how humans are living beyond their means and has called for sustainable development. Do we act or do we need to wait till the hidden hunger seeps out?

 

Pesticide damage

A recent study done in India has established the links between pesticide and reduction of fertility in men. The study reported in the Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology in March this year found this to be true for a large percentage of men exposed to pesticides.

An earlier study done on exposure when in the uterus has shown that pesticides can affect children's verbal abilities, memory, attention span, etc. The emerging links show endocrine disruption, cancer, subtle neurological disorders, fetal effects, etc.

"These have to be conclusively established. However we have seen many such links in the studies. There is need to act on early warnings even if nature of the harm is not fully understood," says Rakhal Gaitonde, a medical doctor working with pollution impacted communities in Tamil Nadu.

The more dangerous aspect is that most studies only look at individual chemicals while exposure is usually to a cocktail of pesticides, he adds.

The Indian Agricultural Research Institute study done last decade had shown dangerous levels of above 50 percent of pesticide residues in food grains and milk, he notes.

While less than 30 percent of pesticides are used in developing nations, over 90 percent of the reported adverse effects is here. Not only residues, but people living near pesticide factories are also affected. "Children have been found to develop bad handwriting as motor movements are affected. The toxicity increases by 25 percent for malnourished people."

Farm as an organism

The methods can be as simple as that. Or go even simpler like what permaculture advocates. This is a design system that believes in simple ideas that harvest big results. The least change for greatest effect, as Vasudeva, a practitioner says. It supports all life systems, provides access to all and limits consumption.

A keyhole concept for growing vegetables where the circular design is adopted from nature for allowing maximum surface area. Using sunflowers at the fringe (for oil), and tomatoes, chillis, etc inside. In his home, a 12 sq metre plot was used to deliver 19 species of vegetables. (Send queries to iaskindia@gmail.com)

An even more idealistic method advocated by a German Rudolf Steiner in early part of last century was biodynamic farming. Influenced by the Vedas, this method considers the farm as one living organism and the whole activity viewed holistically.

It encourages mixed farming with animal husbandry as an important component. It advocates green manuring, crop rotation, compost making and natural ways of controlling insects and pests.

http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/Nov62007/snt2007110634435.asp

हलिया

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मेहता ज्यू, नमस्कार हो.
मशीन का फ़ोटो तो भला ही दिखाई दे रहा है.  ऐसी मशीन पहाड में आजाये तो अच्छा ही होगा फ़िर.  अब आगे बात ऐसी ठैरी कि ये मशीन पहाड में कितनी चलेगी.  अब मैं क्या बताऊं, अभी-२ गेहूं बो सके हैं.  महाराज पत्थर इतने हैं खेत में कि मशीन तो टूटी ही टूटी.  अब हल की तो हमको आदत ठैरी, ढुंगा-पत्थर का भी अन्दाज ठैरा, हो जाता है.  एक बात और है, मशीन देखने में भारी तो लग ही रही है.  अब हमारे ठैरे सीडीनुमा खेत, छोट-२, वहां तक कैसे जायेगी ये मशीन.  पता नही ये मशीन खुल कर छोटी हो जाती है कि नहीं! फ़िर ये ठैरी इंजन वाली, अब सरकार कुछ करे तो ठीक नहीं तो दूर के गांव के खेत में इसे ठीक करने कौंन आयेगा, आयेगा भी कि नहीं, पैसे कितने लेगा.  बात तो आपने बहुत ही बढिया की है.  कुछ ना कुछ तो करना ही पढेगा साब, बहुत मुश्किल हो गया है अब जमीदारी करना.  कर रहें हैं, क्या करेंगे नहीं तो. 



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एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Raju Da,

Thanx for giving your views on the subject.

Actually, i have seen Demo of this Portable Tractor and this can very much be used in Pahad.

I agree some diffculties would arise in initial state but once it is used and if this seems to be ok, of couse, people would use this at a larger scale.

Raju Da, in valley areas of our Hill where the fiels better than the hill areas, this Tractor can be very useful.


मेहता ज्यू, नमस्कार हो.
मशीन का फ़ोटो तो भला ही दिखाई दे रहा है.  ऐसी मशीन पहाड में आजाये तो अच्छा ही होगा फ़िर.  अब आगे बात ऐसी ठैरी कि ये मशीन पहाड में कितनी चलेगी.  अब मैं क्या बताऊं, अभी-२ गेहूं बो सके हैं.  महाराज पत्थर इतने हैं खेत में कि मशीन तो टूटी ही टूटी.  अब हल की तो हमको आदत ठैरी, ढुंगा-पत्थर का भी अन्दाज ठैरा, हो जाता है.  एक बात और है, मशीन देखने में भारी तो लग ही रही है.  अब हमारे ठैरे सीडीनुमा खेत, छोट-२, वहां तक कैसे जायेगी ये मशीन.  पता नही ये मशीन खुल कर छोटी हो जाती है कि नहीं! फ़िर ये ठैरी इंजन वाली, अब सरकार कुछ करे तो ठीक नहीं तो दूर के गांव के खेत में इसे ठीक करने कौंन आयेगा, आयेगा भी कि नहीं, पैसे कितने लेगा.  बात तो आपने बहुत ही बढिया की है.  कुछ ना कुछ तो करना ही पढेगा साब, बहुत मुश्किल हो गया है अब जमीदारी करना.  कर रहें हैं, क्या करेंगे नहीं तो. 



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