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एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Dying beat of Uttarakhand 'dhol'
« Reply #30 on: November 10, 2007, 03:44:37 PM »
Dying beat of Uttarakhand 'dhol'


ANJANISEN: Dusk has descended on the Garhwal hills and the music of the local drum and bagpipe keeps a small crowd, riveted to its haunt, on a beaten track. This, however, may be one of the last few times they get to hear it. Music from the Uttarakhand "dhol," or drum, once enveloped these entire hills. Today, these beats sound the knell of not just one of the finest instruments but also of a people.

"There are only 10 people left on these hills who know the complete art of playing the dhol. It is just not a viable option for us drummers any more," says Sohan Lal, 32, one of the very few who still plays the dhol. "Once the dhol dictated our entire lives; we played it when a child was born, at weddings, at deaths and at any other ceremony. Today, we don't get to hear it even on special occasions."

A socially marginalized group of people called "Das" usually plays the dhol. The instrument is integrally bound to the social and religious lives of the hill people.

"Every village used to have four or five Das families and only one is called to play the dhol at a village function," says Lal.Once little bands of musicians wound their way to different villages on the hill slopes.

Hindu epics and stories were recited and set to the beat of the dhol. These festivities could go on for as long as 1,000 hours. "Pavade", or traditional songs in praise of god, were sung for three days and three nights to the accompaniment of the dhol."There is not enough money in it. The brass bands are called at all the functions and they get the lion's share of the money," complains Lal. "There is no respect for us.

Villagers get drunk, abuse us and create a scene. How can we continue to play like this?" Lal has written a book on the dhol with a view to preserving the dying art. "There has not been any documentation of the dhol music before this," he says. Many drummers have moved to the plains in search of jobs. Besides there are no musicians left to teach the younger generation an art form that was once also used to communicate messages over vast distances.

Even historically, arts and crafts of Uttaranchal have had it tough. While arts flourished under royal patronage in other parts, it was different in this region. Royal patronage was only salutary, since the local princedoms were too poor to afford the luxury of court musicians and dancers.

The economy of performing arts in the region has therefore always been fragile. Today the dhol is dying a natural death. These drummers are desperately looking for new ways to keep the home fires burning. Small efforts are under way to help this community to revive the music of their dhols.

The Shri Bhuvaneshwari Mahila Ashram (SBMA) here is trying to identify the problems of the drummers and arrange for artistes to teach it to the younger generation.

There are those who can play the dhol but very few who can teach it," says Gajendra Nautiyal of the Indian People's Theatre who coordinates with SBMA in an effort to preserve the art form.

"We plan to organize live performances of the dhol. We will also plan to find master trainers and have a residential training course here for eight children at a time," says Nautiyal.

"We are living with the last generation of dhol players, we have to save this music before it dies out" says Lal, for whom the beat of the dhol is still more than a way of life.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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« Reply #31 on: November 10, 2007, 03:45:59 PM »

The Woman and her Song in Himalayan Garhwal

Anjali Capila, Reader and Head of the Post-graduate Dept. of Community Resource Management and Extension at the Lady Irwin College New Delhi, teaches development communication. She has been a consultant to UNICEF on several projects. Here she presents a paper based on her doctoral thesis 'Socio-Cultural Images of Women in the Folk Songs of Garhwal Himalayas U.P.'
In Garhwal, the phrase 'mother nature' is no mere cliche. Every individual sees nature as his/her mother, friend and inspiration and loves it as such. The trees, the rivers, the mountains are all inextricably bonded to the life of the people; every Garhwali participates in the changes of seasons - celebrating and laughing with the blooming of flowers in the spring, and crying with their withering in autumn. It is for this reason that in Garhwali folk songs one finds abundant references to the forests, rivers, mountains, birds and animals.

Women sing in praise of the natural beauty of Garhwal. The following song, sung by the women of Chamba, reflects an innate sense of pride in their land :

In our heavenly land of Uttarakhand !

Himalayan peaks are like the Brahmi Kamal

A symbol of spiritual and religious sanctity.


The Himalayan mountains laden with dense Deodar forests

The peaks of Badri and Kedar

The rivers Ganga and Jamuna,

And Gaumukh the source of river Ganga

Adorn our beautiful land


Simple people,

The abode of Sadhus

This land has been purified thus.

Pilgrims from various lands

Throng to the Himalayan shrines

The multi coloured flowers in the meadows


The snow on the high peaks

Shimmering like gold

With the sun's rays

Make this land heavenly !


The fog creeps up the hill side

playing hide and seek with the Deodar trees

The monsoon rain covers the hillside with wild flowers


This Himalayan land is beautiful !

As beautiful as the Brahmi Kamal

The Lotus amongst lotuses.

 The visual images created by this song get reaffirmed when one is sitting amongst the Deodar trees, looking at the Himalayan peaks covered with snow. How true each word in the song is; how completely representative of the natural environment of Garhwal :
We are Garhwali, This is our Garhwal

These mountains are ours

This is our land of birth

Our home, our family

Our lush green fields have abundant grain

The sounds of our bangles

The sound of the sickle cutting grain

creates music, resounding in the hill side.

This is Gandhiji's beloved land

He spun yarn on a Charkha,

And gave us a Message for our lives.

In an another song the woman lucidly describes the environment in which she grows and lives :

The water is cool in the mountains,

Do not go away to a strange land my lord !

The Gods abide in this land

Do not go away to a strange land !

The fields are lush and green

The Himalayan peaks high and covered with snow

The forest is dense with tall Deodar trees

The water is cool and clean

My Lord do not go away to a strange land

The above song not only describes the natural environment, but also makes a reference to the presence of the sacred and the intense longing of the woman for her husband.

The following song describes the natural environment of Garhwal, with the socio-cultural practices prevalent in the society and their influence on the lives of the people, particularly women :

My Garhwal has beautiful forests

Groves of banana plantations

And tall Deodar trees

'Santelu' Pradhan makes money

In exchange for his daughters

And gives 'daan'

To attain salvation !

The beauty of the land serves as a canvas against which the image of the woman of Garhwal is painted. Nature is a close friend and comforting mother with whom troubles can be shared and the burden and hardships of everyday life alleviated. The folk songs of Garhwal highlight the link between two significant aspects of the woman's life; relating her socio-cultural environment to the description of the land.

In terms of the ecology of the Garhwal Himalayas, the following songs about trees reflect the close linkages between human and natural environment :

The Rhododendron trees laden with flowers

Decorate the mountains,

Like jewels studded in a crown !


The 'kafal' fruit is ripe

Come dear friend - Let us go to the forest

To eat the fruit of the 'kafal' bush

The leaves of the Oak tree have turned green

There is water in the roots of the Oak

Come, quench your thirst !


Pluck the Rhododendron flowers

But do not break its branches

Cut the dry branches of the Oak

But do not cut it from roots !

Cut grass, but not the branches

of the Deodar trees.

Women have an inherent knowledge about the ecology of their region. Their lives are deeply linked with the forest. According to Dr. Veer Singh (Associate Professor in the Hill campus at Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal) "every woman in Garhwal is an eco-philosopher. She has implicit knowledge about the flora, cropping pattern and the vegetation of her region. For example, the Oak tree is known to contain water in the roots. In Manjyar village in Chamba block, the Oak forest had been protected by the combined efforts of women of three villages on the hillside. The rain water harvest tanks located here were filled with water, and women did not have to walk long distances to get water. Here one can see the relationship of the song and the actual life experiences of the women. The songs about trees reflect the women's concern about their environment, new context is added to them all the time related to issues concerning their lives."

The following song speaks about the importance of growing more trees and caring for them :

Dense forests look beautiful !

Grow more trees in the front yard and

Backyard of your house and your fields

The yield from crops will increase

Grow garlic, onion, and cumin seeds


Our land Garhwal, is the land

of Gods and Goddesses,

Keep your land beautiful

Grow more trees !


Trees give you fruit

The sound of swaying branches

Will fill you with joy !

Keep vigil around your trees


Garhwal, our land is Parvati's birthplace

From Lord Shiva's hair roots

Emerges the mighty Ganga !

Keep this sacred land beautiful

Grow more trees.

The last four lines reinforce the notion of the sacred, which permeates the very fabric of the life of the people of Garhwal. The message of growing more trees is beautifully linked to the sacred and to the natural environment. Since women go to the forest for fuel and fodder twice a day, these songs are created by them, for them :

Dear sisters, do not cut trees

If you cut trees, the soil, mud, earth

will disappear

No fields, nor houses will remain on the hillside.


Trees give us fodder for animals

Keep our environment clean; the air pure

Nurture and care for the trees

Like your own children

Look after them, raise them with care.

There is a great sense of ecological preservation in the women. They understand the value of the forest and its relationship to their lives. These songs are sung by women when they are in the forest, or when they get together in groups at their Mahila Mandal meetings. Ecological awareness and preservation of the forest is not only a concern of the power elite who give a voice to these issues at seminars and conferences. It is very much a day to day concern of the women of Garhwal. They create songs to express these issues, and this simple form of communication has tremendous impact on the community :

Do not cut trees

Protect them !

Trees keep the mud intact on the hillside

The mountains look beautiful with dense forests

Even the seasons are dependent on trees

The rivers Ganga and Yamuna are dependent,

On the trees of the Himalayas.

The life of animals is linked to trees

Do not cut trees

Protect them !


 At an environment camp at BudaKedar organised by the NGO - Lok Jeevan Vikas Bharati, 300 men and women representing 11 NGOs from Tehri Garhwal gathered to express their ideas and concern about environmental issues. Surja Devi, head of the Mahila Mandal of village BudaKedar, said, "we are made of mud, with mud we have a deep relationship. We have knowledge about every tree, fruit and leaf in our environment. Our lives and our songs are deeply linked to them".
The following song describes the beauty of the wild berries growing in the forest. When women go to collect fodder and fuel-wood, they eat these berries and quench their thirst :


Your black skirt

And your beautiful golden yellow blouse

makes you look so beautiful dear 'Hissar' (berry)

I cannot find words to describe your beauty.

You quench the thirst of people

by the juice of your fruit

Other fruits and berries in the forest

cannot match your beauty !


You beckon people to come near you,

From far and near

Dear Hissar you are indeed special

I cannot find words to describe your beauty.


The relationship of the women of Garhwal with each and every bush in the forest is special. About four to five hours in a day are spent in the forest with friends. These songs are composed and sung by the women to express this relationship and a sense of oneness.

A number of the songs cited above were recorded in the forest where women give voice to their concern. They asked me to accompany them to the forests of Buda Kedar. It was here that one experienced the silence, the 'hum' behind the words, the total communion of the woman with nature. The forest - trees, birds, flowers and animals are very much an integral part of her life.

Vishweshwar Dutt Saklani whom I met at a meeting of NGOs in Chamba, remarked that women are the back-bone of Garhwal. Each folk song composed and sung by them reflects their knowledge, concern and relationship with the entire eco-system. He sang the following song which his mother had composed on the deep and intense relationship of the people of Garhwal with the trees and the forest :


Trees are my parents, trees are my God,

Trees are my friends, trees are my children

Trees are my body, Trees are my soul,

Trees are the wealth of Garhwal !


Grow more trees and make this earth beautiful !

From the dust of my being/body, may trees grow

Let humanity learn a lesson from trees

They give food to the hungry

Water to the thirsty

Shelter to the tired and homeless

Let us learn to be selfless, grow more trees

And make the world a beautiful place.


एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Bird population registers increase in Munshayri Uttarakhand
« Reply #32 on: November 12, 2007, 03:39:50 PM »

Monday November 12, 01:08 AM

THERE IS good news for conservationists. The bird and pheasant population in the Uttarakhand Himalaya's scenic spot of Munsyari has witnessed a drastic increase in recent years, according to birdwatchers and the people inhabiting that remote high altitude region.

Literally a home of most of the 12 bird species endemic to Uttarakhand, Munsyari, which falls in the picturesque Gori River Valley of Kumaon, witnessed a "sudden regeneration of the avian population after a gap of several decades."
"Several prized bird and pheasant species endemic to Munsyari, whose number has increased in the last couple of years, also include one highly endangered bird species known as Himalayan Snow-cock," observed Anup Sah, a naturalist and a keen birdwatcher from Naintial. He along with a team of six nature photographers recently returned from the Khalia-dhura area of Munsyari, which is at an altitude of around 12000 feet from the sea level.

Known as huinwal in Kumaoni Himalayan Snow-cock or Tetraogallus himalayensis, the sightings of this bird "were very rarely reported" in the high altitude areas of Uttarakhand in the past several decades. "In fact, even I also only rarely noticed this bird, and that too, in ones or twos ever since I started visiting the Kumaon Himalayas including Munsyari around three decades back," recalled Sah. He claims to have "captured in his camera not one but several flocks of the rare Himalayan bird for the first time in my life during my visit to the Khalia-dhura area this time around.''

Claiming that like Himalayan Snow-cock the population of more than two-dozen of other equally prized bird species in that region had registered a sharp increase, Sah attributed the rising number of "our feathered friends'' mainly to two factors. One of these is the "blanket ban the forest department imposed on the poaching of wild animals in Uttarakhand way back in the eighties.

Sah also attributes the rising avian population in the Munsyari region to a community based eco-tourism programme being carried out locally by one Malliaka Virdi, the Sarpanch of the Sarmoli-Jaiti village panchayat and her husband Theo for the last around five years. Referring to the programme "under which the local youth are trained in bird watching so that they may earn their livelihood by working as tourist guides'' the avid naturalist said that it had brought about a complete turnaround among the locals' attitude towards wild life. "Instead of killing the prized birds as had been the practice in the past here the local youth now try and conserve the avian life so that they can attract more and more tourists to their region'', said Sah.

Equally appreciative of the village sarpanch's initiative is Dr Sher Singh Pangety, a senior citizen of Munsyari. Incidentally, he also gives equal credit for the rising avian population in that region to the ban imposed by the forest department on poaching of wild animals. "Before the ban came into effect way back in the eighties bird hunting for the pot was quite common in our region'', said Dr Pangety referring to Munsyari. "Now as the number of the people indulging in that sport has come drastically down the bird population has also increased in the same proportion'', he added.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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« Reply #33 on: November 16, 2007, 09:41:37 AM »
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers 


Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks
  The World Heritage List includes 812 properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural organization (UNESCO) considers as having outstanding universal value. These include 628 cultural, 160 natural and 24 mixed properties in 137 States Parties.
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks is one of the natural sites. The date of inscription on the World Heritage list was December 1988 and subsequent extension was given in April 2005.
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION Lies in Chamoli District, within the Garhwal Himalaya. The main entry point to the park is via Lata Village , some 25km from Joshimath township. The park is bounded by high mountain ridges and peaks on all sides except its western side, which features a deep and virtually inaccessible gorge. 30°16'-30°32'N, 79°44'-80°02'E
DATE AND HISTORY OF ESTABLISHMENT Established as a national park with effect from 6 November 1982 as per Notification No. 3912/14-3-35- 80 of 6 September 1982 , the intention having been declared under Notification No. 2130/14-3-35- 80 of 18 August 1980 . Dang (1961) provides an historical account of the exploration of the Nanda Devi Basin .
The first recorded attempt to enter the sacred basin was by W. W. Graham in 1883, but he was unable to proceed beyond the gorge of the lower Rishi Ganga. Subsequent attempts by Dr T. G. Longstaff in 1870 and Hugh Ruttledge in 1926, 1927 and 1932 also met with failure.
Finally, in 1934, Eric Shipton and H. W. Tilman pioneered a route to the 'Inner Sanctuary' by forcing a passage up the gorge of the upper Rishi Ganga. Later, in 1936, Tilman and N. E. Odell made the first ascent of Nanda Devi, reputedly the most outstanding mountaineering success of the pre-Second World War era.
It was their accounts of this natural sanctuary that first drew attention to the spectacular mountain wilderness (Tilman, 1935; Shipton, 1936), following which the area was established as a game sanctuary on 7 January 1939 (Government Order No. 1493/XIV-28) . Commonly referred to as 'Nanda Devi Sanctuary', the name was changed to Sanjay Gandhi National Park at the time of notification.
This met with local opposition and the site was gazetted as Nanda Devi National Park. The park was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1988.
The park constitutes the core zone of a much larger area (200,000ha), extending as far north as the Dhauli Ganga, that has been proposed as a biosphere reserve (Indian National MAB Committee, n.d.).
AREA 63,033ha. This is the official and correct size. Lavkumar (1979) gives the area of the Nanda Devi Basin as 79,900ha, while Hajra (1983a), Tak and Lamba (1984, 1985) and Lamba (1987) cite a similar figure of c. 80,000ha for the park.
ALTITUDE The entire basin is above 3,500m, apart from the lower Rishi Gorge which descends to 2,100m. Nanda Devi West at 7,817m is the highest peak.
PHYSICAL FEATURES Comprises the catchment area of the Rishi Ganga, an eastern tributary of Dhauli Ganga which flows into the Alaknanda River at Joshimath. The area is a vast glacial basin, divided by a series of parallel, north-south oriented ridges.
These rise up to the encircling mountain rim along which are about a dozen peaks above 6,400m (21,000ft), the better known including Dunagiri (7,066m), Changbang (6,864m) and Nanda Devi East (7,434m). Nanda Devi West, India's second highest mountain, lies on a short ridge projecting into the basin and rises up from Nanda Devi East on the eastern rim.
Trisul (7,120m), in the south-west, also lies inside the basin. The upper Rishi Valley, often referred to as the 'Inner Sanctuary', is fed by Changbang, North Rishi and North Nanda Devi glaciers to the north and by South Nanda Devi and South Rishi glaciers to the south of the Nanda Devi massif.
There is an impressive gorge cutting through the Devistan-Rishikot ridge below the confluence of the North and South Rishi rivers. The Trisuli and Ramani glaciers are features of the lower Rishi Valley or 'Outer Sanctuary', below which the Rishi Ganga enters the narrow, steep-sided lower gorge (Lavkumar, 1979).
The basin presents a diverse array of glacial and periglacial forms. The glaciers cover a wide spectrum of growth phases. The combinations of normal and perched glaciers on different rock types add interest to the basin ( T.M. Reed, pers. comm., 1988). The greater part of the park falls within the Central Crystallines, a zone of young granites and metamorphic rocks.
Along the northern edge is exposed the Tibetan-Tethys, consisting of sediments of sandstones, micaceous quartzite, limestones and shales (Kumar and Sah, 1986). The Tethys sediments form Nanda Devi itself and many of the surrounding peaks, and display spectacular folding and thrusting, while mountains like Changbang are granite (M. P. Searle, pers. comm., 1988).
The crystalline rocks of the Vaikrita Group and lower part of the Tethys sediments have been tentatively subdivided into four formations, namely: Lata, Ramani, Kharapatal and Martoli (Maruo, 1979). Further geological details are given by Lamba (1987).
CLIMATE Being an inner Himalayan valley, Nanda Devi Basin enjoys a distinctive microclimate. Conditions are generally dry with low annual precipitation, but there is heavy rainfall during the monsoon, from late June to August.
Prevailing mist and low cloud during the monsoon keeps the soil moist, hence the lusher vegetation than is usually characteristic of drier inner Himalayan valleys. The basin is snow-bound for about six months of the year, snow being deeper and at lower altitudes on the southern side than the northern (Lavkumar, 1979; Lamba, 1987). Meteorological data are not available.
VEGETATION Forests are restricted largely to the Rishi Gorge and are dominated by fir Abies pindrow, rhododendron Rhododendron campanulatum and birch Betula utilis up to about 3,350m. Forming a broad belt between these and the alpine meadows is birch forest, with an understorey of rhododendron.

Conditions are drier within the 'Inner Sanctuary', becoming almost xeric up the main Nanda Devi glaciers. Beyond Ramani, the vegetation switches from forest to dry alpine communities, with scrub juniper Juniperus pseudosabina becoming the dominant cover within the 'Inner Sanctuary'.
Juniper gives way altitudinally to grasses, prone mosses and lichens, and on riverine soils to annual herbs and dwarf willow Salix spp. Woody vegetation extends along the sides of the main glaciers before changing gradually to squat alpines and lichens (Lavkumar, 1979; Reed, 1979; Hajra, 1983a). Balodi, n.d., gives a floristic analysis of the area based on the 1993 Nanda Devi Scientific and Ecological Expedition.
A total of 312 species, distributed over 199 genera and 81 families, has been recorded and preserved in the herbarium of the Northern Circle, Botanical Survey of India. At least 17 of these are considered rare (Hajra, 1983a).
Not included in this list is Saussurea sudhanshui, newly described from the area (Hajra, 1983b). A total of 773 plantshas been reported from the proposed biosphere reserve (Indian National MAB Committee, n.d.). Some 620 species from 344 genera and 116 families were recorded by the 1993 Nanda Devi Scientific and Ecological Expedition (Samant, n.d.). Nationally threatened species recorded include Nardostachys grandiflora (I), Picroehiza kurrooa (V), Cypripedium elegans (R), C. himalaicum (R), Dioscorea deltoidea (V) and Allium stracheyi (V). A species list is given in (Samant, n.d.). Local populations use a total of 97 species, 17 for medicine, 55 as food plants, 15 as fodder, 16 for fuel, 5 for tools, 8 for house building, 2 fibres, 6 miscellaneous, and 11 for religious purposes.
FAUNA An account of the 14 known species of mammals is given by Tak and Lamba (1985) and Lamba (1987). The basin is renowned for the abundance of its ungulate populations, notably bharal Pseudois nayaur (LR) (Tilman, 1937) estimated to number 820 in 1977 (Lavkumar, 1979) 440 in 1981-84 (Tak and Lamba, 1985; Lamba, 1987) and 990 were sighted in 1993 (Sathyakumar, n.d.). Preliminary surveys suggest that Himalayan musk deer Moschus chrysogaster (LR), mainland serow Capricornis sumatraensis (VU) and Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus (VU) are also fairly common (Lavkumar, 1979; Tak and Lamba, 1985; Lamba, 1987), but probably not as plentiful as previously due to hunting (Dang, 1961). However, numbers appear to be increasing due to the closure of the park to human activities (Sathyakumar, n.d.).
The distribution of goral Nemorhaedus goral (LR) does not appear to extend to within the basin, although the species does occur in the vicinity of the national park (Tak and Lamba, 1985; Lamba, 1987). Snow leopard Panthera uncia (EN) is reported to have been "extraordinarily common" (Dang, 1961). This may reflect the relative ease with which the species is observed here and in the vicinity (Green, 1982), it being unlikely that the park supports a large snow leopard population because of its comparatively small size and the deep snow in winter (Green, 1988). Other large carnivores are common leopard P. pardus, Himalayan black bear Selenarctos thibetanus (VU) and brown bear Ursus arctos, the existance of which has yet to be confirmed.
The only primate present is common langur Presbytis entellus (Tak and Lamba, 1985; Lamba, 1987) although Rhesus macaque Macaca mullata (LR) has been sighted outside the park boundaries (Sathyakumar, n.d.). Some 83 species are reported from the biosphere reserve (Indian National MAB Committee, n.d.). Sankaran, n.d. recorded a total of 114 bird species belonging to 30 families during the 1993 Nanda Devi Scientific and Ecological Expedition.
Some 67 of these species were not recorded during earlier surveys. Abundant species recorded during May-June include crested black tit Parus melanolophus, Yellow-bellied fantail flycatcher Rhipidura hypoxantha, Orange flanked bush robin Erithacus cyanurus, Bluefronted redstart Phoenicurus frontalis, Indian tree pipit Anthus hodgsoni , Vinaceous breasted pipit A. roseatus, Common rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus, and nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes. Species richness was found to be highest in temperate forests, with a significant decline in richness as elevation increased.
Other expeditions for which bird lists are available include Reed (1979) and Tak and Kumar (1987). Lamba (1987) lists 80 species for the area but the distribution of some of these is restricted to lower altitudes in adjacent areas. Some 546 species are reported from the proposed biosphere reserve (Indian National MAB Committee, n.d.).
There is a lack of systematic surveys on invertebrate fauna. Baindur (n.d.) recorded 27 species of butterfly from 6 families during May-June 1993, including Common yellow swallowtail Papilo machaon, Common blue apollo Parnassius hardwickei, Dark cloudedyellow Colias electo, Queen of Spain Issoria Iathonia, and Indian tortoiseshell Aglais cashmirensis.
Nanda Devi , after Devi (meaning goddess), consort of Shiva, is a manifestation of Parvati and has been revered as a natural monument since ancient times (Reinhard, 1987). Hindus have deified the entire basin and every 12th year devotees have approached the foot of Trisul to worship Nanda Devi, the 'Blessed Goddess' (Kaur, 1982). The local people are Bhotias, those of Lata Village being Tolchas (Kandari, 1982).
Justification for Inscription in World Heritage List
Criterion (iii): The Valley of Flowers is an outstandingly beautiful high-altitude Himalayan valley that has been acknowledged as such by renowned mountaineers and botanists in literature for over a century and in Hindu mythology for much longer. Its 'gentle' landscape, breath-takingly beautiful meadows of alpine flowers and ease of access complement the rugged, mountain wilderness for which the inner basin of Nanda Devi National Park is renowned. Criterion (iv):
The Valley of Flowers is internationally important on account of its diverse alpine flora, representative of the West Himalaya biogeographic zone. The rich diversity of species reflects the valley's location within a transition zone between the Zaskar and Great Himalaya ranges to the north and south, respectively, and between the Eastern and Western Himalaya flora.
A number of plant species are internationally threatened, several have not been recorded from elsewhere in Uttaranchal and two have not been recorded in Nanda Devi National Park. The diversity of threatened species of medicinal plants is higher than has been recorded in other Indian Himalayan protected areas. The entire Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve lies within the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA). Seven restricted-range bird species are endemic to this part of the EBA. [/b]

From: Deepak Chaudhary < kotdwara137@

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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« Reply #34 on: November 16, 2007, 09:42:59 AM »
विश्व गुरू के पद पर सिरमौर भारत का ताज है उत्तराखंडNov 16, 02:37 am

गोपेश्वर (चमोली)। भगवान बद्रीविशाल की धरती पर शुरू हुए सात दिनी गौचर मेले में मुख्यमंत्री मेजर जनरल बीसी खंडूडी ने कहा कि विश्व गुरू के पद पर सिरमौर भारत का ताज उत्तराखंड है, जिसके वैभव को शक्तिशाली रूप प्रदान कर बरकरार रखा जाएगा।

गौचर में मेले के उद्घाटन अवसर पर बतौर मुख्य अतिथि मुख्यमंत्री बीसी खंडूड़ी ने उपस्थित जनता के समक्ष बगैर घोषणाएं व विकास योजनाओं की चर्चा किए ही सबका दिल जीत लिया। मुख्यमंत्री ने पूर्व सरकार के दौरान हुए घोटालों व अनियमितताओं की अप्रत्यक्ष रूप में चर्चा करते हुए ठेठ गांव में रहने वाले लोगों को विकसित राज्य का भरोसा दिलाया। उन्होंने कहा कि केंद्र सरकार में मंत्री रहने के बाद मुझे भले ही राज्य की बागडोर सौंपी गई, लेकिन इसे निभाने में सकारात्मक जनसहयोग, सुझाव नितांत आवश्यक हैं। उन्होंने कहा कि 'मुख्यमंत्री रहते हुए मैं कतई नहीं चाहूंगा कि मेरी कार्यशैली का प्रभाव आम जनता पर पड़े, ऐसे में जनता के सुझाव विकास योजनाओं के क्रियान्वयन के लिए नितांत आवश्यक हैं'। उन्होंने कहा कि उत्तराखंड को भारत का विकसित राज्य के साथ संस्कारवान व सांस्कृतिक पहिचान दिलाने का प्रयास किया जा रहा है। इसी को ध्यान में रखते हुए राज्य विकास के लिए निर्णय लिए जाएंगे। मुख्यमंत्री ने कहा कि जानबूझकर कोई जनविरोधी निर्णय नहीं लिया जाएगा और आंदोलनकारियों के सपनों को ध्यान में रखकर राज्य के विकास को नई गति दी जाएगी।

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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« Reply #35 on: November 16, 2007, 09:48:27 AM »
अब कर्मकांड विद्या में भी मिलेगा दो वर्षीय डिप्लोमाNov 16, 02:37 am

गोपेश्वर (चमोली)। हिंदू धर्म में रीति और परंपराओं केअनुसार जन्म से लेकर मृत्यु तक होने वाले संस्कारों में धीरे-धीरे हो रही पंडितों की कमी को देखते हुए बदरी-केदार मंदिर समिति ने अब समिति द्वारा संचालित संस्कृत महाविद्यालयों में कर्मकांड विद्या पर आधारित रोजगारपरक शिक्षा शुरू करते हुए इस विषय पर डिप्लोमा देने की कार्ययोजना तैयार की है।

यूं तो सरकार भी संस्कृत भाषा के विस्तार और इसकी अनिवार्यता को देखते हुए समय-समय पर नीतियां बनाती आई है, लेकिन सच यह है कि अंग्रेजीवाद के चलते संस्कृत भाषा के ज्ञाता तथा धर्म और कर्मकांड विद्या में पारंगत विद्वानों में लगातार कमी आ रही है, जबकि संस्कृत भाषा में ही कथाओं के बखान के अलावा सभी प्रकार के पूजा-पाठ, धार्मिक कार्य एवं जन्म मृत्यु के कर्मकाण्ड भी संपन्न होते हैं। बदरी-केदारनाथ मंदिर समिति ने संस्कृत भाषा को बढ़ावा देने के उद्देश्य से रोजगारपरक शिक्षा देने का निर्णय लिया है। बता दें कि वर्तमान में जोशीमठ स्थित समिति के संस्कृत महाविद्यालय में बीएड पाठ््यक्रम तथा गुप्तकाशी महाविद्यालय में फार्मेसी का पाठ््यक्रम पूर्व से संचालित है। लेकिन अब जनपद चमोली के मंडल क्षेत्र में स्थित संस्कृत महाविद्यालय में भी दो वर्षीयफार्मेसी पाठ्यक्रम चलाया जाएगा। मंदिर समिति के अध्यक्ष डा.अनुसूया प्रसाद मैखुरी ने मुलाकात के दौरान संस्कृत विद्यालयों में हर वर्ष घट रही छात्रों की संख्या पर चिंता जताई। उन्होंने कहा कि यदि यही हाल रहा तो कुछ वर्षरें बाद कर्मकाण्ड के लिए भी ज्ञाता पंडितों की कमी हो जाएगी। उन्होंने बताया कि समिति ने कर्मकांड विषय पर व्यवहारिक प्रशिक्षण तथा दो वर्षीय डिप्लोमा देने की कार्य योजना तैयार की है।


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« Reply #36 on: November 22, 2007, 11:15:15 AM »
pandey lalit <> wrote

Please forward this to the people u know , because most of the children's  who are having heart problems, there parents who cannot afford for their operation .

Help them .

For any kind of heart surgery free of cost .. 
Contact : Sri Sathya Sai Institute Higher Medical Sciences, E.P.I.P. Area, WhiteField, Bangalore
Write to us
Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences
EPIP Area, Whitefield,
Bangalore 560 066,
Karnataka , INDIA .
Call us
Telephone: +91- 080- 28411500
Fax +91 - 080- 28411502
Employment related +91- 080- 28411500 Ext. 415
Email us
General Queries: adminblr@sssihms.

Pass it to all, it will help some one

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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« Reply #37 on: November 22, 2007, 03:25:35 PM »

Just see this.

Great Barbet

A Basanta Bauri seen in Ranikhet...Ranikhet Great Barbet Bird Himalayan bird Basanta Bauri

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« Reply #38 on: November 22, 2007, 04:26:41 PM »

Uttaranchali Nauni

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« Reply #39 on: November 22, 2007, 04:31:46 PM »
above is the information about the population in all the districts of Uttaranchal


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