Author Topic: Folk Songs Of Uttarakhand : उत्तराखण्ड के लोक गीत  (Read 124661 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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 NarSingh –Ghana: the folk tale of great Brave Woman Dhana from Askot Garhi, Pithoragarh
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Jagar of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-24
 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand –9 
                                         Bhishma Kukreti
               There had been brave women in every society in every age. In all societies, there are folk tales about their brave women. Readers may find the description of a brave woman in Mexican folk song (corridos) ‘La Adulita ‘. Brave Martha is brave heroin of England folk tale. Susan Weinger et all (2006) provide various brave women characters from Cameroonian folk tales (Unmasking Women’s Rivalry in Cameroonian folk tales,). There are folk stories about brave women in the book ‘Clever Gretchen and other forgotten folktales’ retold by Alison Lurie. There are folk tales about brave women in the books –‘Fearless Girls, Wise Women and Beloved Sisters: heroines in the Folktales around the world’ (Kathleen Ragan); Not One Damsel in Distress: World Folktales for Strong Girls (Jane Yolen); The Maid of the North: Feminist Folktales from around the world (E.J. Phelps).
  Nar Singh –Ghana: the folktale of great Brave Woman Dhana from Askot Garhi, Pithoragarh
               The story of brave woman Ghana and her husband Narsingh is famous folktale and sung as Jagar in Uttarakhand. The story seems to be from the time of Kumaoni King Kali Chand (1437-1450).
 The part of Narsingh –Ghana Jagar Gatha is as-
कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ/जागर  -25   

नार सिंह -घना –जागर, वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर

(सन्दर्भ : डा उर्वी  दत्त उपाध्याय, कुमाऊं की लोक गाथाओं का सांस्कृतिक और सांस्कृतिक अध्ययन )

ऐसी लड़े भैछ , रेट उडी गयी
सूरज का रथ ढ़ांकण लागी गौ
बिन बादले बिजुली , बिन द्यो का बजर
देखनेरा आँखा , फुटण भये गाया
मली डोटी आयो, भींचलो भयंकर
जंगलों का गोरू ठाड़ पुछ्ड़ी करी
बितकण भये गया
घोम का चाड़ा , भजण भये गया 
  The story of NarSingh Ghana starts as-
       The capital of Capitals was Askot of Narsingh. His huge cowsheds were on the hills of Dhandhura. The agricultural fields and Sal-Jamal trees jungles were at the bank of Gauri Ganga.
      Narsingh of Askot Garh was the bravest among braves (Bhad) and the greatest wrestler warrior. His wife Dhana was beautiful most women as Apsara of Indra. Dhana was a brave woman too.
            One day, Narsingh said his desire to Dhana,” O queen! It would be worth for us to win over Kali Kumaon. We would live there and would also win the Doti kingdom by crossing Kali Ganga.”
         Ghana cautioned,” You make plan for winning everywhere but don’t make plan for attacking Doti. The warriors of Doti put six tee six feet long cap, sixteen feet long gown and their Janeu (auspicious thread on body) are eighteen feet long. Those who cross Kali Ganga for attacking Doti are killed there and there and don’t come back.
    Narsingh answered,” Unnecessarily, you praise your paternal region Doti. I shall go there and win Doti kingdom, would behead Kali Chand the king of Doti then only I shall come back when I win the Doti.”
               Dhana made him understand not to take unworthy risk. Narsingh did not take the advices of his wife Dhana.  King Narsingh started becoming ready for the attack. He took his weapons, rode on horse and ran as stormy wind.
         The queen Dhana put on earthen lamps around the temple. She sat inside the temple. Sadly, she started praying for the long life of her husband and his fast return. She prayed from Doti deities for her husband protection.
            King Narsingh was running for Doti. Wherever the horse put its leg the stone was changed into dust. Wherever Narsingh went there were fissures into hills. By morning, he reached to the bank of Kali via Pipalkot, Kaudihat, Fulaghat. The water of Kali Ganga was on high. Narsingh uprooted trees and made the bridge by those trees. He crossed Kali Ganga. He crossed the hills of Betadi, Silgadhi. He reached to Doti. He started fighting with enemies as a hungry lion in Talla Doti. There, every work was stopped.
 The grass cutting women of Talli Doti  (lower Doti) said, O! King Kali Chand! There is dark in Doti. The father of death deity has arrived in Doti. The green forests are now deserts. The enemy killed every one.”
         Those women said, “Bamboo burns the bamboo forest. The husband of your father’s niece Dhana destroyed our Doti. There, Narsingh was tired and hungry. He decided to take meal and take rest in Talla Doti.  When Kalichand heard the news of destruction of Talla Doti he started going to Talla Doti with his double edged sword.  Kali Chand said,” You have come to friend’s house as enemy and death invited you here.”
                  Narsingh became angry.
 The king Kali Chand and king Narsingh started fierce fight. Kali Chand first cut the right hand of Narsingh and then left hand. Narsingh fell on the ground. Narsingh started crying taking the name of Dhana.
  There in Askot, Dhana was sleeping, She saw a dream that Kali Chand arrived in Askot as groom. She awoke. Dhana started weeping that her husband was dead.
 Dhana took a vow that either she would kill Kali Chand or she would never return to Askot.
  Dhana put on the male dressing of her husband and reached to Talla Doti Garh. She saw that her husband destroyed Talla Doti.  Deciding for destroying Malla Doti (upper Doti) she went towards Malla Doti.
  After reaching at Malla Doti, Dhana started killing to enemies. People were afraid.
 The message reached to Kali Chand.  Kali Chand became angry and said that one lost his hand and died. He said that other would lose his head.
  Kali Chand said,”I shall win over you and will make you as my queen,”
  Dhana became angry. She lambasted Kali Chand who was thinking making her sister as his queen.
 Both fought and there was scene of earthquake in Doti.  They fought for three days and three nights. The weapon of Kali Chand tore the dress of Dhana and Kali Chand saw her Mangal Sutra (the sign of marriage). He recognized Dhana.
 Happily Kali Chand said,” o Dhana! You are brave. I wanted to reach for you to Askot for making you my queen. Now I shall make you my queen.”
Strategically and wisely, Dhana said,” That is fine .Now I am your queen.  We shall live with joy.”
 Happily, Kali Chand took Dhana to palace where the dead body of Narsingh.  Dhana asked Kali Chand to offer dead body of her husband for cremation. Dhana took the dead body of Nar Singh with the help of ten Dotiyalins . Kali Chand was with her.
 There was flooding in Kali Ganga. Dhana advised to cross the river with the dead body of Nar Singh. Kali Chand accepted her advice and he along with Dhana started crossing Kali Ganga with the help of Tumdis.  The dead body of Nar Singh was tied on the back of Dhana
  In the middle of river, Dhana beheaded Kali Chand. Dhana sent the head of kali Chand to Doti. 
 Dhana became Sati with the burning body of her husband. While she was burning with the body of her husband, she prayed to deities that Nar Singh should be her husband in next life too.
Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 11/5/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…26 

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…11   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urvi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Dip Chand Chaudhri, 1995, Askot ka Palvansh , Gumani Shodhkendra, Uprada, Gangalighat
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani, 2008, Ethnoarcheology of Yamuna Valley
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht, 1928, Gadhu Sumyal, Banghat , Pauri Garhwal
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women
Bhishma Kukreti, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhy Tatva va Vivechana
Helle Primdahi, 1994, Central Himalayan Folklore: folk Songs in Rituals of the Life Cycle




   
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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  Bais Bhai Gaida and Railibaj, Goldar brothers: Kumauni Folktale about various Brave men 
बाईस भाई गैड़ा --जागर वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर 

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Jagar of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-26
 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand –11 
                                         Bhishma Kukreti
     If there has been a Kathaitgardi time in Garhwal where the ministers became conspirators there have been Gaida Gardi in Kumaon too (1720- 1729).  Cruelly Puranmal and Manik Chand Gaida killed the Kumaoni kings.
           However, this folktale of Kumaon is related to King Bharti Chand.  The Jagar starts as-
         
कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ/जागर  -26


बाईस भाई गैड़ा रैलीबाज और गोलदार भाई --जागर वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर 

 ( सन्दर्भ - रमेश मटियानी 'शैलेश' , कुमाउं की लोकगाथाएँ )

ये भुलि तलि मलि गैराड़ में जन्मी बैस भाई गैड़ा।   
 जन्म्या अभीता अचरा हो बैस भाई गैड़ा।
ए भुलि राजकर महसूल रोकि दिनि हो बैस भाई गैड़ा।
छड़ी का चावल खानि रहब की माछी हो बैस भाई गैड़ा।
xx x               xxx
तीर बात सुणन में राजा भारती चंद कणि सोच पड़ी गौ
राजा भारतीचंद गर्ख्वालन का तसो कून में झुरीवेर है
गयी माछी का रे काना
राजा भारतीचंद अपणा दीवान थे कूंछ को पैग मिलछ
को जोइया मिलछ को आलो हमारी बूंगी बचूना
हो दीवान भायाँ   
                  Twenty Gaida brothers of lower and upper Gairad were fearless and wayward.  They stopped offering taxes to the king. They stopped the paths. That is why the girls stopped coming out from their houses.
                Twelve Garbbal brothers went to the Rajbungi and informed to King,” O King Bharti Chand! Why did you become blind? Now, there are twenty two Gaida kings in Malla Gairad and Talla Gairad.”
               Bharti Chand became worried. The King Bharti Chand asked his ministers,” Who will be our fighter?  Who will be our messenger?  Who will protect our Bungi?”
                     Railibaj was there in Railikot. The King wrote a message on paper by gold pen through ink from silver inkpot. He gave message to his messenger and sent him for Railikot.
          The messenger reached with speed to Railikot via Dasauli of Joshi, Almora Hat, and Tun of Sitauli. He rested at the ‘Chauntara’ (a square high place for sitting) of Shilang.  There in evening, he saw twenty married women and one hundred twenty girls at water source.  The messenger asked the address of Railibaj. They told him the address.
              Railibaj was sitting at casement window. The messenger told to Railibaj that the King has called him.  Railibaj told the messenger that he would reach the capital by sixteenth day of the month.
  Railibaj discussed the matter with his mother. Mother cooked a tasty food for him. Railibaj started his journey with special dressing.
               After reaching Rajbungi, Railibaj asked the king the reason for his call.
  The King told to Railibaj that twenty two Gaida brothers of Gairad became king and they collected the taxes but did not send the same to the revenue department.
   When Railibaj reached to Gairad the twenty two brothers had gone for hunting deer. Gaida brothers used to reach home riding on living deer and used to hang dead deer on their solders.
    There were - the Kalu Gaida father, Dudikela the mother of Gaida brothers. There was twenty feet long latch on the door of house. It was not possible for others to open door latch. 
            At the same time Neema the wife of one of Gaida brother came out. Neema started fainting. Railibaj said to Neema that she was wife of brave Gaida and becoming fearful. Railibaj slept on the court yard.In night, Neema came to meet him.
            Railibaj took neema and reached to Saryu bank via Sina ki Panar and Taraghat.
           When twenty two brothers reached to home they asked about Neema. The mother told them that a man took her with him.
         The Gaida brother went to jungle in search of Railibaj and Neema with their hunter dogs. Railibaj was sleeping. When Neema saw Gaida brothers she started shivering.  Railibaj did fight with Gaida brothers but Gaida killed Railibaj.
    Gaida brothers went to Rajbungi and informed to the King about their killing Railibaj. Gaida brothers demanded non vegetarian food from the King.
   The King sent messenger to Pali Pachhaun. There were Salu- Malu Goldar brothers.
 Salu and Malu Goldar brothers reached to Rajbungi. They asked the king about his problems. The King said about the problem of Gaida brothers. Goldar brothers assured the King that they would kill Gaida brothers.
                  The brave Goldar brothers reached to Girkhet of Champawat. There, they had fight with twenty two Gaida brothers. Goldar brothers killed twelve Gaida brothers and made other ten Gaida their slaves as milkmen.
Now the King Bharti Chand was worriless king.

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 13/5/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…27 

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…12   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urvi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Dip Chand Chaudhri, 1995, Askot ka Palvansh , Gumani Shodhkendra, Uprada, Gangalighat
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Ramesh Matiyani ‘Shailesh’ 1959, Kumaun ki Lok Gathayen
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani, 2008, Ethnoarcheology of Yamuna Valley
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht, 1928, Gadhu Sumyal, Banghat , Pauri Garhwal
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women
Bhishma Kukreti, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhy Tatva va Vivechana
Helle Primdahi, 1994, Central Himalayan Folklore: folk Songs in Rituals of the Life Cycle
This chapter contains folktales about Brave men of Kumaon; folktales about Brave men of Pali Pachhaun, Kumaon; folktales about Brave men of Pithoragarh, Kumaon; folktales about Brave men of Dwarhat, Kumaon; folktales about Brave men of Bageshwar, Kumaon; folktales about Brave men of Champawat, Kumaon; folktales about Brave men of Almora Kumaon; folktales about Brave men of Nainital Kumaon; folktales about Brave men of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon.









Bhishma Kukreti

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Ratanichand Jagar Gatha: Kumaoni Folktale describing Folk Brave Men of Kumaon 

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Jagar of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-27

 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand –12 
                                         Bhishma Kukreti

  Most of the folktales of Kumaon brave men are related to Katyuri and Chand kings. The most described kings in Kumaoni folktales are – Udaichand, Ratani Chand, Bharti Chand, and Guru Gyanchand.
  The present folktale of folk story poem/prose (Jagar) is about the brave men of King Ratani Chand  (1450-1488)
  A folk story’s few lines are as -   

कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ/जागर  -27


रतन चंद जागर गाथा --जागर, वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर 

(सन्दर्भ -रमेश मटियानी 'शैलेश' , कुमाउं की लोकगाथाएँ )

ए चम्पावती मैज होला रतनीचन।
राजवंशी च्यल होला भारती चन
दरी रे दिवान होला महल मुसौदी
बार बुढा दरबारी विचारी दिवान
गो ग्वेड़ा होला गद्दी सिंघासन
सुरज जस तप्य राजा रतनीचना
xxx     xxx


गंगा माई मैज धोया दरबारी खाणु
अघिल -अघिल होली सुरजवंशी घोड़ी
दिया जसी जोति होली  सरू कुमियाण
माल मारी घर आया खिमसारी हाट
दिया ज्योति सरू ल्याया खिमसारी हाट 

   
                  There was King Ratani Chand on the Champawat, Kumaon throne.  Ratani Chand was great son of great king Bharti Chand of Champawat. Champawat King Ratani Chand had many courtiers and ministers. They used to administrate very smoothly as smooth as spinning spindle.
             Once, insider enemies became very notorious in the rule of Champawat King Ratani Chand and started disturbing.  The brave men of enemies from all directions started compelling Champawat King Ratani Chand for compromising. The nails of rebellion brave men of east were huge. The mouths of enemy brave men from west were big as dishes. The eyes of uprising brave men from north were very deep. The hairs of southern rising brave men were nine yard long. They used to take breakfast of nine tons and their lunch was for twenty tons.
              They all brave men went to Champawat King Court and said,” Call competitors for us to fight with them. Then the brave men of east and west hung dhoti on window for insulting the King. They put condition to King that till the competition wrestlers come the King had to walk below Dhotis. The brave men stopped the entry to inside for King.
          At this period, Maidua Saun lived in Chaukhuta Agar. The Champawat King sent a letter to Maidua Saun that stated,” Champawat is in danger. O Brother Maidua Saun! These notorious brave men don’t allow me sleeping in night, taking food in day time. I will offer you the Jagir of Gweton after you won these nasty brave men.”
                Maidua Saun was an orphan from childhood. His grandmother used to look after him after his parents death. Maidua Saun had a hobby to fight with buffalos by putting bag on his head. The grandmother of Maidua Saun replied the letter and wrote that she had only one grandson and she was unable to send her grandson. The King became sad and confused.
  Those notorious brave men were killing the court goats and were burning the court wood.  There was talk of the town about these notorious brave men in Khimsari Hat. There were seven princes of Katyuri King in Khimsari Hat. One of them Hanskunvar (nephew of Biramdev) was very bold and aring. King Ratani Chand sent messenger for Khimsari Hat. The messenger reached to Khimsari Hat via Almora, Chupad Bagwal, Dwarhat, Talli Ginvad. The messenger handed over letter to Hanshkunvar.
    By reading letter from Champawat King, gallant Hanshkunvar became angry.  Hanshkunvar put food items and started to dress. The heroic Hanshkunvar reached Champawat killing evil people.
              Saru was the beautiful and young daughter of Champawat King. Due to fear of Hanshkunvar, Champawat King hid his daughter inside cow shed by breaking his bedroom wall.
  There came fearless Hanshkunvar riding on the horse. The sound of horse walking attracted Saru. She fell in love with Hanshkunvar. She threw a letter on the road. The letter stated,” You win the notorious brave men and marry with me. After marriage, I shall go to Rangili Bairath with you.”
       The Champawat King welcomed the daring Hanshkunvar lavishly by red carpet, blowing Nagada and throwing tons of Ritha.
                  The courageous Hanshkunvar fought with notorious brave men for twenty days. Valiant Hanshkunvar killed those all notorious brave men. The stout Hanshkunvar threw dead bodies of east to west and north brave dead bodies to south.
         At last, the very much obliged Champawat ruler said to champion Hanshkunvar,” How do I return your obligation?”
 Conqueror Hanshkunvar said,” I have cows, fishes of Ramganga, Rangila Bairath. I don’t need anything from you.”
         The Champawat King answered,” If you don’t demand a return gift, I shall feel insulted.”
         The champion Hanshkunvar asked the hand of Saru princess for marrying with him.
  Later on noble Hanshkunvar married with beautiful Saru Kumain. They returned to Khimsari hat and there was festival as the festival of earthen lamp (Deepavali) in their welcome.           

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 14/5/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…28 

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…13   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urvi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Dip Chand Chaudhri, 1995, Askot ka Palvansh , Gumani Shodhkendra, Uprada, Gangalighat
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Ramesh Matiyani ‘Shailesh’ 1959, Kumaun ki Lok Gathayen
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani, 2008, Ethnoarcheology of Yamuna Valley
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht, 1928, Gadhu Sumyal, Banghat , Pauri Garhwal
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women
Bhishma Kukreti, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhy Tatva va Vivechana
Helle Primdahi, 1994, Central Himalayan Folklore: folk Songs in Rituals of the Life Cycle
[उत्तराखंड की वीर गाथाएँ; कुमाऊं  की वीर गाथाएँ ; नैनीताल कुमाऊं  की वीर गाथाएँ ; चौखुटा , कुमाऊं  की वीर गाथाएँ;  गंगुवाचौड़  कुमाऊं  की वीर गाथाएँ; धारी कुमाऊं  की वीर गाथाएँ; उधम सिंह नगर, कुमाऊं की वीर गाथाएँ ; चम्पावत ,कुमाऊं  की वीर गाथाएँ ; अल्मोड़ा कुमाऊं की वीर गाथाएँ ; बागेश्वर कुमाऊं की  वीर गाथाएँ ;पिथौरागढ़,कुमाऊं की वीर गाथाएँ ; गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; हरिद्वार , गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; देहरादून, गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; उत्तरकाशी , गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; टिहरी, गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; चमोली , गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; रुद्रप्रयाग , गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; पौड़ी, गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; लैंसडाउन , गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; सलाण , गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; यमकेश्वर, गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; द्वारीखाल , गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  ; राठ , गढ़वाल की वीर गाथायेँ  श्रृंखला ]


Bhishma Kukreti

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Madho Singh Rikhola; a Kumaoni Patriotic and Faithful Brave Man
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Jagar of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-28

 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Ballads of Bravery of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand –13 
                                         Bhishma Kukreti
        Nagmal had been a Katyuri king of Dotigarh, Nepal (1384).  This Kumaoni Jagar folktale of .Madho Singh Rikhola’ narrates the story related to Nagmal king.
  A small part of Kumaoni Jagar about Madhosingh Rikhola is as - 
कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ/जागर  -28


माधो सिंह रिखौला जागर गाथा --जागर, वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर 
( सन्दर्भ:  : त्रिलोचन  पांडे, कुमाउंनी भाषा और उसका साहित्य )

डुंगरा में पैका रूनी माधोसिंह नामा
दुरौ को जौलिया छू मी बतै दिया धाम
झपकन झौ छ , मौनी जावा मौ छ,
ढुल तू हेरि लिए भूली , नानू माधो मैं छूं।
पिटी हाली ताम पितला , ढाली हाली कांस 
तरनी को हिटन -तोड़ी छाले -उदिया खांस
बचै दियौ लाज वीरो आयि रयुं पास
डोटीगढ़ जोलिया आयो , जाण छ नेपाल
भूमि में भूदान सुवा , गाई में गोदान
क्वै मरला क्वै बचला लडै मैदान
अतरै की गटी , नानि  भौ की लटी
क्षत्रिय को च्यला नि टलना वचन दिए बटी
दुतारी को तारा भोलिए की हात
खावो पति जावो तुम अपणी ज्योनार
स्वामी हुन हुन मरिजाना कि गर्भै गलि जाना
जो तुम डरन छा यो लड़ाई मैदाना
पैग मारि डोटीगढ राज  त्यर  बचै गई ओ राजा नागमल
आब तू  आपण राज खाए , ओ राजा नागमल
                    Paik Madhosingh Rikhola lived in Dungra village, Bauraro Patti, Kumaon. Madhosingh Rikhola was married to the daughter of Saunikot King. One day, a messenger from Dotigarh king Nagmal came to Madho Singh Rikhola. The message from king Nagmal of Doty/Doti was that Udiya Jhakuri Paik brave man was harassing the citizen of Dotigarh. Udiya Jhakuri is grinding people as cereals. The King Nagmal of Doty/Doti requested Madhosingh Rikhola to help the Doti King. Madho Singh Rikhola promised for reaching Doti on eighth day.
       Madho Singh Rikhola was ready for going to Doti Garh of Nepal. His wife advised him not to go to Doti Garh of Nepal.  The brave man of Kumaon Madho Singh refused the advice of his wife. In his opinion, Bhumidan (land gift) is possible by gifting land and Gaudan (cow gifting) is possible by gifting cow. In the battle field, some die and some remain alive.
           First he worshipped the God, took food. He dressed himself in soldier dress with sword. Madhosingh Rikhola reached to Dotigarh as per his promise.
  Udiya Jhakuri had a Chelimungar club. Jhakuri threw his club towards Madhosingh Rikhola. Madhosingh Rikhola threw that club into sky.
  Udiya Jhakuri challenged Madhosingh Rikhola for wrestling. The Reethas (Sapindus) were spread on the court for wrestling. Both the brave men started wrestling. Madhosingh killed Udiya Jhakuri the cruel and enemy of society.
  The King Nagmal became happy and offered Madhosingh Rikhola the Jagir as reward. However, Madhosingh refused the offer. Madhosingh Rikhola returned to his village Dungra.


Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 15/5/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…29 

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…14   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urvi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Dip Chand Chaudhri, 1995, Askot ka Palvansh , Gumani Shodhkendra, Uprada, Gangalighat
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Ramesh Matiyani ‘Shailesh’ 1959, Kumaun ki Lok Gathayen
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani, 2008, Ethno archeology of Yamuna Valley
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht, 1928, Gadhu Sumyal, Banghat , Pauri Garhwal
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women
Bhishma Kukreti, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhy Tatva va Vivechana
Helle Primdahi, 1994, Central Himalayan Folklore: folk Songs in Rituals of the Life Cycle
Hemant Kumar Shukla, D.R. Purohit, 2012, Theories and Practices of Hurkiya Theater in Uttarakhand, Language in India Vol.12:5: 2012 Page 143- 150
Dev Singh Pokhariya, 1996, Kumauni Jagar Kathayen aur Lokgathayen
Madan Chand Bhatt, 2002, Kumaun ki Jagar Kathayen 


Bhishma Kukreti

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  Bhaguva Raut Jagar Gatha: a folk Story about Brave Katyuri Kumaoni King

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Jagar of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-29

 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Ballads of Bravery of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand –14 
                                         Bhishma Kukreti
    There is Dev at the end of names of various Katyuri Kings of Kumaon as Viramdev, Dhamdev, Bhojdev.  The folklore of Bhaguva Raut states that people changed the name of Bhaguva Raut as Bhagdev. The present Jagar is about Katyuri king (perhaps –fourteenth- fifteenth centuries).
A couple of lines are as-

                कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ/जागर  -29

 भगुवा रौत जागर गाथा ,जागर, वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर 

(सन्दर्भ : डा उर्वी  दत्त उपाध्याय, कुमाऊं की लोक गाथाओं का सांस्कृतिक और सांस्कृतिक अध्ययन )

गोरिया को चेलो
छाजा में बैठिया
कौ रे दास गंगू
की बोलण रो  छे
नौकर है बेर
कै हो कूण रौ छे
          The King Koku Raut lived in Kokukot, Kumaon. The King Koku Raut had six queens but still was childless. At the old age, the king Koku Raut was more worried about Kokukot, Kumaon did not have heir. The king Koku Raut was worried about his wealth going to unknown after his death.
   The astrologer assured that king Koku Raut that after marrying with eighth queen, the king would had prince. However, the court astrologer also cautioned that the child would take birth in Mool Nakshatra and the king would die. The king Koku Raut agreed that it was better to die early than dying childless. He married with a beautiful princess Kunjari. The other seven queens envied the queen Kunjari.
            The queen Kunjari became pregnant. There was complete arrangement for looking after the queen by maid servants.  One day, pregnant queen desired for taking deer meat. The king Koku Raut and his brother Khimuva Raut went by horse to forest for hunting deer. They searched the deer for seven days and night without any success. Then they entered a dense jungle. The king and his brother chased the deer for long.  The king reached chasing deer to Gangoli. Goriya wrestler used to live in Gangoli. Goriya had eighth sons and sixteen grandsons. He had six mon heavy sword. Goriya was old. The deer entered into house of Goriya.
   The deer was shivering. The king Koku Raut asked his pray the deer. Goriya answered that he was a brave man. Goriya advised to the king to take meal and water but denied returning the deer to the king. The King Koku Raut remembered the high desire of his queen Kunjari. The king would not return without deer.
    King Koku Raut and Goriya They started wrestling. There were holes into courtyard at the place of their wrestling. Goriya beheaded the king. Goriya tied the king’s servant and horse. The brother of King Koku Raut ran away.
       The queen Kunjari wept when she found that king did not return.  Khimuva Raut took over throne and forced the queen Kunjari on exile. She started living afar in a grass hut,
              The queen delivered a male child. When the child was a boy she told that she did not know about he was lucky or unlucky. The boy told that not to worry. The boy Bhaguva Raut was very brave. He used to kill lion by stone.
     The mates of Bhaguva Raut asked about his father. Bhaguva questioned his mother about his father. The mother told that she would tell the secret after he brings his bride.
     Bhaguva Raut went in search of bride. Bhaguva Raut reached to Gangoli. There was Ransula a girl for the age of marrying.   Ransula’s father became ready to marry his daughter with Bhaguva Raut.
   Then the queen Kunjari told the story to her son. Bhaguva Raut took a vow that till he kills Goriya Gangoli and Khimuva Raut he would not go for hunting and would not take meal and water.
       Ransula went to ‘Gharat’ (watermill) for grinding cereals. The canal used to come through fields of Goriya. Goriya stopped Ransula for using ‘Gharat’. Ransula tied Goriya and threw his body into canal.  The sons and grandson of Goriya arrested Ransula.
  Ransula’s father informed Bhaguva Raut the details. Bhaguva Raut reached to house of Goriya in Gangoli.  Bhaguva caught Goriya. They started fighting. Bhaguva Raut killed Goriya and his sons and grandsons.
 Bhaguva married with Ransula lavishly
  Gadiya the servant of King Koku Raut was with Bhaguva Raut. Bhaguva Raut reached to Kokukot. Khimuva Raut ran away due to fear of Bhaguva.
  Bhaguva Raut became the King of Kokukot. The subject was happy and they named Bhaguva Raut as Veer Bhagdev.
 
  Bhaguva Raut reached to
Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 16/5/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…30 

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…15   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urvi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Dip Chand Chaudhri, 1995, Askot ka Palvansh , Gumani Shodhkendra, Uprada, Gangalighat
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Ramesh Matiyani ‘Shailesh’ 1959, Kumaun ki Lok Gathayen
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani, 2008, Ethno archeology of Yamuna Valley
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht, 1928, Gadhu Sumyal, Banghat , Pauri Garhwal
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women
Bhishma Kukreti, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhy Tatva va Vivechana
Helle Primdahi, 1994, Central Himalayan Folklore: folk Songs in Rituals of the Life Cycle
Hemant Kumar Shukla, D.R. Purohit, 2012, Theories and Practices of Hurkiya Theater in Uttarakhand, Language in India Vol.12:5: 2012 Page 143- 150
Dev Singh Pokhariya, 1996, Kumauni Jagar Kathayen aur Lokgathayen
Madan Chand Bhatt, 2002, Kumaun ki Jagar Kathayen 


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 Kaffu Chauhan Jagar Gatha: The Great Chieftain of Garhwal who Refused Panwar/Pal Dynasty Rule

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Jagar of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-30

 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Ballads of Bravery of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand –15 

                                         Bhishma Kukreti

      There were over fifty two small kingdoms/Gadh/Gadhi/Garhs in Garhwal before Ajaypal of Panwar dynasty rule. Devalgarh was the capital of Garh. Ajay Pal won the other kingdoms baring the chieftain of Uppu Garh. The chief of Uppu Garh was brave king Kaffu Chauhan. The Uppu Garh king resisted coming under Ajay Pal Panwar rule. Kaffu Chauhan fought the battle and sacrificed for his Uppu Garh regime till his last breath. The time of Kaffu Chauhan goes around sixteenth century.
  The following lines about Kaffu the chieftain of Uppu Garh are taken from a drama ‘Antim Garh’ written by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna.

कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ/जागर  -30 


 कफ्फू चौहान जागर, वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर 
(Reference: Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna , Antim Garh)

तौंकी रघुवंशी घोड़ी सजिन मर्दों
तौंकी जामा की तणी टूटिंन मर्दों
तौन गंगा -जली धरियाले मर्दों
तौंन बखतरी जामो पैरयाले मर्दों
तौंकी ऐड़ी हथियार अड़ी गे मर्दों
तौंकी क्षत्रीय हुंकार चढि गे मर्दों
तौंकी पौंठिया का बाल बबरैन मर्दों
तों नंगी शमशेर चमकैन मर्दों
तौंक  बावन बाजा बाजेन मर्दों
हनुमंती नीशाण साजेन मर्दों
कभी होल तो फोलेतो खेलदा मर्दों
कभी भैंसा , खाडू मारदा मर्दों
तौन खून का घट रिंगैन मर्दो
तों मुंडळौका चीरा लगैन मर्दो
तौं माई मर्दु का चेलो न मर्दो
तख भांगलो बुतणो करयाले मर्दो   
         Kaffu Chauhan was king of Uppu Garh near the bank of Ganges at the top shrine. Ajay Pal Panwar established his capital from Devalgarh to Shrinagar. He invited all chieftains of Garhs. Barring the chieftain Kaffu Chauhan of Uppu Garh, other chieftains attended the conference. Kaffu Chauhan sent the letter stating that he was Lion among animals, Eagle among birds and he would not accept the rule of Ajay pal Panwar.
            Ajay pal sent his armed forces to win over Kaffu Chauhan of Uppu Garh.
           The queen mother saw the huge army of Ajay Pal and suggested her son Kaffu Chauhan to surrender and accept the rule of Panwar of Shrinagar. Kaffu Chauhan told that the regional freedom is better than central authority.
             In night, Kaffu Chauhan broke the bridge on Ganges. In morning, Kaffu started preparation for the battle of freedom.
       Mother of Kaffu Chauhan told in person to Devu the army chief of Kaffu Chauhan that he would inform her about the result of battle. The mother queen said that if Kaffu die she would burn the whole Uppu Garh and would die.
          In morning, Panwar army chief saw that the bridge was broken and he arranged boats for crossing his army men. The battle started.
               By mistake, in confusion, Devu the army chief of Kaffu sent wrong message that Kaffu lost the battle and died.
            Kaffu own the battle and came to his fort and saw that his forte was burning. He lost consciousness. In that period Panwar army captured Kaffu Chauhan and took him to Shrinagar. Ajay pal put condition for the life of Kaffu Chauhan to accept his rule over Uppu Garh. Kaffu Chauhan refused the rule of Ajay Pal. Ajay Pal ordered the army men that cut head of Kaffu Chauhan that his head fell on the feet of Ajay Pal. In the mean time, Kaffu gulped sands. When army man cut the head of Kaffu by sword the head did not reach to the feet of Ajay Pal.
  Ajay Pal appreciated the pride of great Kaffu Chauhan. It is said that Garhwal King Ajay Pal lit the pyre of brave Kaffu Chauhan of Uppu Garh. Ajay Pal told that it was the win of Kaffu Chauhan.
   

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 18/5/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…31 

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…16   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urvi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Dip Chand Chaudhri, 1995, Askot ka Palvansh , Gumani Shodhkendra, Uprada, Gangalighat
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Ramesh Matiyani ‘Shailesh’ 1959, Kumaun ki Lok Gathayen
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani, 2008, Ethno archeology of Yamuna Valley
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht, 1928, Gadhu Sumyal, Banghat , Pauri Garhwal
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women
Bhishma Kukreti, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhy Tatva va Vivechana
Helle Primdahi, 1994, Central Himalayan Folklore: folk Songs in Rituals of the Life Cycle
Hemant Kumar Shukla, D.R. Purohit, 2012, Theories and Practices of Hurkiya Theater in Uttarakhand, Language in India Vol.12:5: 2012 Page 143- 150
Dev Singh Pokhariya, 1996, Kumauni Jagar Kathayen aur Lokgathayen
Madan Chand Bhatt, 2002, Kumaun ki Jagar Kathayen 
The chapter contains -Folk Songs, Folktales, Jagar  about Uppu Garh; Folk Songs, Folktales, Jagar  about great chieftains of Garhwal; Folk Songs, Folktales, Jagar  about Brave men/women of Garhwal; Folk Songs, Folktales, Jagar  about great warriors of Garhwal; Folk Songs, Folktales, Jagar  about great Garhwalis; Folk Songs, Folktales , Jagar  about who sacrificed for their motherland. 
 



Bhishma Kukreti

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 Kalu Bhandari Jagar Gatha: Story of bravery of Brave man and Love Story

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Jagar of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-31

 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Ballads of Bravery of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand –16 

                                         Bhishma Kukreti
                  Dr Baluni states that the time period of Brave Soldier is in sixteenth or seventeenth century. It is also believed that Kalu Bhandari was father of Madho Singh Bhandari.
                  The Jagar of Kalu Bhandari is called Ranbhut Jagar or the Jagar of brave men who lost their lives in battles.
              कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ/जागर  -31 

कालू भंडारी जागर गाथा ,जागर, वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर 
 (Reference: Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal)

होलू कालू भंडारी मालू मा कु माल
अनं का कोठारा छया वैका , बसती का भंडारा
गाडू घटडे छई , धारु मरूडे
धनमातो छौ , छौ अन्न्मातो
जीवनमातो छौ कालू स्यौ भंडारी
आदि रात मा तै  सुपिनो होयो
सुपिना मा देखी विनी स्या ध्यानमाला   
देखी वैन बरफानी कांठा
बरफानी कांठा देखे ध्यानमाला को डेरा
चांदी का सेज देखे , सोना का फूल
आग जसी आँख  देखी , जिया जसी जोत
बाण सी अरेंडी देखी , दई सि तरेंडी
नौंण  सी गळखी देखी , फूल सि कुठखी
 हिया सूरज देखे , पीठ मा चंदरमा
मुखडी को हास  देखे , मणियों का परकास
कुमाळी  सि ठाण देखे , सोवन की लटा
तब चचडैक  उठे , भिभडैक  बैठे
तब जिया बोदे क्या  ह्वेलो मेरा त्वाई
आज को सुपिनो जिया , बोलणि आंदो 
ना ल़े बेटा कालू सुपिना को बामो
सुपिना मा मा बेटा , क्या नि देखेंदु
कख नि जयेन्दु , क्या नि खायेंदु
मैन ज्यूण मरणा जिया हिन्वाला ह्वेक औण
तख रौंद माता, वा बांद ध्यानमाला
कालू भंडारी मोनीन मोयाले
तब पैटी गे वो तै नवलीगढ़
भैर को रखो छौ कालू भीतर को भूखो
कथी समजाई जियान वो
चली आयो वो ध्यानमाला को गढ़
ध्यान माला औणी छै पाणी का पन्द्यारा
देखी  औंद कालू  भंडारीन वो
हे मेरा प्रभू वा बिजली कखन छूटे
सुपिना मा देखी छै जनी , तनी छा  नौनि या
आन्छरी सि सच्ची , सरप की सि बची
अर देखे ध्यानमालान कालू भंडारी वो
बांको जावन छौ वो बुरांस को सी फूल
तू मेरी जिकुड़ी छे बांकी ध्यानमाला
त्वे मा मेरो ज्यू छ
सुपिनो मा देखी तू तब यख आयूँ
आज तू मै तैं  प्रेम की भीख दे
तब ल्ही गे वो ध्यानमाला  अपडो दगड
कुछ दिन इनि रेन वो गुप्ती रूप मा
तब बोल्दो कालू भंडारी
कब तैं रौण रौतेली इनु लूकी लूकिक
तब ध्यानमाला का बुबा धरम देव
 कालू भंडारी मिलण ऐगे
सुण सूण धर्मदेव धरमदेव
मै आया डांडा टपीक, गाडू बौगीक
मैं जिउण   मोरण राजा
तेरी नौनि ध्यानमाला ल़ाण
ऐलान्दो बैलोंदो तब राजा धरमदेव
मेरा राज मा अयाँ होला
हैंका राज से पांच भड
साधी लौलो ऊँ तैं जु कालू भंडारी
ब्यावोलो त्वे ध्यानमाला
कालू भंडारी का जोंगा बबरैन
वैका छाती का बाळ जजरैन
उठाए वैन तब नंगी शमशीर
चली गये हैंका हैर भड़ू साधण
इतना मा गंगाडी हाट का रूपु
आयो ध्यानमाला हाथ मांगण
ब्यौ को दिन तब नीछे    ह्व़े गये
पकोड़ा पकीन, हल्दी रंगीन
नवलीगढ़ मा कनो उच्छौ छायो
कालू भंडारी लड़दू रेगे भड़ू  सात
तै के कानू मा खबर नी पौंची
पिता की मर्जी , अपणी नी छें वींकी
बरांडी छे किरांदी छे वा नौनि ध्यानमाला
तब सुमरिण करदी वा कालू भंडारी
तेरी मेरी प्रीत दूजा जनम ताई
किस्मत फूटे मेरी बिधाता
जोड़ी को मलेऊ फंट्याओ   
तब देखे वैन ध्यानमाला रोणी बराणी
जाणि याले वैन होई गे कुछ ख्ट्गो
रौड़दो -दौड्दो आयो माला का भौन
हे मेरी माला क्या सोची छै मैन
अर क्या करी गये दैव
कालू भंडारी , हे कालू भंडारी
मेरा पराणु को प्यारो होलो कालू भंडारी
मेरा सब कुछ तू छ मैं छौं तेरी नारी
देखे वीं कालू भंडारी क्वांसी आन्ख्युन
हात बुर्याँ छा वैका , खुटा छा फुक्यां
कांडो सि होयुं छौ वो सुकीक
मेरा बाबा यें कतना तरास सहे
गला लगाये वीन तब कालू भंडारी
मरण जिउण ही जाण
तब बोल्दु कालू भंडारी
तेरी माया ध्यानमाला मैकू सोराग समान
कु जाणो क्या होंद बिधाता को लेख
पर मैं औंलू ब्योऊ का दिन
तू मेरी माला आखिरें फेरा ना फेरी
तब वखन चलिगे वो कालू भंडारी
कुछ दिन बाद आये ब्यो का दिन
गंगाडी हाट मा तब बारात सजे
ब्यौ का ढोल दमौं घारू गाडू गजीन
नवलीगढ़ राज मा भी बजदे बडई
मंगल स्नान होंदु माला लैरंदी पैरंदी
धार मा की गैणा सि दिखेंदी माला
बोलदी तब वींको जिया मुलमुल हंसी
ध्यानमाला होली राजौं का लेख
गंगाडीहाट का रूपु गंगसारा की
तब नवलिगढ़ बारात चढ़े
मंगल पिठाई हुए षटरस भोजन
तब ब्यौ को लग्न आये , फेरों का बगत
छै फेरा फेरीं मालान , सातों नी फेरे
मै अपण गुरु देखण देवा
तबरेक ऐयीगे तख साधू एक
कालू भंडारी छ कालू भंडारी
पछाणी मुखडी वैकी मालान
वींको आंख्यी मा तब आस खिलगे
प्रफुल ह्व़े गे तब वा ध्यानमाला
मेरा गुरुआ होला तलवारी नाच का गुरु
मै देखणु चांदु जरा नाच ऊंको
तब गुरु स्सधू बेदी का ध्वार आइगे
नंगी शमशीर चमकाई वैन
एक फरकणा फुन्ड़ो मारी एक मारी उन्डो
पिंडालू सि काटिन वैन गोद्डा सी फाडींन
कुछ भागिन , कुछ मारे गेन
मारये गे वू रूपु गन्गसारो भी
तब बल मु ध्यानमाला ही छुटी गये
लौट आन्दु तब वीमुं कालू भंडारी
ओ मेरी माला आज जनम सुफल ह्व़े गे
अगास की ज़ोन पायी मैं फूलूं की सि डाळी
तब जिकुड़ा लगैले हातून मा धरिले वा
आज मेरो मन क मुराद पुरी होए
तबरे लुक्युं उठै रूपु का भाई
लूला गंगोला वैकु नाम छायो
मारी दिने वैन कालू भंडारी धोखा मा
रोये बराए तब राणी ध्यानमाला
पटके जन उखड़ सि माछी
मैं क तैं पायूँ सुहाग हरचे
मैंक तैं मांगी भीख खतेणे
कं मैकू तैं दैव रूठे
रखे दैणी जंगा पर वीन कालू को सिर
बाएँ जंग पर धरे वो रूपु गंगसारी
रोंदी बरांदी चढ़े चिता ऐंच
सती होई गे तब ध्यानमाला 
               Kalu Bhandari was bravest among braves. He owned cereal stores; house hold stores; watermills,; and large buildings.  Kalu Bhandari Bhad was prosperous.
                 When Kalu Bhandari was sixteen years old, he saw a dream. Kalu Bhandari saw Dhyanmala in snowy regions. Kalu Bhandari saw silver beds, gold flowers; fire some eyes of Dhyanmala, and light.
           Kalu Bhandari arose suddenly. His mother asked,” What happened?’  Kalu Bhandari told about his dream and Dhyanmala. His mother told that man sees various events and humans in dreams and he should not pay attention on dream. However, Kalu Bhandari started his journey for Navaligarh.  When Kalu Bhandari reached to Navaligarh, Dhyanmala was there at water source (Panght). Kalu Bhandari saw beautiful Dhyanmala. Dhyanmala saw strong Kalu Bhandari.  Kalu Bhandari said to her,” Beautiful Dhyanmala! You are my heart. I saw you in dream and I came here.” Dhyanmala took Kalu Bhandari with her. They lived hiding for many days. After deep thinking Kalu Bhandari went to see Dharma Dev the father of Dhyanmala. Kalu Bhandari said to Dharma Dev,” O King I came far from to marry with Dhyanmala.”
           Dharma Dev said to Kalu Bhandari,” Five brave men came to my region. You fight with them. If win I would permit for marrying Dhyanmala with you.”
    The bravest of braves, Kalu Bhandari agreed the condition and went other regions to win those five brave men.
             In the mean time, Rupu of Gangadighat came there for marrying with Dhyanmala. The marriage date was fixed. There was festival mood among people in Navaligarh for the marriage between Dhyanmala and Rupu. 
   Kalu Bhandari saw dream that Dhyanmala is weeping. He reached to palace of Dhyanmala and realized the reality.
   Kalu Bhandari told Dhyanmala that she should not take seventh ‘fera’ of Sat ‘fera’ and assured that he would come at the time of marriage.
  On the day of marriage Rupu came to Navaligarh. At marriage ritual, after sixth ‘fera’, Dhyanmala told that she would like to see her warrior Guru. Kalu came in the dress of aGuru with sword. He beheaded soldiers of Rupu and killed Rupu.  Kalu came towards Dhyanmala.
          Lula Gangola the brother of Rupu was hiding there. He killed Kalu Bhandari be deceptive method. Dhyanmala started weeping.
  Dhyanmala became ‘Sati’ with pyre of Kalu Bhandari.



Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 18/5/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…32 

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…17   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urvi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Dip Chand Chaudhri, 1995, Askot ka Palvansh , Gumani Shodhkendra, Uprada, Gangalighat
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Ramesh Matiyani ‘Shailesh’ 1959, Kumaun ki Lok Gathayen
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani, 2008, Ethno archeology of Yamuna Valley
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht, 1928, Gadhu Sumyal, Banghat , Pauri Garhwal
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women
Bhishma Kukreti, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhy Tatva va Vivechana
Helle Primdahi, 1994, Central Himalayan Folklore: folk Songs in Rituals of the Life Cycle
Hemant Kumar Shukla, D.R. Purohit, 2012, Theories and Practices of Hurkiya Theater in Uttarakhand, Language in India Vol.12:5: 2012 Page 143- 150
Dev Singh Pokhariya, 1996, Kumauni Jagar Kathayen aur Lokgathayen
Madan Chand Bhatt, 2002, Kumaun ki Jagar Kathayen 

Folk Ballads of Garhwal; Folk Ballads of Uttarkashi, Garhwal; Folk Ballads of Tehri Garhwal; Folk Ballads of Rudraprayag, Garhwal; Folk Ballads of Chamoli, Garhwal; Folk Ballads of Pauri, Garhwal; Folk Ballads of Dehradun, Garhwal; Folk Ballads of Hardwar Garhwal; Folk Ballads of Kumaon; Folk Ballads of Rudrapur, Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon; Folk Ballads of Nainital Kumaon; Folk Ballads of Almora, Kumaon; Folk Ballads of Champawat, Kumaon; Folk Ballads of Bageshwar, Kumaon; Folk Ballads of Dwarhat, Kumaon; Folk Ballads of Pithoragarh, Kumaon; Folk Ballads of Uttarakhand to be continued… 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Bhishma Kukreti

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  • Posts: 18,808
  • Karma: +22/-1
 Jeetu Bagdwal Jagar Gatha: The Folk Ballad of Arrogance, Romance and Chivalry

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Jagar of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-32

 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Ballads of Bravery of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand –17 

                                         Bhishma Kukreti
                 Garhwali and Kumaoni people have sung folk narratives from old time. Velle Espelland divided Scandinavian ballads into six groups- Ballads of Supernatural; Legendry Ballads; Historical Ballads; Ballads of Chivalry; Heroic Ballads and Jocular Ballads.
         Malaya literature scholars divide Malaya folk ballads into Mythological, Epic, Historical and Social groups.
 Analyzing the folk literature of various Garhwali-Kumaoni scholars, Dr Baluni divided folk ballads of Garhwal-Kumaon into five groups –
1-Dev Gathayen (Folk Ballads of Deities and Goddesses)
2-Pauranik Gathayen (Folk Ballads of Epics)
3-Veer Gathayen (Folk Ballads of Chivalry)
4-Pranay Gathayen (Folk Ballads of Romance)
5- Sfut Gathayen (Miscellaneous Folk ballads) 
      The folk story ballad of great Jeetu Bagdwal is the story of chivalry, bravery, curtsey, courtesy, pride, arrogance, egotism, honor, love, romance, great gallantry towards women.  That is the reasons literature creators created drama, feature films, documentary and wrote modern poetries, wrote novel based on the folk story of Jitu Bagdwal. The ballads of Jitu Bagdwal are called Bagdwali. His time is around 1591- 1610 the period of King Manshah 

जीतू बगड्वाल जागर गाथा: जागर गाथा ,जागर, वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर  (एक गढ़वाली रण भूत लोक  गीत )

 स्रोत्र : डा गोविन्द चातक , गढवाली लोक कथाएँ , पृष्ठ १११-११७
 सन्दर्भ डा शिवा नन्द नौटियाल , गढवाल के लोकनृत्य गीत 


                    जीतू द  शोभनु होला गरीबौ बेटा
                   माता त सुमेरा छई, दादी फ्यूंळी जौसू
                   ददा जी कुजर छ्या , भूलि शोभना छई ,
                    जाति को पंवार छयो जीतू अकली  गंवार
                    बगडू जैका ह्व़े गेन बगड्वाळ
                   राज मान शाही ना दिने कमीण को जामो
                  गौं मुड़े को सेरो दिने , गौं मथे को घेरो
                 जीतू रये दादू भातु उदभातु
                 राणियों को रसिया फूलों को हौसिया
                 अणब्याई बेटियों को ठाकुरमासों खाए
                बांज घटों को वैन भगवाड़ी उगाये
                ऊँ बांजी भैसों को पाळी  दिने परोठो
               जीतू रई गे राजों को मुस्सदी
                 बगुड़ी ऐगे भैजी उल्या मूल्या मॉस
                 तब जितेंसिंग राजा धावडी लगौन्द
                ओड़ू नेडू औंदु मेरा भुला शोभनु
                 सोरा सरीक भुला सब सेर सैक लैन
                 कि मलारी को सेरा हमारो
                 साणो रैगे  त बाणो मेरा दादू
                 तू जयादी भुला जोशी का पास
                गाडिक लऊ सुदिन सवार
                 पातुड़ी की भेंट धरे सेल़ा चौंळ पाथी
                 धूल़ेटी  की भेंट धरे सोवन को टका
                  चलीगी शोभनु बरमा को पास
                  जाइक माथो नवौंदो सेवा लगान्दो
                     पैलागु पैलागु मेरा बरमा
                    चिरंजी जजमान मेरा
                    भैर गाड याले बरमान  धूल़ेटि पातुड़ी
                    देखद देखद बरमा मुंडळी ढगड्योंद
                    तेरी राशि नि जुड़दो जजमान
                   तुमारी बतैन्दी बल वा बैण  शोभनी
                   वा बैण मेरी रैंद कठऐतूं का गाऊं
                   चूला कठुड़ तै बांका बनगढ़
                   सोचदू सोचदू तब घर ऐगे शोभनु
                  पौन्चीगे तब जीतू का पास
                   खरो मानी जौ , मेरा जेठा पाठा भैजी
                 तेरी राशि नी जुड़े दिदा लुंगला को दिन
                 जीतू भिभडैक उठे तब गये माता का पास
                 हे मेरी जिया हमारी राशि नी जुड़े लुंगला को दिन
                  मै तो जांदू माता, शोभनी बैदोण
                   तू छयी जीतू बाबरो बेसुवा
                   भुला शोभनु होलू माता बालो अलबूद
                    मैं जौंलू माता शोभनी बैदोण 
                   न्यूतीको बुलौंलू पूजीक पठौंलु
                  नी जाणो  जीतू त्वे ह्वेगे असगुन
                   तिला बाखरी तेरी ठक छ्युंदी 
                    नी ल़ाणी जिया त्वेन इनि छ्वीं
                    घर बौडी औंलो तिला मारी खौंलो
                    भैर दे तू मेरी गंगाजली जामी
                    मोडूंवां मुंड्यासी  दे दूँ , आलमी इजार
                   धावड्या बाँसुली दे दूँ नौसुर मुरली
                  न जा मेरा जीतू कपडी तेरो झोली ह्वेन मोसी
                  आरस्यो को पाक तेरो ठनठन टूटे
                    त्वेक तईं ह्वेगे जीतू यो असगुन
                    माता को अडैती जीतू एक नी माणदो
                    लैरेंद पैरेंद तब कांठा मा को सि सूरज
                    गाड को सि माछो सर्प को सि बच्चा
                    बांको बीर छयो जीतू नामी भड़
                    राजो को माण्यों  छयो रूप को भर्र
                   पैटी गे तब जीतू बैणी को गऊँ 
                  रानी पटुड्या  तब तैको  गाळी दीन्दी
                  जान्दो ह्वेई मेरा स्वामी , आंदो नि ह्वेई
                  स्याळी का खातिर तू पैटी बैणी बैदोण
                     बिदा लिनी जीतून रस्ता लगे वो
                  चल्दु रै वो ऊँची तौं धऐडियों 
                     ऊंची धऐड़यों चढ़े जीतू गैरी त पाख्युं
                     कलबली कूंल़े छई देव्दार स्वाणा
                     ह्र्याँ डाल़ा छ्या फुलून जन  ढक्याँ
                     पौन्छी गये जीतू रैंथल  की थाती
                     घडाँदी दोफरी छई तडाँदो घाम
                      तडाँदो घाम  मा जीतू सेळ बैठी गे
                     तमाखू पीयाले तैंन साध्यान लीयाले
                      हांस्यारी पराण वैको उलारिया गये
                      हाथ गाडयाले वैन नौसुर मुरली
                      नौसुर मुरली परे घावड्या बांसुळी
                     बावरो छयो जीतू उलारीया ज्वान
                      मुरली को हौंसिया  छौ रूप को रौन्सिया
                       घुराए मुरली वैन डांडी बीजिन कांठी
                       बौण का मिर्गून चरण छोडि दिने
                      पंछियोन  छोडि दिने मुख को त गाल़ो 
                       कू होलू चुचों स्यो घाबड्या मुरल्या
                       तैकी  मुरली मा क्या मोहनी होली
                       बिज़ी गैन बिज़ी गैन खेंट  की आंछरी
                       जीतू कि आंख्युं मा जनी शिशो चमल़ाणी 
                        छम छम घुंघरू बजीन, जीतू की आँखी मुन्जीन
                        क्वी बैणी बैठींन  आन्ख्यों का स्वर
                        क्वी बैणी बैठींन कंदुडों  का घर
                        छालो पिने लोई , आलो खाए मांस पिंड
                         पन्द्र पचीसी जीतू रैन्थल थाती रैगे
                         अल्हर जवानी जीतू भुंचण नी पायी
                         तिन नि माने जीतू माता की अड़ेती
                        फंसी गे कन आन्छ्र्यों का घेरा
                        सुमरिण करदो जीतू बगुडी भैरों
                        कख व्हेली मेरी कुलदेवी भवानी ?
                        आज मै पर ऐ गे बिपता  भारी
                         बीच बाटा मा कनी होए मेरी मोल की मरास
                         दैणो ह्व़े गे तब जीतू की बगूड़ी भैरों
                         नौ बैणी आंछरी तब छूटी गैन
                         आज मै जान्दो बैणी बैदोण
                         छै गते आषाढ़ लुंगला को दिन
                        तै दिन तुम मिली तैं पुंगड़ी ऐन
                        तब मन ह्व़े गे उदास जीतू
                       चित्त ह्व़े गे चंचल
                       तब पौंची गये जीतू बैणी का गौं
                       मिली गे वै बैणी शोभनी
                        तब आये स्याळी वरुणा
                       सेवा मेरी पोंछे वीं स्याळी वरुणा
                      सेवा मैं खरी लांदु भेना बगड्वाळ
                      तेरी खातिर छोडि स्याळी बांकी बगूड़ी
                       बांकी बगूड़ी  छोड़े राणयों कि दगूड़ी
                      छतीस कुटुंब छोड़े बतीस परिवार
                      घिटूडियों जसो रथ छोड़े चकोरू जस टोली
                     तेरा बाना छोड़े मैं भेना
                     दिन को खाणो रात की सेणी
                     तेरी माया न स्याळी जिकुड़ी लपेटी
                    कोरी कोरी खांदो तेरी माया को मुंडारो
                    जिकुड़ी को ल्वे पिलैक अपणी
                    परोसणो छौं तेरी माया की डाळी
                    अब त भरीक ही मिटली स्याळी
                   त्वे भेजे  को हेत
                    यूँ डाळीयूँ  मा तेरा फूल फुलला
                    झपन्याळी होली बुरांस डाळी
                    ऋतू बोडि औली दाईं जसो फेरो
                   पर तेरी मेरी भेंट स्याळी
                    कु जाणी होंदी कि नी होंदी ?
                   बौडिक ऐ गे जीतू तैं बांकी बगूड़ी
                    ओड़ू नेडू ऐगे  लंगुला को दिन
                    घटु की रिंगाई सामळ कि पिसाई 
                    चौखम्भा तिबारी जीतू होए मगलाचार
                   गडायूँ गुंडाखु पैटयो , घुंगरियालि होका
                   पोंछी गे बल्दुं  की जोड़ी मलारी का सेरा
                   तब जोतण लग्या जीतू का धौल़ा त बुल्ला
                   मलारी का सेरा शुरू ह्व़ेगे रोपण
                   सेरु सैक ऐगे  तैं मोंळ पुंगड़ी
                    एक फाट उंडो लीगे जीतू एक फुंडो
                     फीकू ह्व़े गे ज्यू जीतू जी को
                     तबे वीं मोंळ पुंगडी छूटे घेंटुडी रथ
                    मलेऊ सि मिड़को
                    नौ बैणी आंछरी ऐन , बार बैणी  भराडी
                    क्वी बैणी बैठींन कंदुड़यो घर
                    क्वी बैणी बैठींन आंख्युं का स्वर
                    छालो पिने लोई , आलो खाये मॉस पिंड
                   अंगुडी छयो जीतू , पछींडो फरकी
                     स्यूं बल्दुं जोड़ी जीतू डूबी गयो
                     मलारी का सेरा जीतू खोए गये
                    अल्हर जवानी जीतू भुंचण नी पाए
                     लाख्डू सि ताबु होए पिंडाल़ू  सि भाड़
                     बत्तीसु कुटुंब तेरो तै मलारी रै गे
                      बावरो नी होंदो जीतू नी होंदो बिणास

               Garibu had two sons –Jeetu and Shobhanu. Jeetu belonged to Bagudi. King Manshah offered them fertile paddy fields. Jeetu became arrogant. He liked the company of beautiful girls.  He was busy with his queens. He forgot his paddy fields. When rain started he remembers the paddy plantation. 
 Jeetu sent his brother Shobhanu yo astrologer for knowing auspicious date for paddy plantation start. The astrologer told that the paddy plantation had to be started by hands of his sister Shobhani.
                  Jeetu went to call his sister Shobhani for starting paddy plantation. His mother became worried for un-auspice happening. His wife also stopped him for going to Shobhani’s in law house.  Jeetu went with dress and his flute.
            In noon, Jeetu reached at Raithul. Jeetu rested for a while and started playing flute. There was liveliness in the forest and shrines. The sleeping fairies of Khait hill arose by flute music. The fairies started dancing before him. Fairies played foot ornaments (Payal). Jeetu started becoming unconsciousness. Fairies entered into his eyes, ears, and hands and started sucking his blood. Jeetu remembered his family deity- Bhairav. Bhairav protected Jeetu. However, Jitu promised fairies for meeting at Mal Khyat.
 Jeetu reached his sister’s in law house. There, Jitu met sister in law of his sister. Jitu fell in love with his Jeeja’s sister.   
  Jeetu had to leave his sister’s in law village for starting paddy plantation at his village. Jeetu and his sister Shobhani reached Bagudi. On the auspicious date –sixth of Ashadh month, at beginning of the paddy plantation there were drum and other music instrument playing ceremony. After ceremonial rituals, Jeetu started plough the paddy field. He completed half field plough. The fairies came there on chariots. There was huge division of field. All the family members of Jeetu and Jeetu sink into huge land slid. This way, Jeetu and his family were no more in this world.   


Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 21/5/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…33 

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…18   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urvi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Dip Chand Chaudhri, 1995, Askot ka Palvansh , Gumani Shodhkendra, Uprada, Gangalighat
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Ramesh Matiyani ‘Shailesh’ 1959, Kumaun ki Lok Gathayen
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani, 2008, Ethno archeology of Yamuna Valley
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht, 1928, Gadhu Sumyal, Banghat , Pauri Garhwal
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women
Bhishma Kukreti, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhy Tatva va Vivechana
Helle Primdahi, 1994, Central Himalayan Folklore: folk Songs in Rituals of the Life Cycle
Hemant Kumar Shukla, D.R. Purohit, 2012, Theories and Practices of Hurkiya Theater in Uttarakhand, Language in India Vol.12:5: 2012 Page 143- 150
Dev Singh Pokhariya, 1996, Kumauni Jagar Kathayen aur Lokgathayen
Madan Chand Bhatt, 2002, Kumaun ki Jagar Kathayen 
Notes on the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Dwarhat, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Bageshwar, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Champawat, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Almora, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Nainital, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from Dehradun, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from  Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; the Folk Ballad of Romance and Chivalry from  Haridwar, Uttarakhand to be continued…













 

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Shakram Karki Jagar Gatha: a folk Story of Fearless, Daring, Brave Legend from Kumaoni Folk Songs

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Jagar of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-33

 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Ballads of Bravery of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand –18 

                                         Bhishma Kukreti

                There are folk songs in Garhwal, Kumaon including Haridwar those are purely for entertaining and sometime passing the time too. There are folktales in poetic version those are religious-Jagar reserved for rituals and folktales in song version those are religious but also act for entertaining and joy as Pandav Nritya. 
                  The Jagar also have information value and the importance of protecting history orally. In some Jagar, folktales contain mostly historical legends. The audience finds the history in the Jagar of Sakram Karki.   
  Shakram Karki had been minister in King Vijay Chand life (1924-25) when the king was at his teen age. There are folktales about Sakram Karki.  King Vijay Chand ruled Kumaon from 1624-1638. Vijay Chand was lover of * pleasure and handed over all powers to Shakram Karki and Piru Gusain.

           The present folktale in poetic form praises the acts of Shakram Kargi.
       कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ/जागर  -33 


शकराम कार्की जागर गाथा ,जागर, वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर 

(सन्दर्भ: डा .कृष्णा नन्द जोशी, रुपहले शिखरों के स्वर )

द हो पाखड़ बाधन छ कार्की सकराम
गात मा पैरिछ झिलमिल वाको हो
माथा मा बाँधन छ मखमली साही हो
पीठी मा बाधन छ चन्दन वाली दाल हो
राती मा हिटंछ बाघ रातों जसो हो
दबूसों मा हिटंछ मानिख को जसो हो
        Due to old age of King Bahadur Chand, there was announcement for declaring coronation ceremony date for his son Trimal Chand as Champawat King. One thousand seven hundred Kumaoni Samants young brave youth, the subject of Chandpur, Bijapur, Dhaulgarh, elite men came at the occasion of coronation ceremony.
       After coronation ceremony, all started offering gifts to new king in the atmosphere of music and dances. The King Trimal Chand asked his advisors to let him know those Samants did not attend the ceremony. Karkyunda Bunga Samant Singh Karki was absent for attending the coronation ceremony.
     The King messenger reached to Samant Singh Karki for knowing his absence in the coronation ceremony. The old aged Samant Singh Karki informed about thread ceremony of his son on the same day. 
   In the mean time, Shakram Karki the son of Samant Singh Karki just reached there returning from his hunting. Shakram Karki (Sakram Karki) informed the messenger that if the king was fresh he was also new brave man (Bhad). Shakram told that he would reach the palace next day.
                          Next day, Samant Singh Karki, in soldier dress reached to palace by horse. Brave man Shakram Karki, bowing before the king, offered gifts to new king and told the reason for his father not attending coronation ceremony. The King angrily said that Samant Singh is arrogant. The King declared the punishment of Samant Singh Karki by firing from his Samanti post. The king declared that Samant Singh Karki had to pay fine for Rs four thousand. The King declared that Samant Singh Karki should be put into wall. Samant Singh told that his son would come with fined money and the king could put his son into the wall.
  Samant Singh Karki came to his place and told the story to his son Shakram Karki. Shakram told that they had money and not to be worried.
                 Next day, Shakram Karki in soldier dress went to the court. Shakram Karki bowed before the king and offered fine. The king ignored Sakram Karki. Sakram Karki asked the reason to the king. When king saw the strong man. The body of Shakram Karki was the body of twelve brave men, widest back, neck as of bore and thick moustaches.
 The King became happy to see so strong man. However, the king wanted to test.
 Two birds were flying up and down on trees and on garden. The king asked his court men to kill two birds by an arrow. No court man was ready to do so. Shakram Karki killed two birds by an arrow.   
  The king ordered his court men to offer gifts to Shakram Karki. The court men felt insulted but offered gifts to Karki. Then court men demanded some money from Karki for going to Bhabahr plains. The King ordered Shakram Karki to return money to court men. Shakram Karki told that the king should order him for winning new territories instead of returning money. By the ill advice from court men, the King ordered to put Shakram Karki into wall. However, Shakram Karki broke all walls. The craftsmen showed their inability for building new walls due to not having appliances.  Sakram Karki advised the king to send his princes to his father at Karkyoda Bungi for  such appliances.
  The princes went to Karkyoda Bungi where Samant Singh Karki welcomed them warmly. Samant Singh Karki arranged entertain the princess by wine and dancers. The princes forgot returning their palace. After many days, the king sent his men to take princes from Karkyoda Bungi. When the princes returned to the court they freed Shakram Karki.
    Once, Shakram Karki attacked Maneshahi of Athalgarh with the help of Kingarmy.Shakram karki and his father won the territories came back the wealth from Athalgarh. However they did not share the wealth with the King.
           The king asked Shakram Karki to share from loot. However, Shakram Karki refused to do so.   
  The King asked Shakram Karki to re attack on Athalgarh alone. Shakram Karki reached to Athalgarh and fought with many brave men of Maneshahi. Shakram Karki defeated brave men as Paig Uday Singh and Kalika Pathan.
  However, Maneshah beheaded Shakram Karki. A faithful folk poet (Bhat or Jagari)  of Shakram Karki took the beheaded head of brave Shakram Karki to all pilgrim places and showed Karki the pilgrim places.     
     

Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 23/5/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…34 

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…19   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urvi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Dip Chand Chaudhri, 1995, Askot ka Palvansh , Gumani Shodhkendra, Uprada, Gangalighat
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Ramesh Matiyani ‘Shailesh’ 1959, Kumaun ki Lok Gathayen
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani, 2008, Ethno archeology of Yamuna Valley
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht, 1928, Gadhu Sumyal, Banghat , Pauri Garhwal
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women
Bhishma Kukreti, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhy Tatva va Vivechana
Helle Primdahi, 1994, Central Himalayan Folklore: folk Songs in Rituals of the Life Cycle
Hemant Kumar Shukla, D.R. Purohit, 2012, Theories and Practices of Hurkiya Theater in Uttarakhand, Language in India Vol.12:5: 2012 Page 143- 150
Dev Singh Pokhariya, 1996, Kumauni Jagar Kathayen aur Lokgathayen
Madan Chand Bhatt, 2002, Kumaun ki Jagar Kathayen 
Notes on folk Story of Fearless, Daring, Brave Legend from Kumaoni Folk Songs; folk Story of Fearless, Daring, and Brave Legend from Pithoragarh, Kumaoni Folk Songs; folk Story of Fearless, Daring, and Brave Legend from Champawat, Kumaoni Folk Songs; folk Story of Fearless, Daring, Brave Legend from Bageshwar, Kumaoni Folk Songs; folk Story of Fearless, Daring, Brave Legend from Dwarhat, Kumaoni Folk Songs; folk Story of Fearless, Daring, Brave Legend from Almora, Kumaoni Folk Songs; folk Story of Fearless, Daring, Brave Legend from Nainital Kumaoni Folk Songs; folk Story of Fearless, Daring, Brave Legend from Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaoni Folk Songs to be continued…

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Tirmal Chand Jagar Gatha: The Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King

Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Jagar of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarkahnd-34

 Chivalry, Gallantry, Graciousness Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths, Ballads of Bravery of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand –18 

                                         Bhishma Kukreti

                  The Kumaoni King Bijaya Chand was womanizer and was weak king. His ministers ruled Kumaon as proxies. The prince Trimal Chand ran to Garhwal for asylum. However, Trimal Chand back to Kumaon and sat on throne in 1625.  King Trimal Chand ruled Kumaon from 1625-1638AD. There is folksong/traditional Jagar about Trimal Chand.
A few lines of Trimal Chand folksong/traditional Jagar are as -   

कुमाऊं और गढ़वाल की लोक गाथाएँ/जागर  -34   



त्रिमलचंद जागर गाथा ,जागर, वीर-वीरंगनाएं  गाथा : भडौ , कटकू, भड़वळि  या पांवड़ा, जागर 

(सन्दर्भ : रमेश मटियानी 'शैलेश ', कुमाऊँ  की लोक गाथाएँ )

दिगौ अलमोड़ी का राज होलो तिरमोली चना
चना , विक्रम को च्यल होलो तिरमोली चना
लेखियो कागज चना तिरमोली चना
चना , पढ़ायो जोलिया हिना तिरमोली चना
हमारी कुशल तै छ तिरमोली चना
तलहटी बाटो रोक्यो तिरमोली चना
उपकार करिये बाटो खोल दिया तिरमोली चना
सिणि -साणी झगुली का मिलाया ढोक
तहें उठि बाटा लाग्या जोलिया लोग
अलकाचा बांश कि बुणि गै खाट
जोलिय रे पूजिग्यो अलमोड़ी  हाट
                       Hey!  deity of earth Dharmaraj, Pawan, Pani, Indra of Akash, Surya, Chandra; Jameen ke Jameendar aur Bhumidar; Purv ki Purnagiri; Doti ke Bhagling; Katyur ke Vaidyanath; Nepal ke Pashupatinath; Devidhuri ki Bhavani; Nainital ki Nandadevi; solh Paiyan! Please bless us. Hey! Deities and goddesses! Please protect us.
 
                                 The Kumaon kingdom is ruined. There is silence in Kumaon. The Kings of Kumaon kingdom were prosperous but now, the kingdom is poorest of poor. O Kumaon King! There used to be seven lines of minister in the Kumaoni court. Where have the wealth and pride lost? The sun of Champawat kingdom is setting.

    Shaikh and Sayyad Pathans have come in Bhabhar. The brave men as Bhardas Mogul, Savachan Jat and Nilchand Kathayat reached to Bhabhar of Kumaon. O Kumaoni brothers! The things as salt, jiggery and many important goods used to come through Bhabhar and the roads are now closed.There is no group, no army those could protect us.
                Four learned old men were sitting from four directions. They were Chaudhari, Bohra, Karki and Tadgi. There were sixteen Samant as Dev, Dhek, Mahar and Fartyalo. There were twelve types of officers and citizens. Everybody sat on their respective seats. Learned said that nothing was more pious than the head thread; there was no greater heritage than the kingdom. As the queen is superior most in honey bee comb, same way king is superior most in Kingdom. The citizen cannot live without king.

              The future Kumaon King Trimal Chand was in Garhwal. All the learned experienced men wrote a letter for Trimal Chand with messenger. The letter said,” O great King! We are not safe here. The roads of Bhabhar have been blocked. It is not possible to get salt, jiggery and other goods. You come back and open the roads.”
 The messenger handed over the letter to Trimal Chand.  The body of Trimal Chand started shivering; there was tension on his moustaches. Trimal Chand said,” It is not possible dark when there is sun. I am reaching to the capital.”

              The four learned old men decided auspicious date for coronation. The astrologer decided auspicious time of crowing of Trimal Chand. The citizen of Champawat became happy and joyful. People started singing. Bhat started singing praiseworthy songs for the future King, Our fort is safe as Lanka. Chand kings are light for us”. The women started singing,’ There is new sun rise on the earth. The moon of second has come up.”
                 The citizens came to Champawat. People and court officers brought auspicious goods to celebrate crowing of Trimal Chand. This way, Trimal Chand was crowned.   
     
                 
   



Copyright (Interpretation) @ Bhishma Kukreti, 24/5/2013
Folklore, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Kumaon-Garhwal, Uttarakhand to be continued…35 

Chivalry, Gallantry, gracious Folklores, Folk Legends, Folk Myths of Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…20   
Curtsey and references:
Dr. Krishna Nand Joshi, Kumaon ka Lok Sahitya (Folklore texts of Kumaon)
 Dr Trilochan Pandey, Kumaoni Bhasha aur Uska Sahity(Folklore literature of Kumaon )
Dr Siva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Lok Nrityageet  (Folk Songs and dances of Garhwal )
Dr Govind Chatak, Garhwali Lokgathayen (Folklore of Garhwali)
Dr. Govind Chatak, Kumaoni Lokgathayen (Folklore of Kumaoni)
Dr Urvi Datt Upadhyaya, Kumaon ki Lokgathaon ka Sahityik Adhyayan (Literary review of Folklore of Kumaon)
Dr. Dip Chand Chaudhri, 1995, Askot ka Palvansh , Gumani Shodhkendra, Uprada, Gangalighat
Dr. Prayag Joshi, Kumaon Garhwal ki Lokgathaon ka Vivechnatmak Adhyayan (Critical Review of Folklore of Kumaon and Garhwal)
Dr Dinesh Chandra Baluni, Uttarakhand ki Lokgathayen (Folklore of Uttarakhand)
Dr Jagdish (Jaggu) Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar, (Partially Folklore of Ravain) 
Ramesh Matiyani ‘Shailesh’ 1959, Kumaun ki Lok Gathayen
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Dhunyal (Folklore and Folk Songs of Garhwal)
Shambhu Prasad Bahuguna, Virat Hriday
Kusum Budhwar, 2010, Where Gods Dwell: Central Himalayan Folktales and Legends 
C.M. Agarwal , Golu Devta, 1992, The God of Justice of Kumaon Himalayas
N.D .Paliwal, 1987, Kumaoni Lok Geet
E.S. Oakley and Tara Datt Gairola 1935, Himalayan Folklore
M.R.Anand, 2009, Understanding the Socio Cultural experiences of Pahadi folks: Jagar Gathas of Kumaon and Garhwal
Dr. Pradeep Saklani, 2008, Ethno archeology of Yamuna Valley
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht, 1928, Gadhu Sumyal, Banghat , Pauri Garhwal
Kumaon: Kala, Shilp,aur Sanskriti         www.himvan.com/webpages/dana.htm
Anjali Kapila (2004), Traditional health Practices of Kumaoni women
Bhishma Kukreti, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhy Tatva va Vivechana
Helle Primdahi, 1994, Central Himalayan Folklore: folk Songs in Rituals of the Life Cycle
Hemant Kumar Shukla, D.R. Purohit, 2012, Theories and Practices of Hurkiya Theater in Uttarakhand, Language in India Vol.12:5: 2012 Page 143- 150
Dev Singh Pokhariya, 1996, Kumauni Jagar Kathayen aur Lokgathayen
Madan Chand Bhatt, 2002, Kumaun ki Jagar Kathayen 

Notes on the Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Rithakhal; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Ghat of Champawat; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Chhira; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Lupra; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Lohardhat; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Sela; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Bajkot; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Sukhithang; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Tanakpur; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Chalthi; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Dhunaghat; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Khoral; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Devidhura; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Dayuri; Kumaoni Traditional Song about Brave Kumaoni King from Dhura , Champawat.


 

 


 

 




 


 

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