Author Topic: Holy Rivers Of Uttarakhand - उत्तराखंड की पवित्र नदिया  (Read 46038 times)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Dosto,

As you are aware our State Uttarakhand is known with Dev Bhoomi also. Sacred River Ganga, Yamuna etc orginates from here. This is land where Rishi & Munies did ardous penance to get salvation. As per mythological story, Raja Bhagirath did a long yrs of penance to bring Ganga Maa on earth.

There are several reviers which orginates from Uttarakhand. We will discuss about them  under this thread.

M S Mehta

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: SACRED AND FAMOUS RIVERS OF UTTARAKHAND !!!
« Reply #1 on: October 16, 2007, 04:50:31 PM »
Kali River (Uttarakhand)

The Kali River originates from the Greater Himalayas at Kalapaani at an altitude of 3600 m, in the Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand, India. The river is named after the Goddess Kali whose temple is situated in Kalapaani near the Lipu-Lekh pass at the border between India and Tibet. On its upper course, this river forms India's continuous eastern boundary with Nepal.

The Kali River joins with the Gori Ganga at Jauljibi, a place famous for its annual trade fair. It the joins with the Saryu River at Pancheshwar. The area around Pancheshwar is called 'Kali Kumaon'. Kali descends in plains and called by the name of Sharda.

The Pancheswar Dam, a joint venture with Nepal for irrigation and hydro-electric power generation will soon be constructed on the Kali.[1] The Tanakpur Hydroelectric Project is also being built by the Uttarakhand Irrigation Department, with a dam on the river near the town of Tanakpur in the district of Champawat.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: SACRED AND FAMOUS RIVERS OF UTTARAKHAND !!!
« Reply #2 on: October 16, 2007, 04:55:13 PM »
Ganga in Hinduism

 Hinduism, the river Ganga (Sanskrit and Hindi गंगा Gaṅgā) or Ganges River (as called by westerners) is considered sacred. It is worshipped by Hindus, and personified as a goddess in Hinduism, who holds an important place in the Hindu religion. Hindus believe that bathing in the river on certain occasions causes the remission of sins and facilitates the attainment of salvation. Many people believe that this effect obtains from bathing in Ganga at any time. People travel from distant places to immerse the ashes of their kin in the waters of the Ganga; this immersion also is believed to be meritorious as the ashes are believed to go to heaven. Several places sacred to Hindus lie along the banks of the river Ganga, including Haridwar, Allahabad and Varanasi.

There are several Hindu beliefs that give various versions of the birth of Ganga. According to one version, the sacred water in Brahma's Kamandalu (water-vessel) became personified as a maiden, Ganga. According to another (Vaishnavite) legend, Brahma had reverently washed the feet of Vishnu and collected this water in his Kamandalu. According to yet a third version, Ganga was the daughter of Himavan, king of the mountains, and his consort Mena; she was thus a sister of the goddess Parvati. Every version declares that she was raised in the heavens, under the tutelage of Brahma.

Descent to Earth
Several years later, a king named Sagara magically acquired sixty thousand sons. One day, King Sagara performed a ritual of worship for the good of the kingdom. One of the integral parts of the ritual was a horse, which was stolen by the jealous Indra. Sagara sent all his sons all over the earth to search for the horse. They found it in the nether-world (or Underworld) next to a meditating sage Kapila. Believing that the sage had stolen the horse, they hurled insults at him and caused his penance to be disturbed. The sage opened his eyes for the first time in several years, and looked at the sons of Sagara. With this glance, all sixty thousand were burnt to death.

The souls of the sons of Sagara wandered as ghosts since their final rites had not been performed. When Bhagiratha, one of the descendants of Sagara, son of Dilip, learnt of this fate, he vowed to bring Ganga down to Earth so that her waters could cleanse their souls and release them to heaven.

Bhagiratha prayed to Brahma that Ganga come down to Earth. Brahma agreed, and he ordered Ganga to go down to the Earth and then on to the nether regions so that the souls of Bhagiratha's ancestors would be able to go to heaven. The vain Ganga felt that this was insulting and decided to sweep the whole earth away as she fell from the heavens. Alarmed, Bhagiratha prayed to Shiva that he break up Ganga's descent.

 
Desent Of GangaGanga arrogantly fell on Shiva's head. But Shiva calmly trapped her in his hair and let her out in small streams. The touch of Shiva further sanctified Ganga. As Ganga travelled to the nether-worlds, she created a different stream to remain on Earth to help purify unfortunate souls there. She is the only river to follow from all the three worlds - Swarga (heaven), Prithvi (earth) and, Patala (neitherworld or hell). Thus is called "Tripathagā" ( one who travels the three worlds) in Sanskrit language.

Because of Bhagiratha's efforts Ganga descended on to earth and hence the river is also known as Bhagirathi, and the term "Bhagirath prayatna" is used to describe valiant efforts or difficult achievements.

Another name that Ganga is known by is Jahnavi. Story has it that once Ganga came down to earth, on her way to Bhagiratha, her rushing waters created turbulence and destroyed the fields and the sadhana of a sage called Jahnu. He was angered by this and drank up all of Ganga's waters. Upon this, the Gods prayed to Jahnu to release Ganga so that she could proceed on her mission. Pleased with their prayers, Jahnu released Ganga (her waters) from his ears. Hence the name "Jahnavi" (daughter of Jahnu) for Ganga.

It is sometime believed that the river will finally dry up at the end of Kali Yuga (the era of darkness, the current era) just as with the Sarasvati river, and this era will end. Next in (cyclic) order will be the Satya Yuga or the era of Truth.


[edit] Other Mythological Associations
According to the Hindu scriptures like Skanda Purana, the goddess Ganga is foster-mother to Karttikeya (Murugan), who was actually a son of Shiva and Parvati.

According to Brahma Vaivarta Purana 2.6.13-95 Vishnu has three wives, who constantly quarrel with each other, so that eventually, he keeps only Lakshmi, giving Ganga to Shiva and Saraswati to Brahma.

The Hindu epic, Mahabharata tells that the Vasus, cursed by Vashishta had requested Ganga to be their mother. Ganga incarnated and became the wife of King Santanu on condition that at no stage shall he question her actions, or she would leave him.. As seven Vasus were born as their children, one after the other, Ganga drowned them in her own waters, freeing them from their punishment and the king made no opposition. Only when the eighth was born did the king finally oppose his wife, who therefore left him. So the eighth son, Dyaus incarnated, remained alive, imprisoned in mortal form, and later became known in his mortal incarnation as Bhishma (Devavrata), who is one of the most respected characters of the Mahabharata.


[edit] Rig Veda
The Ganga is definitely mentioned in the Rig-Ved, the earliest and theoretically the holiest of the Hindu scriptures. The Ganga is mentioned in the nadistuti (Rig Veda 10.75), which lists the rivers from east to west. In RV 6.45.31, the word Ganga is also mentioned, but it is not clear if the reference is to the river.

RV 3.58.6 says that "your ancient home, your auspicious friendship, O Heroes, your wealth is on the banks of the Jahnavi (JahnAvyAm)". This verse could possibly refer to the Ganga.[1] In RV 1.116.18-19, the Jahnavi and the Gangetic dolphin occur in two adjacent verses. [2] [3]


[edit] Iconography
 
The largest religious gathering on Earth. [1][2] Around 70 million Hindus from around the world participated in Kumbh Mela at one of the Hindu Holy city Prayaga (also known as Allahabad) (India).In the canons of Indian art, Ganga is visualized as voluptuous and beautiful, carrying an overflowing pot in her hand. The vessel conveys the idea of abundant life and fertility, which nourishes and sustains the universe.

The second distinguishing aspect of Ganga's iconography is her animal mount, which is often shown serving as a pedestal for her. This is the makara, a hybrid creature having the body of a crocodile and the tail of a fish. The makara in Hindu thought corresponds to the star sign of Capricorn in western astrology.

The makara is also the vehicle of the Vedic god of waters, Varuna, thus establishing firmly Goddess Ganga's Vedic roots.



एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: SACRED AND FAMOUS RIVERS OF UTTARAKHAND !!!
« Reply #3 on: October 16, 2007, 04:58:08 PM »


See this photo ... of Ganga coming to eath.

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Re: SACRED AND FAMOUS RIVERS OF UTTARAKHAND !!!
« Reply #4 on: October 16, 2007, 05:05:22 PM »
The Saryu River flows through parts of Uttar Pradesh state in India adjoining the Nepal border. It is one of the oldest and most holy rivers in India and has much historical significance. The Saryu River has importance from the days of Ramayana and its kingdom Ayodhya, which now lies in Faizabad, Gonda and adjoining districts and from where the river flows. The Kali River meets Saryu at Pancheshwar.

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Re: SACRED AND FAMOUS RIVERS OF UTTARAKHAND !!!
« Reply #5 on: October 16, 2007, 05:06:12 PM »
Kalapaani
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Kala Pani is the place of origin of Kali River near Gunji in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand, India.It is situated on Kailash Mansarover trek.It is situated at an altitude of 3600 mts.It is said that at this place the Great Sage Vyasa meditated and the valley is called Vyasa valley. A temple of Goddess Kali is also located here. This is a place adorned with Pine, Bhojpatra and Juniper forests and surrounded by snow clapped peaks.

Kalapaani is also the old name of the Andaman and Nicobar Island which lie in the Bay of Bengal and are a part of India. Kalapaani in Hindi language means 'Black Water'. As the sea in this area exhibits dark blue hues, the area came to be known as Kalapaani. It was also famous as the area where Nationalists fighting for Indian Independence were jailed for life during the British Rule.

The place has been subject of many movies notably the multi lingual Mohanlal starrer movie (originally in Malayalam).

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: SACRED AND FAMOUS RIVERS OF UTTARAKHAND !!!
« Reply #6 on: October 16, 2007, 05:08:52 PM »
Dhauliganga


The Dhauliganga is one of the five source rivers that make up the Ganges. It merges with the Ganges at Devprayag in Uttarakhand.

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Re: SACRED AND FAMOUS RIVERS OF UTTARAKHAND !!!
« Reply #7 on: October 16, 2007, 05:09:59 PM »
Bhagirathi River

The Bhāgirathi (Bengali: ভাগীরথী) is a major tributary of the Ganges River. Together with the Bhilangana it arises in the Badrinath Range of Uttarakhand, India.

The Bhāgirathi is a turbulent Himalayan river originating at Gaumukh from the Gangotri glacier at an elevation of 7,756 m (25,446 ft), in Uttarakhand. It flows for about 700 km (435 mi) before merging with the Alaknanda at an elevation of 465 m (1,526 ft) in the town of Devprayag. The river downstream from the holy confluence, Sangam, is known as the Ganges proper. The controversial Tehri dam lies at the confluence of the Bhāgirathi and Bhilangana, near Tehri.


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Re: SACRED AND FAMOUS RIVERS OF UTTARAKHAND !!!
« Reply #8 on: October 16, 2007, 05:12:58 PM »

Yamuna

Yamuna (Sanskrit: यमुना, sometimes called Jamuna or Jumna) is a major tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India Ganges watershed— with a total length of around 1370 km, it is the largest tributary of the Ganges (Ganga).

Its source is at Yamunotri, in the Uttarakhand Himalaya, which is north of Haridwar in the Himalayan Mountains. It flows through the states of Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, before merging with the Ganges at Allahabad. The cities of Delhi, Mathura and Agra lie on its banks. The major tributaries of this river are the Tons, Chambal, Betwa, and Ken; with the Tons being the largest.

A heavy freight canal, known as the SYL (Sutlej-Yamuna Link), is being built westwards from near its headwaters through the Punjab region near an ancient caravan route and highlands pass to the navigable parts of the Sutlej-Indus watershed. This will connect the entire Ganges, which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent, with points west (via Pakistan). When completed, the SLY will allow shipping from India's east coast to the west coast and the Arabian sea, drastically shortening shipping distances and creating important commercial links for north-central India's large population.

Ancient history
 
Yamuna personified as a goddess, riding a tortoiseThere is some evidence indicating Yamuna was a tributary of the Ghaggar river in the ancient past. It changed its course to east following a tectonic event in north India and became a tributary of the Ganges instead.

According to legend the goddess of the river, also known as Yami, is the sister of the Hindu god of death, Yama and the daughter of Surya, the Sun god. The river Yamuna is also connected to the religious beliefs surrounding the Hindu god Krishna.

The Yamuna was known to the ancient Greeks following the campaigns of Seleucus I in 305 BCE.[1] It was called Ioames by the ancient Greeks, and Jomanes by the Romans.

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Re: SACRED AND FAMOUS RIVERS OF UTTARAKHAND !!!
« Reply #9 on: October 16, 2007, 05:14:44 PM »

Mandakini River

Mandakini is a tributary of river Alaknanda. Mandakini originates from the Charabari glacier near Kedarnath in Uttarakhand, India. Mandakini is fed by river Vasukiganga at Sonprayag. Mandakini joins Alaknanda at Rudraprayag. Alaknanda then proceeds towards Devaprayag where it joins with Bhagirathi River to form the Ganges.