Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 120167 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Features of Nomenclature of Kedarkhand and Garhwal Part -3

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -10

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -255

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)


                   Sapadlaksh or Shivalik Hills

           In any Karmkand ritual of a Garhwali in any part of world, Pundit chants a sentence ‘Kedarkhande  ... madhye Garhwal kshetre …”. The Kedarkhand name is still relevant for every Garhwali living in Garhwal or outside Garhwal. However, politically, the Panwar Kings never provided any priority or importance to Kedarkhand name. 
  Rock inscription of Sahanpal in Bodhgaya mentions a name Sapadlaksh. Sapadlaksh is Shivalik or Sava Lakh. There is mention of Sapadlaksh region in Kumarikhand chapter of Skandapuran. Skandapuran mentions that, there are one and quarter lakh villages in Sapadlaksh region.
   Muslim historians mentioned Shivalik mountain regions for various regions from today’s Haridwar, Dehradun, and Bhabhar of Pauri to Vyas River. Due to Khas population, this region was also called Sapadlaksh Shikhir- Khas Des. It is also said that there were one and quarter lakhs shrines in Sapadlaksh Mountain (now from Dehradun to Hoshiyarpur).
          Muslim historians used Shivalik Mountain time to time for Bhabhar Garhwal, for Dehradun region, for Sirmaur of Himachal.
                European travelers referred ‘Shiva’ region under Jahangir. Haridwar was head quarter of Shiva district under Jahangir.
                 Muslim historians also called south hills and regions of Garhwal as hills of Haridwar, Kutil, Kapil Ghati, Karachal or hills of Chandi .

                 Shrinagar a Nation
  In sixteenth century, Garhwal king Ajaypal established his capital in Shrinagar from Devalgarh. That is the reasons that Muslim historians called Garhwal nation as Shrinagar or Sirinagar Rajya.
  In Jahangirnama, King Shyam Shah is mentioned as Shyam Singh the Jameendar of Shrinagr (1621).
 A traveler Father Androde (1624) called the Garhwal region as Shrinagar Kingdom or Rajya.
 French traveler Barniyar who travelled India from 1656- 1668 mentioned Garhwal region as Serenagar. He also drew a map.
 The historians of Aurangzeb period also mentioned Shrinagar Rajya.
 The English traveler (1608-1611) William Finch described Garhwal region as Strong and prosperous Kingdom in between Yamuna and Ganga ruled by the King was Manshah and his capital was Shrinagar.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 1/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -256   
Xx

Bhishma Kukreti

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   Himalayan History  of Taxonomy of Garhwar to Garhwal Part -4

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -11

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -256

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                              Gadhwar name in History Records

                     History and Braj language or other language Midlevel Literature state that the Garhwal was also called Gadhwar
          The Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb records state that the administrators used to call Garhwal as Gadhwar.
  Braj poet Bhushan (1613-1713) who is famous for creating poetry for praising Shiva Ji also created poetry praising Garhwal King Fateshah.
 Bhusan wrote Shrinagar as Seenagar and Garhwal as Gadhwar –
दाता एक जैसो शिवराज भयो तैसो अब
फतेसाहि “सीनगर” साहिबी समाज है
( भूषण , छंदसार पिंगलफतेप्रकाश भूमिका , , सम्पादक कैप्टैन शूरबीर सिंह -पृष्ट - 3 )
सुयश ते भलो मुख भूषण भनैगो बाढ़ि
“गढ़वार” राज्य पर राज जो बखानैगो
( भूषण , छंदसार पिंगल; फतेप्रकाश भूमिका , , सम्पादक कैप्टैन शूरबीर सिंह -पृष्ट - 3 )

 Braj Poet Ratan Kavi (Kshemraj ) was contemporary to Matiram and Bhushan poets. Ratankavi created poems booklet ‘Fateprakash Pushpika’ (published by Captain Shurbeer Singh) praising Fateshah. Ratankavi wrote मनोहारी गढ़वार तुराशाह. Or the king of Gadhwar is marvelous.
इतिश्री बद्रिकाश्रम विश्रांत नारायण सान्निध्य संलभ्य सौभाग्य संभार मनोहारी गढ़वार तुरासाह श्री महाधिराज फतेशाह प्रकाशित कविराज क्षेमराज कृते फतेप्रकाश
 In Braj literature, writing ‘ल/L’ n place of ‘र/R’ and writing ‘र/R’‘ल/L’ was common. That means Garhwal word was also common with Gadhwar.

            First written Record of Garhwal or गढ़वाल
  Historians have first written record of गढ़वाल or Garhwal in the poems of Maularam (1815)
याही तैं यो ‘गढ़वाल’ गयो कटि आपस माहिं मरैं लड़िकै
कवि मौलाराम विचार कही ऐसे खशिया /खषियां दूज हैं गढ़ के
(मौलाराम, गढ़राजवंशकाव्य, परं २८ अ )


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 2/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -257   
Xx
   Himalayan History Elements of Taxonomy of Garhwar to Garhwal; Himalayan History Elements of Taxonomy of Garhwar to Garhwal including context to Haridwar Garhwal; Himalayan History Elements of Taxonomy of Garhwar to Garhwal including context to Dehradun Garhwal; Himalayan History Elements of Taxonomy of Garhwar to Garhwal including context to Uttarkashi Garhwal; Himalayan History Elements of Taxonomy of Garhwar to Garhwal including context to Tehri Garhwal; Himalayan History Elements of Taxonomy of Garhwar to Garhwal including context to Chamoli Garhwal; Himalayan History Elements of Taxonomy of Garhwar to Garhwal including context to Rudraprayag Garhwal; Himalayan History Elements of Taxonomy of Garhwar to Garhwal including context to Pauri Garhwal;

Bhishma Kukreti

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   Himalayan History of Origin of Garhwal Name: Part -5

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -12

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -257

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

  There are following concepts for origin of Garhwal and Garhwali names.

               From Girryali to Garhwal

         Dr. Gupte (Epigraphia Indica, Vol13, pages 115-117 available on web) suggests that there Girryavali is synonym of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurav Kings. Garhwal word is derived from Girryavali. However there is no history record of Girryavali word in Paurav Kingdom period.

                 Gar word of Tibetan Language 

              Many scholars conceptualized that Garhwal or Gadhwar words came from ‘Gar’ word of Tibetan language. There are names in Tibetan languages as Garbyang, Gar-Gunsa, Gyagar Khampa. There are words of Tibetan languages in Garhwali and other middle Himalayan languages. However, no specific proof is there that Gadh or Garhwal words are derived from Tibetan language word ‘Gar’.

               From Baghad to Gadh or Garhwal

             In old age, there was a Baghad tribe in Himachal Pradesh. The land of that tribe is still called Baghal or Baghat.  It is proposed that Baghad tribe extended its territory from Himachal towards east in Yamuna –Ganga valley. In later stage the territory was called Baghadwal. In later stage, the word Baghadwal changed into Ghadhwal or Gadhwal.
 
                             Ghad region of Saharanpur district

  When the earth is bumpy and uneven and such place is called Ubad –Khabad and Ghad.
There is region Ghad in Shivalik foothills of Saharanpur district which is bumpy and uneven. In Garhwal region, such uneven region is called Ghad. In Himachal, bumpy region is called Changhad or Changhaad. It is also believed that Changhad, Ghad words were transformed into Ghadhwal and then into Gadhwal.

                       Gadhi to Garhwal
  Folk sayings sate that Ajayapal won over fifty two or sixty four Gadhis of Garhwal and established his Kingdom from Yamuna to Nanda Devi and such region was called Gadhwal due to abundances of Gadhi.

             Gadh word for whole region
              Perhaps Gadh des word was common for western part (today’s Garhwal) of Ashokchalla kingdom. Still we call Garhwal as Gadh des too. 
               Court poet Maularam used Gadhwal and Gadh des for Garhwal kingdom.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 3/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -258   
Xx
Himalayan History of Origin of Garhwal Name; Himalayan History of Origin of Garhwal Name (including Pauri Garhwal); Himalayan History of Origin of Garhwal Name (including Chamoli Garhwal); Himalayan History of Origin of Garhwal Name (including Rudraprayag Garhwal); Himalayan History of Origin of Garhwal Name (including Tehri Garhwal); Himalayan History of Origin of Garhwal Name (including Dehradun Garhwal); Himalayan History of Origin of Garhwal Name (including Uttarkashi Garhwal); Himalayan History of Origin of Garhwal Name (including Haridwar Garhwal);

Bhishma Kukreti

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       Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Garhwal and Hardwar   

 History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -13

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -258

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

          Tomar are Rajput, Gujjar clan. Tomar clan is one of the famous ancient ruling communities of North India. They are Chandravanshi. Tomar name is mentioned in Sanskrit books and rock inscriptions. However, in Hindi and Rajasthani literature, there are many names for Tomar as Tumbar, Tunwar, Tunar, or Tanwar. Tor and Tur are also mentioned for Tunwar. There is a fort called Munvar Tur fort on Kotdwara –Nazibabad road. Most probably, Munvar Tomar was ruler of the fort. Bhim Singh Dahiya states that there is mention of Tomar in Vayu Puran, Brahmadn Puran and Vishnu Puran.

              Original Land of Tomar

               Study of Mahabharata (Bhishma Parva, VI, 10:68) states that the original land of Tomar was Himalayan foot hills. Tomar are called descendent of Arjun. It is believed that from foot hills of Himachal, Tomar tribes extended towards south of Sarswati valley or Sirmaur region. By tenth century, Tomar were ruling over Thaneshwar, Karnal, that is western part of Yamuna. Most probably, Tomar were ruling eastern part of Yamuna (part of Dehradun and partially Haridwar too.   
             Chand Ray was ruling over east of Yamuna-Sarva or Sarsava around tenth century. He was ruling over Dehradun and hills of Shivalik region. It is not definite that Chand Ray had any relationship with Tomar of Thaneshwar.

                  Extension of Tomar Rule in Garhwal and Hardwar

            King Bhoj and Mahendrapal were ruling respectively over Haryana or Thaneshwar region before tenth century. Mahendra Pal died in 908 AD. The successors of Mahendra Pal were weak rulers and Tomar family those were regional rulers under Mahendra Pal became rulers of Haryana region after 908 AD.
                 Tomar extended their rules hills of Shivalik and to Dehradun, Haridwar, and south plains of Garhwal- Bhabhar up to west of Ram Ganga. Tomar also ruled on Haridwar on that period.
 There are following villages of Haridwar district famous for Tomar –
Bahadurpur Jat
Jhabiran
Dahiyaki
Thithiki Quavadpur
Rurkee
Harjauli
Theses villages show that sometime, Tomar ruled over Haridwar too. In tenth century, Tomar were ruling present Meerut and Rohilkhand commissaries of Uttar Pradesh.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 4/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Ddahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -259   
Xx
      Notes on History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Dehradun Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Bhabhar Garhwal and Hardwar; History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Jaunsar Bhabhar Garhwal and Hardwar; History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Rishikesh Garhwal and Hardwar; History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Garhwal and Chandighat  Hardwar;  History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Garhwal and Bahadurpur Jat
  Hardwar;   History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Garhwal and Rurkee Hardwar; History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Garhwal and Jhabiran  Hardwar;   History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Garhwal and Dahiyaki  Hardwar;    History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Garhwal and Thithiki Quavadpur Hardwar; History of Origin of Tomar Clan in Context of History of Garhwal and Harjauli Hardwar;           

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of King Mahipal Tomar in context History of Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar

           History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -14

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -259

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                              Tomar Kings of Delhi

            Some historians state that a Mauryan King Raja Dhillu (50BC) named Yoginipura on his name and the place was called Dhillu (now Delhi). Dhillu or Dhilli did not have much importance till Shajhan or Jahangir.
 Anagpal 1st   was first Tomar King of Dhillu or Dhilli (736 AD).  The following poems and inscriptions of Iron Pillar sate that Anagpal was king of Dhilli or Delhi and Delhi was established by Tomar.
जहिं असिवर तोडिय रिउ कवालु णरणाहु पसिद्धउ  अणगवालु I
वल भर कम्पाविउ  णायराउ , माणिणियण मणसंजनीय II     

xxx
ढिल्लीकाख्या पूरी तत्र तोमारैस्ति निर्मिता
 There two hand-written ‘Rajavali’ manuscripts found in Bhimtal, Kumaon, Shringar and Kedarnath Those manuscripts state that first Tunvar Naresh (Tomar King) was there on September 732 AD.

                              King Mahipal Tomar

       The eightieth Tomar king was Mahipal Tomar. Mahipal Tomar established Mahipalpur (near today’s Airport region in Delhi). King Mahipal Tomar had been the strongest Tomar King.
  Mahmud Ghazni (1001-1025) had been looting in north India till Kanyakubj and Somnath. His successors captured Thaneshwar, Hansi, Nagrkot, Lahur etc. These Muslim rulers were looters and used to loot and destroy Hindu temples.

         
     
                   Bravery of Tomar King Mahipal
                  In 1043, Tomar King along with Kalchuri king Karna and Annihal of Chahman tried their best to get free the territory from Muslim looters.
     Under the leadership of Mahipal, his associates freed Hansi, Nagarkot, Thaneshwar forts from grandson of Mahmud Ghazni. They rebuilt the temple in Nagarkot.
 These Kings surrounded Lahore fort. But after some time, they came back.

                           Enmity of Tomar King Mahipal with Chahman 
          Tomar King Mahipal captured Punjab by defeating Muslim looters. Now, Tomar King Mahipal got great respect around north India. The dispute arose for Sakambhari region boundary between Tomar King Mahipal and Chahuman Kingdom. Smaller kings also oppose Mahipal and helped Chahuman King. However, Tomar King Mahipal fought with them with bravery.

         Rule of Tomar King Mahipal over Bhabhar, Dehradun and Haridwar/Hardwar

                 It seems that Tomar King Mahipal also exercised his authority over South Garhwal (Bhabhar, part of Dehradun and Hardwar/Haridwar). The chieftains of hill regions might have provided gifts or tribute to King Mahipal Tomar.
  Historians found Copper and Silver Coins of Tomar Kings in Hardwar/Haridwar and Yamuna banks at Shrughan, Mandalpur and Buriya in abundant quantity.
  Historians also found Diliyal or Dilyali coins along with Tomar and Chauhman coins.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 5/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Ddahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -260   
Xx
      Notes on History of King Mahipal Tomar in Context of History of Garhwal and Haridwar; History of King Mahipal Tomar  in Context of History of Dehradun Garhwal and Haridwar; History of King Mahipal Tomar in Context of History of Bhabhar Garhwal and Hardwar; History of King Mahipal Tomar in Context of History of Jaunsar Bhabhar Garhwal and Hardwar; History of  King Mahipal Tomar in Context of History of Rishikesh Garhwal and Hardwar; History of King Mahipal Tomar in Context of History of Garhwal and Chandighat  Hardwar;  History of  King Mahipal Tomar  Context of History of Garhwal and Bahadurpur Jat
  Hardwar;   History of King Mahipal Tomar in Context of History of Garhwal and Rurkee Hardwar; History of King Mahipal Tomar in Context of History of Garhwal and Jhabiran Hardwar;   History of King Mahipal Tomar in Context of History of Garhwal and Dahiyaki Hardwar;    History of King Mahipal Tomar in Context of History of Garhwal and Thithiki Quavadpur Hardwar; History of King Mahipal Tomar in Context of History of Garhwal and Harjauli Hardwar;                                           

Bhishma Kukreti

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Did Tomar King Rajpal Rule over Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar: A Historical Perspective

           History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -15

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -260

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                 Historian Pundit Hari Krishna Raturi in Garhwal ka Itihas (page 338) states folklore about a Tomar King Rajpal ruling over whole of Garhwal including Hardwar/Haridwar. The folklore states that Bisarpa the minister of King Kshemraj of Dhilli or Delhi killed his King Kshemraj. The widow of Kshemraj ran to Badrikashram, Garhwal and she took shelter in a Rishi Ashram. She delivered a son named as Rajpal. Rishi trained Rajpal for weaponries. Rajpal became the King of Gadh Desh. Rajpal had one son Anangpal.  Anangpal Tomar did not have son but a daughter. Anangpal appointed his grandson Prithviraj Chauhan (son of Someshwar ) as his successor.
     However, there is no historical and other record to proof the above folklore or saying. Dr. Dabral mentions that no historians did mention a Tomar King as Kshemraj and Rajpal. This author also tried to search Tomar history and did not find any name Kshemraj and Rajpal as Tomar King.
           Even in Prithviraj Raso , there is no mention of Rajpal Tomar.

 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 6/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -261   

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 Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of Garhwal Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective

           History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -16

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -261

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                   History of King Anangpal Tomar 3rd in context Garhwal

              King Mahipal Tomar was strong and famous Tomar King of Dhilli/Dhillika or Delhi. The prosperity and fame continued till Anangpal Tomar 3rd. Anangpal 3rd was famous for his bravery, strength and prosperity (Hindi Viashwa Kosh vol 5, page 430).
  The Rajput Kings of other parts were jealous by prosperity and strength of Dhillika Tomar Kingdom.  Chauhman of Sakmabhari-Ajmer and other Kings started destroying Tomar Kingdom by all means. Due to continuous attacks from Rajput Kings from other territories, Anangpal 3rd did treaty with the heirs of Mahmud Ghazni of Lahore. Anangpal did not stop defending or attacking nearby Rajput Kingdoms.

           Rule of Chauhman or Chauhan on Dhillika or Delhi

         Knowing the treaty of Dhillika Kingdom with Ghazni of Lahore, Chauhman Kings became unhappy. Chauhman King Beesaldev 3rd (Vigrahraj) in 1151 attacked on Tomar Kingdom Dhillika or Delhi and captured Delhi. From that time, Tomar started working as regional commanders under Chauhan Kings around western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Delhi etc. The Tomar folklore state that Chauhman deceived Tomar in capturing Delhi.
  Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in 1192. Tomar accepted Ghori as King and they became regional commanders of Muhammad Ghori.
       Perhaps, Prithviraj Chauhan appointed Chauhan commanders in place of Tomar commanders as regional commanders in Haryana, part of western Uttar Pradesh and south of Garhwal (Bhabhar, Haridwar and Dehradun). There are folklores about Chauhan commanders or chieftains of Garhi in Garhwal. However, there is no folklore about Tomar chieftain in Garhwal.
 Tomar chieftains became chieftains of Muslim rulers.
      Around from tenth century to twelfth century, few Tomar families migrated to Garhwal from plains of India or from either western Uttar Pradesh or Delhi (Maithani in, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika page 86-88).
        Butola Rawat, Narvani Rawat, Khati Gusain and Patwal Gusain call them the descendents of Tomar Gotra. However, less is known about period of Tomar families migrating to Garhwal from plains of India.
Though, it is said that Butola Rawat came to Garhwal around 744.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 7/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika



(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -262   
Xx
Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of Garhwal Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective; Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of Chamoli Garhwal Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective; Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of Rudraprayag Garhwal Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective; Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of Tehri Garhwal the Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective; Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of Uttarkashi Garhwal Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective; Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of Dehradun Garhwal Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective; Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of Haridwar Garhwal Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective; Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of Pauri Garhwal Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective; Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of Bhabhar Garhwal Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective; Are Butola Rawat, Narwani Rawat, Patwal Gusain and Khati Gusain of South Garhwal Descendents of Delhi Tomar Kings? : A Historical Perspective;

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History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar


           History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -17

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -262

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                   History aspects of Chauhan name

              In Sanskrit inscriptions and Sanskrit Literature, the Chauhan Kings are described as Chahman.  In Hindi, Apbhransh and Rajshthani literature,  there are names as Chahuvan, Chauhan, Chauhwaan, Chaahvan, and Chuhan for Chauhan caste. In Nrinaymat a Sanskrit literature book, Bahuban is described for Chauhan clan King of Ekachakra (Chakrauta, Dehraddun and Uttarkashi region).

             History aspects of Origin of Chauhan Caste

          There are many concepts, theories and folklore about origin of Chauhan caste or clan. According to Prithwiraj Raso, Chahman caste is Agnivanshi or fire clan as Parihar, Chalukya and Parmar. It is believed that first person of Chauhan emerged from Havankund of sage Vashistha in Abu mountain. A few literature creative believe that Chauhan are as Suryavanshi or Indrachandravanshi.  Emerging from Agnikund, suggests that Chauhan are from Shaka clan and were converted to Chauhan or Hindu.
        Many scholars also concluded that initially Chauhan were Brahmin. Being Kings, Chauhan followed Rajput rules and became Rajput.
          The inscriptions state that Pratihar King of Mandor was son of Brahmin from his Rajput wife. Dashrath Sharma concludes that the Parmar were Brahmin from Abu region.
          The Achleshwar inscriptions also mention that Chauhan were from Brahmin Vatsa Gotra. Jan the creator of Kyamkhan Raso states that Chahman were from Brahmin Gotra.
       
              History aspects of Original Land of Chahman or Chauhan

            Prithviraj Raso mentions that Mount Abu is original land of emergence of Chahman. Prithwiraj-Vijay Raso mentions that Pushkar is original place of Chahman or Chauhan. Inscriptions and old historical articles state that Jangaldesh and Sapadalaksh regions.
             It is believed that Chauhman or Chauhan extended their rules over Sakambhar, Pushkar , Seekar , Jaypur and nearby regions.
   Sapadalaksh means one and quarter Lakhs villages. The regions of Nagaur, Ajmer, Hansi, Sarsuti, Mandavar regions come under Sapadalaksh region.

               History aspects of Capital of Chauhman or Chauhan Kings

             Initially, Chahman or Chauhan were regional commanders of Pratihar Kings. When Pratihar kings became week Chahman or Chauhan commanders started enhancing their power.  Vigrahraj second captured Sanbhar region and attacked on Bhrigulacch region too. Ajay Raj(1133)  the successor of Vigrahraj established his capital as Ajmer. Till Prtithviraj third the capital of Chahman or Chauhan was in Ajmer.
 






Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 8/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika



(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -263   
Xx
History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Bhabhar Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Dehradun Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Uttarkashi Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Tehri Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Chamoli Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Rudraprayag Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Pauri Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of South Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Mayapur Hardwar/Haridwar;  History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Jwalapur Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Kankhal Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Pathri Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Sultanpur Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Laksar Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and manglur Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Roorkee Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Bhagwanpur Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Sakaruda Hardwar/Haridwar; History of Chahman or Chauhan of Delhi Kingdom in Context History of Garhwal and Telpura Hardwar/Haridwar; 

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar context
 
           History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -18

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -263


                     Capturing Delhi by Chahman or Chauhan
 
                  Vigrahraj or Bisaldev the grandson of Ajyaraj Chahman had been very brave and famous.  He got crown in 1151. There are his inscriptions up to 1163.
    The north border of Chahman was touching to south boundary of Tomar.   Muslim rulers were ruling in western Haryana and towards Lahore. Tomar Kings had treaty with Muslim rulers. Vigrahraj Chauhan did not like treaty between Muslim rulers or looters and Tomar Kingdom. Vigrahraj attacked on Delhi and defeated Tomar King. Tomar came under Chauhan Kingdom.

                          Defending Hindu Rule by Vigrahraj

                  Vigrahraj attacked on Muslim rulers and extended Chauhan rule up to Satlaj. Many rulers helped Vigrahraj by army and wealth to push Muslim back.

                            Rule over Central Himalaya

           The Shivalik Pillar inscription (1163) states that Vigrahraj made Himalaya (Himadre) and Vindhyachal regions free from Muslim and looters attacks. 

        Extension of Territory by Vigrahraj
      The rule of Vigrahraj Chauhan was from Malva to Ambala, Saharanpur till Bhabhar and foothills of Shivalik hills. The pillar on which three Vigrahraj inscriptions are carved is originally Asoka Pillar.
 In west and north his rule was extended to Satlaj east and till Ramaganga (Kumaon Bhabhar) west.
       It seems that the rule of Vigrahraj was on Bhbhar Garhwal, parts of Dehradun and completes Haridwar. Most probably, north Garhwal chieftains (Gadhpati) paid tribute to Vigrahraj.

     Copper and Silver Coins of Chauhan or Chahman rulers in Garhwal and Haridwar

   There was rule of Chahman or Chauhan rulers on south of Garhwal (including Dehradun) and Hardwar/Haridwar. Copper and silver coins of Chauhan/Chahman were found in Srughna, Mandalpur, Budhiya and Mayapur or Haridwar , Doon Valley (Cunningham, Coins of ancient India).


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 9/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages



(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -264   
Xx
History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Bhabhar Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Dehradun Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Shivalik Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of South Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Virbhadra Garhwal and Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Kamkhal Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Jwalapur Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Sultanpur Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Pathri Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bosaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Laksar  Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Manglaur Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Jhaberea Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Roorkee Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Bhagwanpur Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Sakrauda Hardwar/Haridwar context; History of Vigrahraj (Bisaldeo) Chauhan with History of Garhwal and Telpura Hardwar/Haridwar context;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Features of Prithviraj III with context History of Garhwal and Haridwar

           History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -19

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -264

                Successors of Vigrahraj or (Bisaldeo) Chahman or Chauhan

          Vigrahraj was brave and visionary. His successors were Apargangey, Prithviraj 2nd and Someshwar respectively. They were not so brave and visionary. However, successors of Vigrahraj were capable of defending the whole territory. 

                Vigrahraj as Scholar and Scholar Lover

 Vigrahraj Chahman was a scholar and poet too. He used to provide shelter to scholars. He was called ‘Kavi Bandhav’ or ‘Brother of Poets’. Vigrahraj created ‘Harkelinatak’ play in Sanskrit. His court poet Somdev created ‘Lalit Vigrahraj’ play in Sanskrit and both the plays are carved on rocks. Vigrahraj established a Sanskrit school in Ajmer too.

              Prithviraj Chauhan III (1149-1192CE?)

       One theory states that Prithviraj Chauhan was eleven or twelve years old when his father Someshwar expired in 1177. Another historian class state that he was succeeded to the thorn in 1169CE. It is said that his mother Karpuri Devi was looking after the kingdom for three years after death of her husband king Someshwar.
       Prithviraj Chauhan attacked on couple of kings and got wins. He decided to extend his territory after small wins.
       Prithviraj Chauhan attacked on Chandel King Parmadin and defeated him. It is said that Kanuaj king Gahdwal and braver soldiers as Alha and Udal supported Parmadin. Prithviraj could not extend the territory.
  Prithviraj not helping other Indian Kings at Ghori attacks

           Muhammad Ghori attacked on another Chauhan king of Nadaul and captured his capital. Prithviraj did not help Nadaul kingdom. Chalukya King defeated Muhammad Ghori in battle of Kasahridya and Ghori had to run to Multan. Prithviraj did not help Chalukya too. By that Prithviraj lost friendship with his neighboring Kings.
                        Second Attack of Ghori on India

                    Mohammad Ghori again attacked on India and won Lahore and Yamini territories in 1186. Now, the boundary of Ghori was touching Chahman kingdom ruled by Prithviraj Chauhan. There were wars between Prithviraj and Ghori for five six times. Every times, Chauhan was winner. Ghori had to run from battle fields. Every time, Prithviraj Chauhan paved the way for Ghori to escape.

** Read more about Prithviraj Chauhan and his connection with Garhwal and Haridwar in next chapter …..
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages



(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -265   
Xx
History Features of Prithviraj Chauhan III in context History of Garhwal and Haridwar (North India); History Features of Prithviraj III in context History of Bhabhar Garhwal and Haridwar (North India); History Features of Prithviraj Chauhan III in context History of Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar (North India); History Features of Prithviraj Chauhan III in context History of Chamoli Garhwal and Haridwar (North India); History Features of Prithviraj Chauhan III in context History of Rudraprayag Garhwal and Haridwar (North India); History Features of  Prithviraj Chauhan III in context History of Uttarkashi Garhwal and Haridwar (North India); History Features of  Prithviraj Chauhan III in context History of Dehradun Garhwal and Haridwar (North India); History Features of  Prithviraj Chauhan III in context History of Garhwal and Chauhan Puri Haridwar (North India); History Features of  Prithviraj Chauhan III in context History of Garhwal and Bahadarabad Haridwar (North India); History Features of  Prithviraj Chauhan III in context History of Garhwal and Rohalki Haridwar (North India); History Features of  Prithviraj Chauhan III in context History of Garhwal and Boodpur Haridwar (North India);       

 

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