Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 145752 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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                   History Aspects of Village Life in Garhwal in Pal/ Shah Era

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -51 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -240     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -488 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                    In Garhwal, still, Rural Life has two dimensions in Garhwal. One life is Hill Rural life and other is Bhabhar or Plains Rural Life.
  The village settlements in Bhabhar, plains of Dehradun were where water sources was near for irrigation. However, Maleriya, snakes, Bhut –Pret and many other diseases and attacks of Rohillas and Sikhs checked the population growth. It was said that ‘Bhabhar ku Vas ar Kul ku Nas’ meaning settling in Bhabhar destroys the generation.
 In hills where valleys were wide or hills were in slower slips the people settled there. It was easy to dig contour types of farms. In normal circumstances water was available though might be one or two miles away from the village. However, if the old villages are studied, it is found that water source was just ten to twenty meters away from first house established. Slowly, due to land slide or earth quack the water sources dried and people had to go far from village to water source. Jaspur village (Malla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal) was established on hill top in around fourteenth century and water source was in the village. However, two hundred years ago a land slide wiped away down the water source. There was no shortage of fodders and wood in hills of Garhwal. However, when in British rule the medical facilities became available and death rates came down the population increased in rural Garhwal and there became the shortage of land, water and forests.
  In British rule, in Bhabhar and Plains of Dehradun, Bijnor and Haridwar, due to medical facilities and protection faculties the population increases in those regions too.
                     House Building Specialty in Rural Garhwal
    In hills the people used build houses on a place that had hard rocks and there was no chance of land slide, glacier slip, flooding etc. Houses were built mainly at sunny side. Manly the houses were in line that sun light is available. It was said that Gad ku bas ar Kul ki Nas meaning if you reside in near river you will destroy your generation. Therefore, even the river valleys were fertile, water supply was easy, people used to stay above valley on a Dhar (hill top). River valley had  many disadvantages as low sun light, less time sun light, high disease porn region  in summer, cooler temperature in winter and higher temperature in summer. Houses were also build as if Fort and called Kotha Bhitar.
 Bith (upper caste) used to stay at upper side of village and Doom (lower castes) used to have houses at lower side.
             The subgroups stay in a locality in village and called Khwal as Bisht Khwal, Tmta Khwal etc.
            In Garhwal hills, house walls were built by stones and roof too was built by slate flat  stones. Grass was also used for roofing by poor people.
 The Bhotantik and North side (as upper Uttarkashi, upper Tehri, Upper Rudraprayg or upper Chamoli) of Garhwalis used to build houses by wood to protect houses from earth quack and winter. In many regions as in Bhotantik region, the roof of houses was made by Bhojpatra leaves too.
 Window was uncommon. The houses were usually of ground and first floor with another mezzanine floor (Dhaiper).  There used to a Drawing room at first floor called Tibari. Usually  Kotha Bhitar  (mini fort) type was common that there would be a courtyard and surrounding it used to be houses. This was for protection purpose.
 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 20/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -489 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx
Notes on History Aspects of Village , Rural Life in Garhwal in Pal/ Shah Era; History Aspects of Village , Rural Life in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal/ Shah Era; History Aspects of Village , Rural Life in Bhabhar Bijnor in Pal/ Shah Era; History Aspects of Village , Rural Life in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal/ Shah Era; History Aspects of Village , Rural Life in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal/ Shah Era; History Aspects of Village , Rural Life in Tehri Garhwal in Pal/ Shah Era; History Aspects of Village , Rural Life in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal/ Shah Era; History Aspects of Village , Rural Life in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal/ Shah Era; History Aspects of Village , Rural Life in Pauri Garhwal in Pal/ Shah Era;
 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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                History aspects Animal Husbandry in Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -52 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -241     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -489 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

              Garhwali village means human society and domestic animals. In animals cow, buffalo, goats, sheep, were common. Chicken poultry paltry was limited to Shilpkar. Garhwalis did not /do not breed Pigs.
 In Haridwar, Bijnor and Bhabhar Garhwal, a community used to breed pigs.
           Domestic animals were kept on ground floor of houses and people live on upper floor.  There used to be herds of cow dung and attracting flies, insects.
               In summer and rainy season people used to take animals to filed away from village Goth. Goth used to satisfy two needs – maneuvering on the fields so no problem of carrying organic fertilizer and animals could not be effected by hot season while tug in the Gaushala (cowshed).
           Animals were sign of prosperity as animals satisfy the need of milk, maneuvering, mutton, woolen clothing, etc.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 21/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -490 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx
History aspects Animal Husbandry in Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period; History aspects Animal Husbandry in Bijnor in Shah /Pal Period; History aspects Animal Husbandry in Haridwar Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period; History aspects Animal Husbandry in Dehradun Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period; History aspects Animal Husbandry in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period; History aspects Animal Husbandry in Tehri Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period; History aspects Animal Husbandry in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period; History aspects Animal Husbandry in Chamoli Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period; History aspects Animal Husbandry in Pauri Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period;
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Bhishma Kukreti

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            Dress and Clothing in Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -53 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -242     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -490 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

    People of Garhwal did not grow cotton (barring in Bhabhar rarely) and the season was also different than plains. Therefore, the dresses, clothing of Garhwalis was different than other Indian plains. The dresses changed with time too.
 The clothing by hemp fiber, wool was more common. Before, Mughal culture bcame popular, people used to have woolen Thimla and Langot very common. Kings and elites used to have more sophisticated dresses always. Gati was made of hemp fiber and Chadaru of wool was to cover upper body. The Gati or Chadru was put on upper body in such a way that both hands and knee are free for working. Pundit while performing rituals used to have Dhoti on both the body parts.  After getting the influence of Mughal Empire, the dresses of elite class started copying Mughal dresses as Pagadi, Angrakha, Chudidar Paijama, Paijama Kapudiya topi etc. The Garhwal painting of Pradyuman Shah or Medani Shah show the dresses of elites copy of Mughal style.King  Lalit Shah acquire Sikh dressings.
 Women used to put on woolen Dhoti or cotton Dhoti or woolen /hemp fiber Chadaru.Women also used to put woolen or cotton Ghaghara.  Peticoat or female underwear by women was unheard in Garhwal of Shah period. Women used to put a cloth on their head at the ritual time.
People used to beg sew from Pilgrims.
 Dressing pattern in Haridwar and Bijnor was as dressing of Delhi, Saharanpur, and Moradabad. Those regions were influenced by Mughal Empire dresses.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 22/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -491 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx
History aspects Dress and Clothing in Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History aspects Dress and Clothing in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History aspects Dress and Clothing in Pauri Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History aspects Dress and Clothing in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History aspects Dress and Clothing in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History aspects Dress and Clothing in Tehri Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History aspects Dress and Clothing in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History aspects Dress and Clothing in Dehardun Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History aspects Dress and Clothing in Bijnor around  in Pal/Shah Era;
 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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       History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -54 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -243     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -491 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

 Garhwal had been fortunate about food materials for human beings. Baring a a couple of feminine, no history record is available that a Garhwali died due to non availability of food. On the contrary, there is an old proverb in Garhwali –
“Khaik sabi Morin, Nikhaik kwee ni mor’’
That is ‘Everybody dies by taking food and nobody dies because of hunger”.
          The following agro based items were available in hills of Garhwal and Bhabhar including Haridwar, Bijnor and Saharanpur.
                         Cereals and pseudo Cereals
- Barely, Rice, Wheat, Buckwheat, Chenopodium etc were main cereals.
Maize, Amaranth came in Garhwal after Portuguese entered into India.
                              Millets and Minor Millets
Among millets and minor millets, Barnyard millet, Finger millet, Fox tail millet, Proso Millet, Kodo and Sorghum were popular.
                                 Pulses
 Pigeon pea, Chickpea, Bhatt or Soybean, Khesari, Lentil, Horse gram (Bhabhar) were main pulses of Garhwal, Bijnor and Haridwar including Saharanpur.
         Most of beans came to Garhwal after entry of Portuguese in India.
                                  Oilseeds
 Indian mustard, Brown Mustard, Toria, Linseed, Perilla , Sesame,
Sunflower was introduced in India after Portuguese entered into India.
                                             Vegetables
 People of Garhwal, Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur ued to grow Okra, jackfruit (in Bhabhar), Elephant foot yam, Wax guard, Phadi Spinach, Cabbage (mostly in plains), Elephant Ear Yam, various gourds, Kakdi /cucumber, Radish (Moola and Muli), Brinjal, Carrot, etc vegetable
 Squash, Pumpkin, Potato, Sweet Potato, Tomato, pepper were introduced in Garhwal at British period.
                                     Wild Edible Vegetables
Hanw, Bankh, Kairua, Bunch-Ham, Gweeralpr Kwairyal, Kilmora or Kingoda, Semal, Ganziadi, wild Bathua,Gadpeper, Ginthi, Tarur, Linguda, Khuntda, Jhangar, Timul/Timla, Bedu, Sakina, Halang, Mushrooms, Sonjal, Padya, Jarag, Quathode, Buransh, Rugi, Bicchu Ghas or Kandali  were wild edible vegetables of Garhwalis of Garhwal, Haridwar, Bijnor, and Saharanpur. 
 Rambans (Agave americana) was introduced after Portuguese entry only.
                            Fruits
Orange, mango, Lemon, Ber, Pomegranate, Peach, Loquat,  etc were grown in Garhwal, Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur.
     New world fruits as Papaya, Guava, a couple of berries species, apple etc of Europe origin were introduced just before British Raj or in British Raj.

               Wild Edible Fruits
           Bael, Malu, Bamaur, Chutar, Kingoda or Kilmora, Daya, Hisar, Karaunj, Mitha Pangar, Khadik, Jmair, Tusar, taidu,  Giwai, Bedu, Timla, Khainu, Bhekhafal, Titmar,Bhimal, Turchuk, Gophal,Akhrot, Kafal, Kurmali, Kimu, Thankal, Aonla, Chir, Paya, Jamun, Bamhalu, Darim, Ghingaru, Mole, Mehal, Buransh, Sirkuti, Imli, Phelalo, Sepla,  Kusum, Kala Hisar, Panik Brahmi, Mat Kakri, Nepala, Ami, Mijhau, Titmelwa were major wild edible fruits of Garhwal Bhabhar, Haridwar, Bijnor and Saharanpur Bhabhar.
(Reference Source included P.S.Mehta, K.S.Negi and S.N.Ojha, 2010, Native Plant genetic resources and traditional foods of Uttarakhand Himalaya.. IJNP and R) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 23/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -492 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx
History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Haridwar Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of  Bijnor around  Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Saharanpur around in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;  History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Ethnic Food Resources of Bhabhar of Garhwal, Haridwar, Dehradun, Bijnor and Saharanpur  in Pal /Shah Period;
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Bhishma Kukreti

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           History Aspects of Spices and Condiments of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period
Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -55 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -244     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -492 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

       The following were spices grown in Garhwal in Pal or Shah period-
                 Wild Allium and Onion
 Wild onion had been in use by human being for 5000BC. The bronze man started cultivating or using it for food uses or spices uses.
It seems onions were in cultivation in Garhwal at least in Bronze Age.
 People of Garhwal, Bijnor and Haridwar used raw Onion as salad with bread and cooked vegetables too.
                             Garlic
Garlic had been in use for many centuries before Christ in Garhwal and were used for spices and medicinal uses in Garhwal. Garlic was important raw materials for Ayurvedic Medicines.
                Cleome
 There is no botanical data available when human being started using cleome. Therefore it might be called that cleome was used for centuries in Garhwal too.
            Cinnamon (Dalchini)
 Forest trees as Cinnamon is also used prehistoric time and is common names for many trees.  In Sanskrit it is called Tamalpatram. It was used in Ayurvedic medicines too.
                        Coriander (Dhaniya)
 Coriander is one of the oldest spices. It is believed that it is native of Mediterranean region and spread to India and China had been using it as spices and medicine for thousand years.
                        Turmeric
Turmaric is native of South Asia and had been in use for medicine for many millenniums in India including Garhwal.
                               Hemp
Hemp has many uses in Garhwal as elsewhere as for  spices, medicines, addiction, fiber and wood. Record says that Chinese used hemp around 4000BC. That means Hemp had been in Garhwal from prehistoric period.
                    Ginger
   Southeast Asia is original place of Ginger and Indians had been using it more than 2000 years early as medicinal plant and spices.
                                    Fenugreek
Fenugreek was used as spices and condiments.
                                         Wild Plants as Spices of Garhwal
                                           Jakhya seeds (Cleome viscose)
Jakhya is wild plant and was one of the important spices of Garhwal and is /was used by frying in oil.

                                         Jumbo a wild Allium
A wild herbal plant Jumbo seeds/grains were used as spices and condiments.
                                         Laadu (Allium spices)
A wild plant Laadu’s seeds and grains were used as spices and condiments.
                      Kalzi (Alpina galangal)
The rhizome of wild plant Kalzi was used as spices and condiments in Garhwal.
                                         Choru
 The seeds/grains/roots of wild plant Choru were used as spices and condiments
                               Pothya (Mentha arvensis) 
Leaves were used for spices and condiments.
                               Timaru (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium)
 Seeds and fruits of Timaru were used as spices and condiments
                  Black Pepper and Cloves
 Black pepper and cloves were imported from Kerala and were rarest spices used in Garhwal.
Chili pepper or Mirch would have used after British came to power in Garhwal.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 24/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -493 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx         
 History Aspects of Spices and condiments of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Spices and condiments of Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Spices of Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Spices and condiments of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Spices and condiments of Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Spices and condiments of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Spices and condiments  of Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Spices and condiments  of Haridwar Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Spices and condiments  of Bijnor around in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Spices and condiments  of Saharanpur in Pal /Shah Period;
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History aspects of Beverages and Beverage Plants in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -56 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -245     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -493 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

            There was tradition of having producing both types of Beverages in Garhwal –Non Alcoholic Beverages and Alcoholic Beverages.
       Non Alcoholic Beverage Plants in Old Garhwal
Vernacular Name ----------Botanical Name --------Plant Part Used in beverage Production
Papri ------------------------Buxux willichiana -------------Leaves and Barks
Chakunda -----------------Cassia occidentalis --------------Seeds
Amlich -----------------------Hippophae rhamnoids ---------Fruits
Darim ------------------------Punica granatum ------------------Fruits
Burans -----------------------Rhododendron arboretum -------Flower petals
Botyaccha -----------------Rhododendron anthopogon -------Leaves
Thuner ----------------------Taxus baccata ---------------------Bark and Leaves
Somaya -------------------Ciola species -------------------------Leaves
Bel ---------------------------Aegle marmelos-------------------Fruits (specially medicinal beverage)

                           Alcoholic Beverage Plants of  Old Garhwal

Bhotti /Bhartoi --------------------Andrachne cordifolia --------------
Tirmiri -----------------------Bupleurum falcatum
Dhatura ------------------------Datura stramoinium
Morchiyapar -------------------Hemidusmus indicus
Hinsar/Hisar -----------------------Rubas ellipticus
Kala Hinsar----------------------Rubas niveus
Karthatu ------------------------------Taraxacum officinale
  Plants used in making Alcoholic beverages from Barley/rice or Millets floor

Litchkuri ---------------------------Achyranthes aspera------------------Roots
Baisheyi------------------------------Adhatoda zeylinica -----------------Roots
Fatkaniya------------------------------Alysicarpus vaginalis --------------Leaves
Chamara--------------------------------Artemisia roxburghiana------------Roots
Kingwad, ----------------------------Barberis lyceum -----------------------Root
Pattharchhata---------------------------Boerhavia diffusa ----------------Whole Plants
Batti --------------------------------------Cajanus scarabeoides -----------Whole Plants
Dahiya ---------------------------------------Callicarpa macrophylla ------------Whole Plant
Bhang --/hemp ---------------------------------Canabis sativa -------------------Leaves
Karonda ----------------------------------------Carissa apaca ----------------------------Root
Panwar ---------------------------------------Casia tora ---------------------Whole Plant
Guradra -----------------------------------------Cinnamomum tamla --------------Leaves
Parh --------------------------------------------Cissampelos pariera------------------Roots
Jaljamini ---------------------------------------Cocculus hirsutus ------------------Whole Plant
Jamun ---------------------------------------Syzygium cumini -------------- Fruits
 Figs varieties --------------------------------------------------------------------Fruits
Bhirmoli ----------------------------------------Celebrookia oppositifolia-------------Roots
Timur --------------------------------------------Zynthoxylum armatum-----------------Root
Dhai ----------------------------------------------Woodfordia fruiticosa ----------------Leaves
Parhu--------------------------------------Cymbopogon martim ---------------------------Roots
Kathmul -----------------------------------Dicliptera roxburghania --------------------Whole Plant
Genthi -------------------------------------Dioscoria bulbifera ---------------------Bulb/Root
Surat------------------------------------------Euphorbia royleana
Laljhari -------------------------------------Geranium nepalnesis -----------------------Whole plant
Other plants were Bish Kopra, Dakh, Chir, Latkaniya, Chir etc






Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 25/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -494 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx         
 History aspects of Beverages and Beverage Plants in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Beverages and Beverage Plants in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Beverages and Beverage Plants in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Beverages and Beverage Plants in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Beverages and Beverage Plants in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Beverages and Beverage Plants in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Beverages and Beverage Plants in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects of Beverages and Beverage Plants in Dehradun , Jaunsar Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;
                             स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!

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                      Fishes of Garhwal in History Context

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -57 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -246     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -494 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

  Garhwal is lucky to have rivers and rivulets in abundant. However, Fisheries did not develop in Garhwal as was developed in other parts of India. People used to take fish with eager and happily but least bothered to develop it. Main reason was that poultry and fishery was thought to be of low caste deeds. Dhunar or Doom used to catch fishes rather than upper caste people.
The following soft water species of fishes were there in Garhwal specially in rivers as Hinwal, Khoh , Ganga, Bhagirathi, Hemganga, Song,Suswa,Alaknanda,Bhilangana, Nayar etc -
1-Barilius barna
2- Bariliusbendilisis
3- Barilius vagra
- Barilius haxstichus
-Bagarius bagarius
-Botia Dario
-Balitora brucei 
-Chagunius chagunio
-Chaagunius mrigala
-Chana punctatus
-Chana gachua
-Cirrhinus chagunio
Cirrhinus mrigala
-Clarias batracus
-Clupisomagarua
-Crossochielus latius latius
-Danio devario
-Esomus danricus
- Gara gotyla gotyla
-Glyptothorax pectinopterus
- Glyptothorax cavia
- Glyptothorax brevipinnis
-Labio rohita
- Labio calbasu
- Labio dero
- Labio dyocheilis
-Leptocecephalus guntea
-Mastacembelus armetus
--Mastacembelus puncalus
-Mystus vittatus
-Mystus bleekeri
-Mystus seenghala
-Mystus  tengara
-Nadus nandus
-Nemachelius botia
- Noemachelius rupicola
- Noemachelius savona
- Noemachelius bevani
-Puntius chola
-Puntius sarana
-Puntius sophor
-Puntius ticto
-Puntius phutunio
-Oxygester  bacilia
-Rasbora daniconius
-Salmo truta fario
-Shizothorax curvifrons
-Shizothorax sinuatus
-Shizothorax plagiostomus
-Shizothoraicthys niger
-Shizothoraicthys progestus
-Shizothoraicthys  richardsonii
-Tor putitora
-Tor tor
-Xenentodon cancila
 The above fishes were reported by zoologists as Mookarji (1944); Chako and Kuriyan (1948) ; Das and Moitra (1955, 56, 58); Dixit and Bisht (1972); George (1965) ; Hynes (1950); Jyoti and Malhotra; Khanna and Pant (1964); S.P Badola , H R Singh (1980); D.R Khanna, Bhutiani, Ruhela (2013) and others.
It is presumed that there would not be much differences between the fish species of 1800 and 1944 in Garhwal.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 26/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -495 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx         
 Fishes of Garhwal in History Context; Fishes of Pauri Garhwal in History Context; Fishes of Chamoli Garhwal in History Context; Fishes of Rudraprayag  Garhwal in History Context; Fishes of Tehri Garhwal in History Context; Fishes of Uttarkashi Garhwal in History Context; Fishes of Dehradun Garhwal in History Context;
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 Economic Wild and domestic Animals of Garhwal in Pal/ Shah History context

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -58 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -247     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -495 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
        From the primitive time, Garhwal especially Bhabhar had been the paradise for hunting braves and Kings. Kalidas described about hunting in upper Garhwal by Kings from plains, British officers.
                          Domestic or Pet Animals of Garhwal
1-Bufello
2-Cow
3-Chaunwar Gay in Tibet Border region
4-Camel
5-Chiken
6-Dog
7-Donkey (Bhabhar, Tarai)
8-Elephant (Bhahar)
9-Horse
10-Pony /Khacchar
11-Jhappu
12-Goat
13-Pig (Shrinagr and Bhabhar, Dehradun not in rural Garhwal)
14-Sheep
15-Cat
Domestic animals barring Cat had significance role in daily life and economy. Pashu or domestic animals was a sign of property.
Besides, maneuvering the animals was used for food too.
              Wild Animals used for Meat
1-Deer Families –Ghweed-Kakhad (Barking deer), Hug Deer, Kasturi Mirg/Musk Deer  (above 8000 feet); Barhasingha, Hiran, Padha, jadau Sambhar, Chausingha Hiran, Tibetan antelope, Tibetan gazelle  etc
2-Wild bore
3-Rabbit
4-Porcupine (Saulu, Shahi, Shaulu)   


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 26/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -495 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx         
 Economic Wild and domestic Animals of Garhwal in Pal/ Shah History context; Economic Wild and domestic Animals of Pauri Garhwal in Pal/ Shah History context; Economic Wild and domestic Animals of Chamoli Garhwal in Pal/ Shah History context; Economic Wild and domestic Animals of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal/ Shah History context; Economic Wild and domestic Animals of Tehri Garhwal in Pal/ Shah History context; Economic Wild and domestic Animals of Uttarakhand Garhwal in Pal/ Shah History context; Economic Wild and domestic Animals of Dehradun Garhwal in Pal/ Shah History context; Economic Wild and domestic Animals of Haridwar Garhwal in Pal/ Shah History context; Economic Wild and domestic Animals of Bijnor Garhwal in Pal/ Shah History context;   
                स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!

Bhishma Kukreti

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              Wild Animals (non Edible) of Garhwal in History context

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -59 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -248     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -496 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

1-lephant (Bhabhar)
2-Wild cat
3-Tiger families as Bengal Tiger, Hyna, Guldar, Dhirag, Lakkadbggha, White Tiger,Tendua etc
4-Wild dog
5-Wild Horse
6-Wild Donkey
7-Yak
8-Kyang
9-Himalyan bear (low altitude and high altitude bear)
10-Neelgay
11-Jackal, Fox, Kusyal
12-Rats
13-Bats
14-Newala
15-Gilhari /squirrel
16-Gwaan
17- Saro
18- Black mouth money (Guni)
19-Bed/Brown mouth monkey
 20-Chuutraul
21-Snakes and lizards




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 28/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -496 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
 Wild Animals (non Edible) of Garhwal in History context; Wild Animals (non Edible) of Haridwar, Garhwal in History context; Wild Animals (non Edible) of Bijnor  in History context;  Wild Animals (non Edible) of Pauri Garhwal in History context; Wild Animals (non Edible) of Chamoli Garhwal in History context; Wild Animals (non Edible) of Rudraprayag Garhwal in History context; Wild Animals (non Edible) of Tehri Garhwal in History context;  Wild Animals (non Edible) of Uttarkashi Garhwal in History context; Wild Animals (non Edible) of Dehradun, Garhwal in History context;               
                स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!

Bhishma Kukreti

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                Edible Animals of Garhwal in History context

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -60 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -249     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -497 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
 The people of Garhwal used domestic and wild animals for food purpose.
           Edible Domestic Animals
Goat
Sheep
Pigs
Yaks
Part from the above common domestic animals, a Hindu class used the cow, bulls, buffalo for food purpose.
          Wild Edible Animals
Deer families
Porcupine
Turtle
Rabbit
Wild Pig
Neelgay (eaten by a class only)
Shells in rivers or ponds

 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 29/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -498 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
 
                स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!



 

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