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Flora Of Uttarakhand - उत्तराखंड के फल, फूल एव वनस्पति

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एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:


प्रक्रति ने उत्तराखंड को दुर्लभ फल एव फूल प्रदान किए है!

आएये उतराखंड के विभिन्न फल एव फूल के बारे मे जाने !

एम0 एस0 मेहता

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:


अति स्वादिष्ट फल! आमतौर से यह फल जंगल मे पाया मिलता है और इस फल के पकने का समय अप्रिल और मई है.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:

तिमुल .

यह भी जंगल एव घर मे मिलता है. तिमुल के पेड सफ़ेद रंग का दूध जैसा द्रव निकलता है. तिमुल के पत्तो को पूजा पाठ के समय भी प्रयोग लाते है.

तिमुल का फल को ओखली मे कूट कर उसमे नमक मिला कर " रैमर" बनाते है .

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:


किरमोरी एव नीले रंग का फल है.  आमतौर से यह भी जंगल मे पाया जाता है. [/color]

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:
चीड़ का पेड एव फल. ( सियूत )

उत्तराखंड मे सबसे ज्यादा चीड़ की वनस्पति है. अधिकतर हिस्से मे चीड़ के पेड ही उत्तराखंड मे आमतौर से दिखायी देते है. सियूत चीड़ के पेड के फल को कहते है जो की काफ़ी स्वादिष्ट होता है.

Chir Pine

The Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. The range extends from northern Pakistan (North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir), across northern India (Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim) and Nepal to Bhutan. It generally occurs at lower altitudes than other pines in the Himalaya, from 500-2000 m, occasionally up to 2300 m. The other Himalayan pines are Blue Pine, Bhutan White Pine, Chinese White Pine, Chilgoza Pine and Sikang Pine.

Male conesIt is a large tree, reaching 30-50 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 2 m, exceptionally 3 m. The bark is red-brown, thick and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, thinner and flaky in the upper crown. The leaves are needle-like, in fascicles of three, very slender, 20-35 cm long, and distinctly yellowish green. The cones are ovoid conic, 12-24 cm long and 5-8 cm broad at the base when closed, green at first, ripening glossy chestnut-brown when 24 months old. They open slowly over the next year or so, or after being heated by a forest fire, to release the seeds, opening to 9-18 cm broad. The seeds are 8-9 mm long, with a 40 mm wing, and are wind-dispersed.

Chir Pine is closely related to Canary Island Pine, Turkish Pine and Maritime Pine, which all share many features with it. It is a relatively non-variable species, with constant morphology over the entire range.


Chir pine is widely planted for timber in its native area, being one of the most important trees in forestry in northern Pakistan, India and Nepal. It is also occasionally used as an ornamental tree, planted in parks and gardens in hot dry areas, where its heat and drought tolerance is valued.

It is also tapped commercially for resin. On distillation, the resin yieds an essential oil, commonly known as turpentine, and non-volatile rosin. The proportion of rosin and turpentine oil in Chir Pine is 75% and 22% respectively with 3% losses, etc.

The turpentine is chiefly used as a solvent in pharmaceutical preparations, perfume industry, in manufacture of synthetic pine oil, disinfectants, insecticides and denaturants. It is one of the most important basic raw materials for the synthesis of terpene chemicals which are used in a wide variety of industries such as adhesives, paper and rubber, etc.

Chir Pine rosin is principally used in paper, soap, cosmetics, paint, varnish, rubber and polish industries. Besides these, other uses include, manufacture of linoleum, explosives, insecticides and disinfectants, as a flux in soldering, in brewing and in mineral beneficiation as a frothing agent.

Presently, India imports resin which is far superior in quality as well as cheaper than the indigenous one. Quality of resin depends on the pinene content. Imported resin contains 75-95% pinenes, whereas Chir Pine resin contains only about 25% pinenes.

The caterpillars of the moth Batrachedra silvatica are not known


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