Author Topic: National Park In Uttarakhand - उत्तराखण्ड के प्रसिद्ध अभ्यारण्य  (Read 29273 times)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: FAMOUS PARKS OF UTTARAKHAND - RAJA JI NATIONAL PARKS ETC.
« Reply #10 on: October 27, 2007, 01:10:31 PM »

Jim Corbett National Park



Jim Corbett National Park—established in 1936 as Hailey National Park—is the oldest national park in India.[2] Situated in Nainital district of Uttarakhand, the park acts as a protected area for the critically endangered Bengal tiger of India, the secure survival of which is the main objective of Project Tiger, an Indian wildlife protection initiative.[2] The park is named after the famous hunter and naturalist, Jim Corbett, a leading figure in efforts to save tigers from extinction, who played a key role in the establishment of this reserve.[2]

The park has sub-Himalayan belt geographical structure.[3] It contains 488 different species of plants[4] and a diverse variety of fauna.[5] During recent times the park has been a popular ecotourism destination.[6] The increase in tourist activities, among other problems, continues to present a serious challenge to the park's ecological balance.[7]


History
Some areas of the park were formerly part of the princely state of Tehri Garhwal.[8] The forests were cleared to make the area less vulnerable to Rohila invaders.[8] The Raja of Tehri formally ceded a part of his princely state to the British in return for their assistance in ousting the Gurkhas from his domain.[8] Boksas, tribal people from the Terai, settled on the land and began growing crops but in the early 1860s they were evicted with the advent of British rule.[8] The British forest department established control over the land and prohibited cultivation and the operation of cattle stations.[9] The British administration considered the possibility of creating a game reserve there in 1907[9] and established a reserve area known as Hailey National Park covering 323.75 km² (125 sq mi) in 1936.[10] The preserve was renamed in 1954-55 as Ramganga National Park and was again renamed in 1955-56 as Corbett National Park.[10] The new name honors Jim Corbett, a well known author and wildlife conservationist, who spent a significant amount of time in the region,[3] playing a key role in creating the reserve by using his influence to persuade the provincial government to establish it.[11]

The reserve does not allow shooting but does allow timber cutting.[11] Soon after the establishment of the reserve, rules prohibiting killing, capturing, or even disturbing of mammals within its boundaries were passed.[11] The park fared well during the 1930s under an elected administration.[12] But during the Second World War, it suffered from excessive poaching and timber cutting.[12] Over time the area in the reserve was increased — 797.72 km² (308 sq mi) were added in 1991 as a buffer for the Corbett Tiger Reserve.[10] The 1991 additions included the entire Kalagarh forest division, assimilating the 301.18 km² (116.3 sq mi) area of Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary as a part of the Kalagarh division.[10] It was chosen in 1974 as the location for launching Project Tiger, an ambitious and well known wildlife conservation project.[13] The reserve is administered from its headquarters in the district of Nainital.[9]

Corbett National Park is one of the thirteen protected areas covered by World Wildlife Fund under their Terai Arc Landscape Programme.[14] The programme aims to protect three of the five terrestrial flagship species, the tiger, the Asian elephant and the Great One-horned Rhinoceros, by restoring corridors of forest to link 13 protected areas of Nepal and India to enable wildlife migration.[14]





एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: FAMOUS PARKS OF UTTARAKHAND - RAJA JI NATIONAL PARKS ETC.
« Reply #11 on: October 27, 2007, 01:11:53 PM »
[edit] Geography
 
A stream inside the Corbett National Park.The park is located between 29°25' to 29°39'N latitude and 78°44' to 79°07'E longitude.[8] The average altitude of the region ranges between 360 metres (1,181 ft) and 1,040 metres (3,412 ft).[3] It has numerous ravines, ridges, minor streams and small plateaus with varying aspects and degrees of slopes.[3] The park encompasses the Patli Dun valley formed by the Ramganga river.[15]

The reserve, located partly along a valley between the Lesser Himalaya in the north and the Siwaliks in the south, has a sub-Himalayan belt structure.[3] The upper tertiary rocks are exposed towards the base of the Siwalik range and hard sandstone units form broad ridges.[3] Characteristic longitudinal valleys, geographically termed Doons, or Duns can be seen formed along the narrow tectonic zones between lineaments.[3]


[edit] Climate
The weather in the park is good compared to most other protected areas of India.[15] The temperature may vary from 5 °C (41 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F) during the winter and some mornings are foggy.[15] Summer temperatures normally do not rise above 40 °C (104 °F).[15] Rainfall ranges from light during the dry season to heavy during the monsoons.[2]


[edit] Flora
A total of 488 different species of plants have been recorded in the park.[4] Tree density inside the reserve is higher in the areas of Sal forests and lowest in the Anogeissus-Acacia catechu forests.[16] Total tree basal cover is greater in Sal dominated areas of woody vegetation.[16] Healthy regeneration in sapling and seedling layers is occurring in the Mallotus philippensis, Jamun and Diospyros tomentosa communities, but in the Sal forests the regeneration of sapling and seedling is poor.[16]



एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: FAMOUS PARKS OF UTTARAKHAND - RAJA JI NATIONAL PARKS ETC.
« Reply #12 on: October 27, 2007, 01:15:57 PM »
Gangotri National Park
Gangotri National Park is a national park located in Uttarkashi District Uttarakhand, India. The size of this national park is about 1,553 square km. The park provides majestic beauty of coniferous forests and grandeur of glacial world combined with lush green meadows.

Flora
The forests of the park are Himalayan moist temperate type. Vegetation consist of chirpine deodar, fir, spruce, oak and rhododendrons.

Fauna
So far 15 species of mammals and 150 bird species have been documented in the park (Paramanand et al. 2000). This includes some of the rare and charismatic species such as snow leopard (Uncia uncia), black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), blue sheep or bharal (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus), Koklass (Pucrasia macrolopha) and Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis).

This park is home to the snow leopard, ibex, thar, Himalayan barbet, tiger, thar, serow, pheasants, partridges, doves, pigeons, parakeet, bulbul et cetera.

Location
The Gangotri National Park (GNP) (Lat. 78°45’ to 79°02’ East and 30°50’ to 31°12’ North) is located in the upper catchment of Bhagirathi river in the Uttarkashi District of Uttranchal State, India. The northeastern park boundary is located along the international boundary with China. It falls under the Biogeographical zone – 2A West Himalaya(Rodgers and Panwar, 1988) and covers an areas of 2,390 sq km. (Fig.1&2), including a considerable stretch of snow-clad mountains and glaciers. The Gaumukh glacier, the origin of river Ganga is located inside the park. The Gangotri, after which the park has been named, is one of the holy shrines of Hindus. The park area forms a viable continuity between Govind National Park and Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary. High ridges, deep gorges and precipitous cliffs, rocky craggy glaciers and narrow valleys characterize the area. There is a high variation in the elevation gradients from 1,800 to 7,083m, which in turn reflects in the diverse biomes,from subtropical communities to alpine meadows.

Ecology

The Gangotri National Park is typical of high altitude ecosystems, with decisive influence from Trans Himalayan elements in both physical and biological characteristics. The landscape is dominated by alpine scrub, although forests of kharsu oak and betula are observed in patches in lower and higher elevation areas respectively. The mountain sides along the entire route from Gangotri to Gaumukh are steeper and are distinctly broken up by consequential landslides. These landslides appear to have caused irreversible isolation between forest patches including the alpine vegetation. The impact of these natural events on the forest and the dependent organisms is important to document, so as to assess the long-term value of this park in the wildlife perspective. The ground vegetation, although drying, is suggestive of high ground biomass in this area, and the recorded ground vegetative cover ranges from 10 to 50% (average = 25%).


एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: FAMOUS PARKS OF UTTARAKHAND - RAJA JI NATIONAL PARKS ETC.
« Reply #13 on: October 27, 2007, 01:22:23 PM »
Nanda Devi National Park

The Nanda Devi National Park is a national park situated around the peak of Nanda Devi, 7,817 m (25,646 ft), in the state of Uttarakhand in northern India. It was established as national park in 1982 and was inscribed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988[1]. It covers 630.33 km²[2].

The park encompasses the Nanda Devi Sanctuary, a glacial basin surrounded by a ring of peaks between 6,000 m (19,700 ft) and 7,500 m (24,600 ft) high, and drained by the Rishi Ganga through the Rishi Ganga Gorge, a steep, almost impassable defile. Together with the nearby Valley of Flowers National Park to the northwest, it is a designated World Heritage Site. Both parks are encompassed in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (223,674 ha) which is further surrounded by a buffer zone (5,148.57 km²).[2]

The entire park lies at an elevation of more than 3,500 m (11,500 ft) above mean sea level.


Layout of the Sanctuary

The Sanctuary can be divided into two parts, Inner and Outer. Together, they are surrounded by the main Sanctuary Wall, which forms a roughly square outline, with high, continuous ridges on the north, east, and south sides. On the west side, less high but still imposing ridges drop from the north and south toward the Rishi Ganga Gorge, which drains the Sanctuary towards the west.[3]

The Inner Sanctuary occupies roughly the eastern two-thirds of the total area, and contains Nanda Devi itself and the two major glaciers flanking the peak, the Uttari (north) Rishi Glacier and the Dakkhni (south) Rishi Glacier. These are fed by the smaller Uttari Nanda Devi and Dakkhni Nanda Devi Glaciers respectively.[3] The first recorded entry of humans into the Inner Sanctuary was by Eric Shipton and H. W. Tilman in 1934, via the Rishi Gorge.[4]

The Outer Sanctuary occupies the western third of the total Sanctuary, and is separated from the Inner Sanctuary by high ridges, through which flows the Rishi Ganga. It is split in two by the Rishi Ganga; on the north side lies the Ramani Glacier, flowing down from the slopes of Dunagiri and Changabang, and on the south lies the Trisul Glacier, flowing from the peak of the same name. This portion of the Sanctuary is accessible to the outside (though requiring the crossing of a 4,000 m (13,000 ft) pass). The first serious climbing expedition to pass through the Outer Sanctuary was that of T. G. Longstaff, who climbed Trisul I in 1907 via the eponymous glacier.[4]

The Rishi Gorge
The Rishi Ganga begins in the Inner Sanctuary, near the confluence of the two Rishi Glaciers. It then flows through the Rishi Gorge, which has two separate sections. The Upper Gorge, about 3 km (2 mi) long, forms the connection between the Inner and Outer Sanctuaries, and is the crux of the route forged by Shipton and Tilman into the Sanctuary. From the peak of Rishi Kot, just to the north of the Upper Gorge, to the river is a 2,500 m (8,200 ft) vertical drop, giving a sense of the scale and steepness of the terrain. The going through this section involves a good deal of travel on sloping rock slabs and steep, sparsely vegetated slopes, often with great exposure.[4]

After passing through the Upper Gorge the valley widens out somewhat and the slopes become less precipitous on either side, for about 4 km (2 mi). The Shipton-Tilman route crosses the river here over a natural bridge formed by a huge boulder, and ascends the north side of the canyon to bypass the Lower Gorge, into which the Rishi now descends. The Lower Gorge, about 4 km (2 mi) long, is even steeper than the Upper, and in 1934, even though it had been circumvented by local shepherds, it had not been traversed directly.[4

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: FAMOUS PARKS OF UTTARAKHAND - RAJA JI NATIONAL PARKS ETC.
« Reply #14 on: October 27, 2007, 01:24:38 PM »

Govind Pashu Vihar

Govind Pashu Vihar is a wildlife sanctuary located at Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India. The park was established on March 1st, 1955, and covers about 957 square kilometres.

The Indian government initiated the Snow Leopard Project in Govind Pashu Vihar.

Other fauna in this area include the black bear, the brown bear, common leopard, serow, golden eagle, bearded vulture, snow cock, steppe eagle and the black eagle.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: FAMOUS PARKS OF UTTARAKHAND - RAJA JI NATIONAL PARKS ETC.
« Reply #15 on: October 27, 2007, 01:32:48 PM »

Valley of Flowers National Park

Valley of Flowers National Park is an Indian national park in the Himalayan area in Uttarakhand, India. Together with Nanda Devi National Park, it forms part of the Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks World Heritage Site. The park stretches over an expanse of 87.50 km².

The Valley of Flowers was declared a national park in 1982. This part of Uttarakhand, in the upper reaches of Garhwal, is inaccessible through much of the year. The area lies on the Zaskar range of the Himalayas with the highest point in the national park being Gauri Parbat at 6,719 m above sea level

History
In 1931 the English mountaineer Frank Smythe stumbled across the Bhyundar Valley, an 8 km long glacier corridor in Chamoli Garhwal. This area, surrounded by snow-capped mountains and carpeted with over 500 species of flowers, soon became a protected site.

Management
There is no settlement in the national park and grazing in the area has been banned. The park is open only in summers between June and October, being covered by heavy snow during the rest of the year.

Fauna
The park is home to tahr, snow leopard, musk deer, red fox, common langur, bharal, serow, Himalayan black bear and a huge variety of butterflies

Flora
Flowers mostly orchids, poppies, primulas, calendulas, daisies and anemones carpet the ground. Alpine forests of birch and rhododendron cover parts of the park's area.

Species
No.   Name of Flowers   Time of flowering   
1. Rhododendron arboreum February-June
2. Primula denticuleta April-July
3. Iris kemaonensis June-July
4. Fritillaria roylei June-July
5. Lilium oxypetalum June-July
6. Arisaema costautum June-July
7. Thermopsisa barbata June-July
8. Rosa macrophylla June-July
9. Caltha palustris June-July
10. Fragaria nubicola May-July
11. Saxifraga roylei July-August
12. Anemone obtusiloba June-August
13. Cypripedium himalaicum June-August
14. Rheum australe July-August
15. Phlomis oracteosa June-August
16. Hackelia uncinata June-August
17. Senecio jacquemotiamus August-September
18. Ligularia amplexicaulis July-August
19. Morina longifolia July-September
20. Geum elatum July-August
21. Geranium wallichianum July-August
22. Impatiense sulcata July-August
23. Meconopsis aculeata July-August
24. Delphenium roylei July-August
25. Aconitum hookeri August-September
26. Thalictrum reniforme July-September
27. Potentilla atrosanguinea July-September
28. Sedum ewersii August-September
29. Dactylorhiza hatagirea June-July
30. Bistorta affinis August-September
31. Stachys sericee August-September
32. Nepeta connata August-September
33. Pedicularis hoffmeistri July-August
34. Swertia hookeri August-September
35. Gentiana ornata August-September
36. Gaultheria erichophy August-September
37. Codonopsis affinis August-September
38. Angelica cyelocarpa July-September
39. Leontopodium jacotianum July-September
40. Saussurea fastuosa July-September
41. Campanula latitotia August-September
42. Cyananthus lobotus August-September
43. Sassurea obvallata August-September
44. Cremanthodium ellisii July-September
45. Anaphalis triplineruts July-September
46. Inula grandiflora August-September
47. Aster albescens July-September
48. Selinium tenuifolium August-September
49. Heracleum pinnatum August-September
50. Epilobium latisperma August-September
51. Silene setisperma August-September
52. Arenaria griffithii August-September
53. Corydalis junecea August-September
54. Erigerono multiradiatus August-September
55. Polygonum molle August-September
56. Himalayan Blue Poppy July-September
57. Codonopsis viridis July-August
58. Origanus vulgare July-August
59. Hackelia uncinata July-August
60. Salvia hins/lanata July-August
61. Smilacina purpurea/oleracea June-July
62. Viola biflora June-August
63. Rhodiola heterodonta July-August
64. Epilohium latifolium July-August





एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: FAMOUS PARKS OF UTTARAKHAND - RAJA JI NATIONAL PARKS ETC.
« Reply #16 on: October 27, 2007, 01:37:14 PM »

To see the photo of valley of flowers... view this link

http://www.uttarakhand.ws/v/trekking/valley-of-flowers/

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Re: FAMOUS PARKS OF UTTARAKHAND - RAJA JI NATIONAL PARKS ETC.
« Reply #17 on: October 29, 2007, 05:00:18 PM »
Askot Musk Deer Sanctuary park

Askot Musk Deer Sanctuary is located 54 km from Pithoragarh near Askot in Uttarakhand state of India, nestles at a height of 5412 ft (1650 m). This sanctuary has been set up primarily with the object of conserving the musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) and its habitat. Intensive efforts have been initiated to conserve this rare species. Other mammals found in this sanctuary include the leopard, jungle cat, civet cat, barking deer, serow, goral and brown bear. Many species of high altitude birds are also found in this sanctuary.

Nearest city -  Didihat
Area              599.93km²
Established     1986



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Re: FAMOUS PARKS OF UTTARAKHAND - RAJA JI NATIONAL PARKS ETC.
« Reply #18 on: October 29, 2007, 05:02:17 PM »
Askot Musk Deer Sanctuary park

Askot Musk Deer Sanctuary is located 54 km from Pithoragarh near Askot in Uttarakhand state of India, nestles at a height of 5412 ft (1650 m). This sanctuary has been set up primarily with the object of conserving the musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) and its habitat. Intensive efforts have been initiated to conserve this rare species. Other mammals found in this sanctuary include the leopard, jungle cat, civet cat, barking deer, serow, goral and brown bear. Many species of high altitude birds are also found in this sanctuary.

Nearest city -  Didihat
Area              599.93km²
Established     1986



Musk deer (कस्तूरी म्रग) are artiodactyls of the genus Moschus, the only genus of family Moschidae. They are more primitive than the true deer (family Cervidae) in not having antlers or facial glands, in having only a single pair of teats, and in possessing a gall bladder, a caudal gland, a pair of tusk-like teeth and—of particular economic importance to humans—a musk gland

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Re: FAMOUS PARKS OF UTTARAKHAND - RAJA JI NATIONAL PARKS ETC.
« Reply #19 on: October 29, 2007, 05:06:26 PM »
Jim Corbett National Park


Jim Corbett National Park—established in 1936 as Hailey National Park—is the oldest national park in India.[2] Situated in Nainital district of Uttarakhand, the park acts as a protected area for the critically endangered Bengal tiger of India, the secure survival of which is the main objective of Project Tiger, an Indian wildlife protection initiative.[2] The park is named after the famous hunter and naturalist, Jim Corbett, a leading figure in efforts to save tigers from extinction, who played a key role in the establishment of this reserve.[2]

The park has sub-Himalayan belt geographical structure.[3] It contains 488 different species of plants[4] and a diverse variety of fauna.[5] During recent times the park has been a popular ecotourism destination.[6] The increase in tourist activities, among other problems, continues to present a serious challenge to the park's ecological balance.[7]


History
Some areas of the park were formerly part of the princely state of Tehri Garhwal.[8] The forests were cleared to make the area less vulnerable to Rohila invaders.[8] The Raja of Tehri formally ceded a part of his princely state to the British in return for their assistance in ousting the Gurkhas from his domain.[8] Boksas, tribal people from the Terai, settled on the land and began growing crops but in the early 1860s they were evicted with the advent of British rule.[8] The British forest department established control over the land and prohibited cultivation and the operation of cattle stations.[9] The British administration considered the possibility of creating a game reserve there in 1907[9] and established a reserve area known as Hailey National Park covering 323.75 km² (125 sq mi) in 1936.[10] The preserve was renamed in 1954-55 as Ramganga National Park and was again renamed in 1955-56 as Corbett National Park.[10] The new name honors Jim Corbett, a well known author and wildlife conservationist, who spent a significant amount of time in the region,[3] playing a key role in creating the reserve by using his influence to persuade the provincial government to establish it.[11]

The reserve does not allow shooting but does allow timber cutting.[11] Soon after the establishment of the reserve, rules prohibiting killing, capturing, or even disturbing of mammals within its boundaries were passed.[11] The park fared well during the 1930s under an elected administration.[12] But during the Second World War, it suffered from excessive poaching and timber cutting.[12] Over time the area in the reserve was increased — 797.72 km² (308 sq mi) were added in 1991 as a buffer for the Corbett Tiger Reserve.[10] The 1991 additions included the entire Kalagarh forest division, assimilating the 301.18 km² (116.3 sq mi) area of Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary as a part of the Kalagarh division.[10] It was chosen in 1974 as the location for launching Project Tiger, an ambitious and well known wildlife conservation project.[13] The reserve is administered from its headquarters in the district of Nainital.[9]

Corbett National Park is one of the thirteen protected areas covered by World Wildlife Fund under their Terai Arc Landscape Programme.[14] The programme aims to protect three of the five terrestrial flagship species, the tiger, the Asian elephant and the Great One-horned Rhinoceros, by restoring corridors of forest to link 13 protected areas of Nepal and India to enable wildlife migration

 

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