Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 120050 times)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Dosto,

Our Senior Member Shri Bhishma Kukreti ji will discussion the following histrocial aspect of various Regions of Garhwal:-
      -  Historical aspects of Pauri Garhwal
      -  Historical aspects of Chamoli  Garhwal
      -  Historical aspects of  Rudraprayag Garhwal
      -  Historical aspects of  Tehri Garhwal
      -  Historical aspects of  Uttarkashi  Garhwal
      -  Historical aspects of  Dehradun Garhwal
      -  Historical aspects of  Haridwar

We are sure you would like the information posted by Mr Kukreti ji here.

M S Mehta

Bhishma Kukreti

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 [justify]            Introduction to History of Garhwal from 1223-1804

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -1
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -246

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
 
                    Garhwal Region or Kedarkhand:  an Introduction

 Garhwal region has following districts –
District --------------Area Sq Kilometer -----------Population in Lakhs 2011
Uttarkashi -------------  9016 ---------------------3.29
Chamoli Garhwal -----8032--------------------3.91
Rudraprayag    ----------1890 ------------------2.36
Tehri Garhwal ------   4080----------------6.16
Dehradun    ------------3038 ------------------------16.9
Pauri Garhwal   ------5399 ------------------------6.86
Haridwar   ---------------2360------------------19.27
  Kumaon Uttarakhand is in east of Garhwal region. Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh is in south of Garhwal region. Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh are in west of Garhwal region.  Tibet of China is in north of Garhwal region.

                            Rule of Krachall

 In previous chapters of History of Uttarakhand (Katyuri period) the readers already read that Krachall ruled Uttarakhand including Garhwal in or around 1223. Kalchakra ruled on Uttarakhand through Mandlik or regional rulers (read History of Uttarakhand part -142).

              Hundreds of Rulers in Garhwal and Kumaon
       After Krachall or his successor’s rule (most probably 1250) the small kingdoms or Garhi or Garh emerged in Garhwal. The folklores of that period still exist in Garhwal and Kumaon.  The centralized rule of Krachall or successors was no more in Garhwal and Kumaon and regional rulers emerged as rulers of particular region called Garhi or Garh.  These regional rulers started fighting and more and more small Garh or forts (rulers) emerged in the scene.

            Garh or Forts in Garhwal in Thirteenth Century

            The rulers of these small regions used to build fort in high hills of the regions called as Gadh or Garh or Garhi. The rulers used to keep weapons, arms-ammunitions, army and families in the fort or Garhi. From their Garh owners used to rule nearby villages. 
             The fort used to be built inaccessible place at high hills and could be seen from distances. There used to arrangement of water and food articles. All roads towards Garh or fort were closed and only one road used to be open. The army used to watch that accessible road very rigorously.
              In many Garhi, there was not water source. In such types of Garh or fort, rain water stopped by mud or stone walls. Water was also reserved in Wood, stone or mud vessels. There were staircases from rivulets or canals to the fort as could be seen today in Bhairogadhi Langur, Pauri Garhwal.  There used to be tunnels to reach river or rivulets. The tunnels could be seen in Chandpurgarhi, Gujdugadhi and Lakhamandal Gadhi. These tunnels were to run away in safe place when Garh is in danger by attack from enemy.

            Numbers of Garh or Garhi in Garhwal
  Raturi and Rahul state that Panwar King Ajaypal won sixty two or fifty two Garh and included them into his kingdom. However, the numbers of Garhi was more than Raturi’s estimate.
 Region ---------------------- --------------------------- Names of Garhi ------------Numbers
1-North border ----- ------Gadhtang, Painkhanda,Dasholi ------------------------------4---
2-East Border ----- ----------------------Badhan, Chandpur,Chaud, Top
East Border ------------------------------------Ranigarh, Lohaba, Dhauna,Vangarh,
---------------------------------------------------------------------Kanda, Gujadu, Sawali ----------11
3-South Garhwal
 (Talla Salan, Gangasalan, Bhabhar, Narnedra nagr Dehradun)--- Mahabgadh, Baggadh
---------------------------------------------------------------------Ajmir Garh, Shrigurugarh,
-------------------------------------------------------------------Mavakot, Gadkot, Bhairongadh,
------------------------------------------------------------------ Ghughti, Dhangu
---------------------------------------------------------------------Badalpur, Laldhang, ChandiSatur,
--------------------------------------------------------------------Kolagarh, Shergarh, Nanorgarh
------------------------------------------------------------------Nalagadh, Veerbhadra, Mordhaj,
-------------------------------------------------------------Pathargarh,Kunaji, Ratan, kuili, Bharpur-24
4-West Border ----------------------Jorgarh, Biraltagarh, Silgarh, Mungragarh, SankariGarh
(Jaunpur, Mahasu, Shimla)--------------------------, Badkot,Dodrakwargadh, Ramigarh----------8
5-Mandakini valley----------------------------------Nagpur, Kandara
6- Upper East valley --------------------------Ulkagadh, Aidasu, Devalgarh, Nayalgarh,
(Devalgarh, Barhsyun, Chaundkot ) --------Kolligarh, Dhaunagarh,Bangarh, Kandagarh, --------------------------------------------------------------Chaundkot -----------------------------------------------9
7- Westren valley
(Udaypur, Kirtinagar, Chandravadani, Chilla-------------------------------------------------------------
Pratapnagar, Bhardar, Bhilang)-------------------------------- Uppu Garh, Maulyagarh, Rainkagarh, Bhagargadh
-------------------------------------------------------------------------Bhardar garh, Sangelagarh -------6
 Total Garh -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------64
There were many Garh or forts in Haridwar those were present before 1223 .
 There are folklores those mention following Garhi too-
Maluvakot, Amuvakot, Kalnikot, Ramoligadh, Lohanigarh, Katyurgarh, Chandgarh, kalavatikot, Nandanikot, Dharnigadhi, Malsigadhi, Kotligadhi, Bhanikot, Chandikot, etc . There is no history records of those Garh mentioned in folklores.

****Read about more about Garhi administration in next chapter…


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 14/1/2014 Makar Sankranti

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -247   
Xx
History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Udaypur Patti Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Dhangu Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Pauri Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Chamoli Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Tehri Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Dehradun Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Haridwar Garhwal; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Garhwal kingdom in Bijnor; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Garhwal Kingdom in Himachalpradesh; History of Bavan Gadh/Garh/Garhi in Garhwal Kingdom in Saharanpur;

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History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -2

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -247

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

               The Gadhpati or Rulers of Northern Garhwal Border touching Tibet

                 In early age, Tankan community settled in Northern Garhwal touching Tibet. Due to settling of Tankan community in North Garhwal Himalaya, Garhwal automatically was divided into two specific parts. Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral shows probability that Western north Garhwal or Taknaur was ruled by Badahat Gadhpati or influenced by Badahat Gadhpati (rulers of Garh). The eastern part was called Katyuri region. Katyuri ruled in this region.
             The rulers of Taknaur region were called Sughadh or Budhere. The elders and old men used to take decisions for political, cultural, social and economical activities. The rule was as Kabila administration.
           Gadhtang fort was important for Badahat rulers and Tibetan people in terms of defense strategy. Tibetans used to attack on Badahat regions (Uttarkashi). Historians found Tibetan coins from nearby area of Gadhtang fort, Badahat region. 
 The powerful rulers of Taknaur or Tankan region used to attack on south rulers in winter season.

               Life of Inhabitants of Tankan Region touching Tibet 
 
              The inhabitants of Tankan and Painkhanda regions had to settle in southern region in winter season.
          Due to inhabitant less in upper Himalayan region of Garhwal in winter season, Tibetan looters used to encroach in this area and used to loot valuables. Tibet looters looted Badrinath temple many times.   
             Livelihood of Taknaur or Tankan Region
    The inhabitants of Tankan region had to depend on commercial acts with Tibet. Tankan people were also herdsmen. In summer, they used to take sellable materials of Garhwal on the backs of goat and sheep to Tibet and in winter they used to sell products of Tibet in Garhwal till Bhabhar. This practice was there very much till China war 1962. Tibet salt was always in demand. The woolen clothing was also in demand in Garhwal for centuries.
         Bhotiya (commonly called for Tankan people) created a special business based language called Bhotiya language. Most Bhotiya followed Buddhism or Lama Religion. A few Bhotiya followed worshipping deities and goddesses of Hindu religion.

                         Gadhpati of Mandakini valley
                Mandakini valley was most protected region of Garhwal. Mandakini valley was also superior in terms of natural beauty and fertile land.
                Gopeshwar was the capital of Kedarbhumi or Mandakini valley in the periods of Nag Kings and Chall kings.
 Today, we only know about Ngapur Garh and Kandar Garh of Mandakini valley.
 It is said that the last Gadhpati or ruler of Nagpur Garh was Sajan Singh. No other details are available about Nagpur Garh. It is believed that Kandar Garh was established in thirteenth century.
    The rulers of Garhs of Mandakini valley were peace lovers and able administrators. Gopeshwar was famous pilgrim place. Rulers and other devotees built temples there.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola , Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -248   
Xx
History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Mana Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Neeti Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Nanda Devi region of Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Border of Tibet in  Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Badahat Uttarkashi Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Gopeshwar Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Mandakini Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Nagpur Gadh Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in Kandar Garh Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in north Chamoli Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century; History Aspects of Garhi Administration in North Rudraprayag Garhwal in Twelfth century to Fifteenth century;













Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Gadh / Garhi of East Border touching Kumaon and Eastern and Western Plateaus of Garhwal from twelfth to fifteen century

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -3

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -248

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

           No doubt before 1223 there was rule of Katyuri or Chall families on Garhwal but regional chieftains or Gadhpati /Garhpati of Gadh or Garhs were real rulers.

         Regional Chieftains (Garhpati) of Eastern Border of Garhwal

   The historians have records of eleven Gadhi or Garhi of east border of Garhwal from thirteen century-in Malla Salan, Badhan and Chandpur Pargana.
             Baijnath, Katyur, Dwarhat, and Baramandal Gadhi were in Kumaon at this period. There were attacks and counter attacks from each side of Kumaon and Garhwal.
         Dilbar Singh and Pramod Singh had been brave and famous Gadhpati of Lohava  Garh.
               Chaudal of Chaud Garh, Topal of Top Garh and Chahman of Chandpur Garh had been very powerful chieftains of their Garh.

                   Garhpati or Regional Chieftains of Eastern Plateau of Garhwal

 There were main nine Garhi of Devalgarh, Barahsyun and Chaundkot in east plateau of Garhwal. There are folklores about Gadh of Devalgarh but we lost folklores about Gadhpati of Barahsyun and Chaundkot.  It is said that Deval from Kangada established Deval Gadhi.
 When Garhwal King Ajayapal had to flee from Chandpur Garhi and established capital in Devalgarh. Later on Garhwal King shifted from Devalgarh to Shrinagar.

                      Gadhpati of Western Plateau of Garhwal

                  Big part of west plateau was covered by forest. There are records of six Gadhis as Udyapur, Kirtinagar, Chandrabadani, Chilla, Pratapnagar, Bhardar and Bhilang region of Garhwal.
         Ghirvan Khas rulers were rulers of Bangargadh.
Kaffu Chauhan was ruler of Uppu Garh. Ajaypal defeated kaffu Chauhan. Sonpla was ruler of Bhilang plateau.
 
                    Chieftains of Western border of Garhwal
 Western border of Garhwal was touching Himachal Pradesh. Records and folklores are lost about Gadhpati of Western border of Garhwal touching Himachal.
 Bhup Singh was last ruler of Jaunpur Garh.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola , Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -249   
Xx
History of Gadh / Garhi of East Border touching Kumaon and Eastern and Western Plateaus of Garhwal; History of Gadh / Garhi of Western Plateaus of Garhwal, Jaunpurgadh; Garhwal; History of Gadh / Garhi of Western Plateaus of Garhwal, Ravai; History of Gadh / Garhi of Western Plateaus of Mahasu Garhwal; History of Gadh / Garhi of Western Plateaus of Udaypur Garhwal; History of Gadh / Garhi of Western Plateaus of  Bhilangana valley Garhwal; History of Gadh / Garhi of  Western Plateaus of  Bhardar, Pratapnagar , Chilla Garhwal; History of Gadh / Garhi of  East border  Garhwal, Malla Salan, Badhan and Chandpur Pargana; History of Gadh / Garhi of  East Plateau Garhwal, Devalgarh, Barahsyun and Chaundkot…

Bhishma Kukreti

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               History of Garh and Garhpati of South Garhwal

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -4

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -249

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
                   Gangasalan, Talla Salan, Bhabhar (All in Pauri Garhwal), Narendra Nagar (Tehri Garhwal), Dehradun and Haridwar regions come under South Garhwal. There were maximum Garhs in this region. It is believed that there were at least 24 Garhs in South Garhwal including Haridwar. The folklores have been lost about many Garhs.
              For example, there is folklore about Dhang Garh (Jhaid, Talla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal). It is said that there was a fort on top of Dhang Garh near Ganga bank where King used to live. It is believed by Jhaid villagers that there was water reservoir and many other facilities in fort. The enemy attacked on fort and the King buried his wealth /jewels and jewelries and handed over snakes to protect the wealth. The enemy killed the Dhang Garh king but could not take wealth of Dhangu King because of snake. Still is believed that now, if anybody enters the wealth area, snakes come to bite people. However, no historian mention about this folklore.
 The high numbers of Garhs in South Garhwal does not mean that there were twenty four rulers. It might be that one ruler or Garhpati might have more than one Garh or Garhi.
 Suntor Garh is in Dehradun. Kaulagarh was in between Vasantpur and Sahaspur of Dehradun district.
            Nalapani Garh or Khalangagad  (Dehradun) was very important Garh even in nineteenth century. After winning this Garh British won war against Gorakha.
There was Shergarh at Yamuna bank. Further to Shergarh there was Kani Garh. The regional commander of Shahjahan won this Garh.
Laldhang Garh was important Garh in Bhabhar. It had importance in Mogul period too.
Mordhwaj Garh is between Kotdwar and Nazibabad .
There are ruins of Garh in east part of Bhabhar.

                  History aspects of Garh in Haridwar 


            Nanorgarh was in between Haridwar and Rishikesh. There must be two or three Garh in present Haridwar district.
There are ruins of a fort in Veer Bhadra and is called Gadhwal Raja ka Kila. Chandighat was one of the important Garh in Haridwar. There are ruins of a Garh near to Chandighat Haridwar.
  There must be Garh or fort in or near Manglaur too in twelfth century.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -250   
Xx
History of Garh and Garhpati of South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Talla Salan, South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Ganga Salan South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Bhabhar South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Dehradun South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Ninorgarh Haridwar South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Garhwali Raja ka Kila South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Mordhwaj South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Dhang Garh South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Mahab Garh South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Narendra Ngar South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Dhangu South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Langur South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Ajmer South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Udyapur South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Dabralsyun South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Manglaur South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun); History of Garh and Garhpati of Chandighat South Garhwal (including Haridwar and Dehradun);


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         Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Garhwal Early Medieval Period

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -5

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -250

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                   Studying the geographical positions of Garh or Garhis it is concluded that Katyuri and Katyuri family relatives (Tajnakon-Ranoton) were the founders of Garh/Garhi in Garhwal and Haridwar. It might be that in Haridwar and some parts of Bhabhar, successors of Kulinda or army commanders of post Gupta periods might be founder of forts or Garhi.

                      It is presumed that at least till twelfth century, the Katyuris were rulers of Garh or Garhs in Garhwal including Haridwar. However, the commanders of Katyuris, commanders of Challa kings captured the Garhi founded by Katyuri family members. There were new comers Rajput army men who also captured Garhis from Katyuri commanders. When Ajyapal captured fifty two Garhis in sixteenth century there were no Katyuri family rulers of Garhis but were  Khadkhola Negi, Kulsad Negi, Mandarwal, Mulani Bisht,Rajwar, rautela, Ringwad Rawat and a couple of Kaintura.
 The administrative posts in Challa period were Rawat, Negi, Bisht and Bhandari and continued in Garhi period too. They captured Garhi after Challa kingdom.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -251   
Xx
Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Haridwar, Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Dehradun Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Jaunsar Bhabhar, Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Uttarkashi Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Tehri Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Rudraprayag Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Chamoli Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Lansdowne Tehsil  Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Salan Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Pauri Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Bhilangana Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Tons-Yamuna valley Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Neeti-Mana region Garhwal Early Medieval Period; Asian History of Founders of Garh/ Garhis of Pauri Garhwal Early Medieval Period;

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Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Garhwal

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -6

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -251

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)


                   There were many Garhi or regional chieftains of tribes or small territories in Garhwal and Kumaon. The same situation existed in Nepal, Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir and Afghanistan.  The powerful chieftains used to attack on smaller or weak Garhi or tribes and used to increase their influential regions. There was no single Garhpati or chieftain who could win over major territories.

            Reasons of Wars among Regional Chieftains or Gadhpati
                  Each chieftain used to fight with other chieftain and weakening each other area. The constant fighting allowed others to dominate them.
 There were three main reasons for war among chieftains-
1-Boundary Disputes- Boundary disputes was to get supremacy.
2-Old enmities- The old enmities were other reasons for infighting among Gadhpati. If a warrior is killed in a war, his widow used to nourish her children in lonely forest or village and used to inspire children to take revenge who killed their father. Many times widows fought among themselves.
3-For women- The chieftains used to attack other region by hearing stories about a beautiful girl or woman. The chieftains used to fell pride on consuming women of his region. 
  The weapons were bow-arrow, swords, Khukari. Bamboo sticks was another weapon. Stones were kept on top of hills and when the enemy used to march towards hills from down the soldiers used to push stones towards valley.

                         Bhad or Hudkiya

                   Gadhpati or chieftains used to appoint Hudkiyas who used to sing inspirational songs for soldiers and used to sing in praise of Gadhpati. Hudkiya used to have a drum type music instrument.

                      Gram Panchayat or Village Councils

           Gram Panchayat or Village Councils used to manage the social and judiciary in villages. Village council chief was called Pradhan, Thokdar or Sayana. The village councilor used to listen the pleas of people on a big respectful stone. In many villages, such stones are still exist. The villagers used to pay tribute or tax to Gadhpati in the form of grains, Ghee.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 23/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -252   
Xx
 Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Haridwar, Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Dehradun, Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Jaunsar Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Ravain Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Gangotri region Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Bhilangana valley Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Tehri Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Kedar valley Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Neeti- Mana region Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Chamoli Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Rath, Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Pauri region Garhwal; Post Classical Himalayan History of Political Characteristics in Garhs/Garhis of Salan region Garhwal;

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 North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Garhwal

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -7

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -252

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                  Social Customs in Garhi Rule in Garhwal
 
       There were main three social classes in Garhi period of Garhwal –
Brahmin
Rajput
         And Craftsman (The name was ‘Doom’ but this word is now unconstitutional)
There was dominance of Tantrik Brahmin than Karmkandi Brahmin. Nath sect was dominating sect among Brahmin and Craftsmen or Shilpkar communities.  Tantrik- Mantrik used to company rulers in war and hunting.
 Khas were in majority among Rajput community. In fact, most of Rajput communities were outsiders. Khas were very powerful.
             Male used to protect their women and frequent fights among Garhi rulers were for women among people.  In some cases, Sati custom was seen among ruling community. However, in society Sati custom was not there among common people. Widow marriage was very common.  Having more than one wife was a tradition. In many areas common wife for brothers was also a tradition.

                       Religious Customs

   Village deities and goddesses had importance in every part of life.
              Nagraja, Narsingh, Ghandiyal, Kshetrapal, Goril, Gwull, Nirankar deities had already come in existence. People used to believe that those deities were as human beings. People believed that deities offer protection, health, health rescue and prosperity to devotees.
 People used to believe on Ancheri (oread), Bhut (dissatisfied souls), Pishach (bad souls) etc.
                  There were strong beliefs on Mantra and Tantra. People believed that Tantra-Mantra power could defeat the enemy. Mantrik used to perform rituals on ash, mustarded seeds (Rangud Mantran and Rai Mantran) cow urine, milk, Ghee, Ganga water etc.

                    Day to Day Life
  Rulers used to take tax on land, domestic animals, milk etc. The people had least demand for life. They had least clothing.
 Medicinal researches were nowhere and people used to die in immature age. There were various accidental causes of death. Epidemics and animal bites were common factors for death.
  There was inbound social structure for keeping land intact as single wife of all brothers, land ownership to eldest ones. Suicide was common to get heaven after death. Jogi –Jogan had important place in society. People used to put child on the Jholi of Jogi or Jogan for protecting the child from evils.
                  Making daughters as Dev Dasi (temple prostitute or dancer) was common customs.
              Famine was a common factor.  Due to less availability of food, slavery was common. People used to sell their children and women. Many communities used to visit planes in winter season for selling Ganga water or for begging.

                             Hardship in Life

          There was hardship in every step of life. Administration was unstable and was another cause not going for new adventure in agriculture.
       Migration from planes was more and new culture was invading the old customs. Khas rulers were not sponsors for Temple building, Sanskrit. There was no scope for learning and did not come any new architecture in Garhi period.

 Powerful rulers used to take weaker Garhi under them. Anarchism was common.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 24/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -253   
Xx
North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Haridwar Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Dehradun Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Uttarkashi  Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Tehri Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Chamoli Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Rudraprayag Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Pauri Garhwal; North Indian, Medieval History of Social, Cultural, Religious aspects in Garhi Period in Garhwal, Himalaya;


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               History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal Part-1

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -8

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -253

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

             In twelfth or end of eleventh century, Challa ruling class from Nepal destroyed Katyuri of Baijnah Kingdom. For administrating from Nepal, Challa divided Garhwal-Kumaon into regions or (Mandals) and offered ruling power to Mandlik or regional chieftains.  In later stage, these regional chieftains became rulers of tens of Kingdoms. However, that division did not minimize the cultural unity of today’s Garhwal and Kumaon. There is exclusivity in the region between Tones-Yamuna to Kali Ganga that separates Uttarakhand region from Nepal, Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir and Afghanistan of Himalaya.  The geographical aspects of Uttarakhand is exclusive than North East Himalayan region of India. In north of Uttarakhand is Tibet (China) and even Uttarakhand had exclusivity against Himalayan Tibet in many respects.
               Before, Katyuri took ruling in Uttarkhand, Nand, Maurya, Maukhari, Gupta, Harsha and Paurav kings had ruling in Uttarakhand but its cultural and geographical exclusivity remained intact. Katyuri ruled on Uttarakhand for two hundred years from Joshimath and two hundred years from Baijnath. They enhanced the cultural unity and that unity still exists in Uttarkhand.
 Various social and the cultural beliefs, structures started from Katyuri rules in Uttarakhand.
    Badrinath, Kedarnath, Tapovan, Simli, Adi Badri , Dev Prayag, Jageshwar, Bageshwar pilgrim places got specific places in religious tourism map of  India in Katyuri period. Shankaracharya reestablished the religious power of Badrinath and Kedarnath. Medhakar types of saints came to Dev Prayag in this period.
       Uttarakhand attracted saints, religious priests, religious leaders, temple architectures from all parts of India. Uttarkhand became the land of Gods and Goddesses (Dev Bhumi).

                           Origin of Garhwali and Kumaoni Languages

                 Katyuri period is also credited for developing two exclusive languages in the region. Khas language is the mother of Garhwali and Kumaoni languages. Garhwali and Kumaoni languages were derived by culturing distorted Khas language. There are similarities in both the languages in terms of form, postures but slowly both languages developed exclusivity too. The exclusivity in between Garhwali and Kumaoni languages also inspired for having two exclusive Garhwali and s Kumaoni societies in the region. However, cultural and religious words could intact the cultural unity very intact.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 24/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -254   
Xx
History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal; History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Pauri Garhwal district); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Tehri Garhwal District); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Uttarkashi Garhwal District); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Chamoli Garhwal District); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Rudraprayag Garhwal District); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Haridwar Garhwal District); History aspects of Naming Kedarkhand and Garhwal (Including-Dehradun Garhwal District);

Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Details of Nomenclature of Kedarkhand Garhwal Part -2

             History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -9

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -254

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                      Political Division of Uttarakhand

          The history records proof that when in eleventh century, Narsingh Dev transferred his capital from Joshimath to Baijnath the political division of Uttarakhan started. Katyuri were ruling on both the political regions. In 11191, Ashok Challa captured Katyuri Kingdom and he ruled both the political entities.
  The Ashok Challa rule was divided into following major regions-
1-Bairath-The western part of today’s Nepal or eastern region of Kali Ganga.
2- Kamades- The present region of Kumaon.
3- Kedarbhumi or present Garhwal region- From Tones-Yamuna to Nandadevi all districts of Garhwal including Dehradun and perhaps Haridwar or parts of Haridwar district. In Mahbharata, there is no mention of Kedarbhumi but Uttarakhand was described as Kulind des in general term.


                           Garhwal and Kedarkhand Names

            There is no mention of Kamades, Kurmachal, Kumaon and Kedarkhand, Kedarbhumi in Katyuri inscriptions.
             There is no mention of Kamades, Kurmachal, Kumaon and Kedarkhand, Kedarbhumi in Katyuri names in the literature of Kalidas, Ban and Rajshekhar who described this region (Uttarakhand) in their literature. Though, the names Kedarkhand, Kurmachal are not mentioned in inscription it is sure that among common people and elite too these names were discussed before Ashok Challa. 

                                            Kedarkhand
               In Skand Puran (largest and about Kartikeya), there is a separate chapter ‘Kedarkhand.   
In Sanskrit, Kedar means marshy land. However, this meaning does not suit to Kedarkhand.
  In Sanskrit, Kedar means Kapila’s field a Tirtha; Matanga’s field another Tirtha; a basin round the tree; a bed in garden; of a mountain country (present Kedarnath); of Shiva as worshipped in Himalaya.  Kedar means the Himalayan stones where big stone is worshipped as Shiva in.
               It is sure, that present Kedarnath region was familiar as Kedar Teertha in and before Gupta period.
 The Munger inscriptions of Devpal (800) state that servants of Maghad King Dharmapal took bathe in Kedarbhumi. Malwa King Bhoj (1000-1055) either constructed or repaired Kedar Mandir.
                Around 1200; Kangda King Lakshamn Chandra visited Kedarteerth and vowed to treat his wives as sisters. 
           It is obvious that Kedarkhand, Kedarbhumi or Kedarkshetra was commonly used for the regions of Garhwal, Dehradun and Haridwar before eighth or ninth century.

        Areas under Kedarkhand

         Kedarkhand of Skanda Puran describes the regions of Kedarkhand from Gangadwar (Haridwar) to greater Himalaya and Tamsa (tones) to Baudhacahl (Badhan at the border of Kumaon).
 Ashok Challa had rule over Garhwal, Dehradun and Haridwar.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 24/1/2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -255   
Xx
History Details of Nomenclature of Kedarkhand and Garhwal; History Details of Nomenclature of Kedarkhand and Garhwal- Pauri Garhwal; History Details of Nomenclature of Kedarkhand and Garhwal- Chamoli Garhwal; History Details of Nomenclature of Kedarkhand and Garhwal- Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Details of Nomenclature of Kedarkhand and Garhwal- Tehri Garhwal; History Details of Nomenclature of Kedarkhand and Garhwal- Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Details of Nomenclature of Kedarkhand and Garhwal- Haridwar Garhwal; History Details of Nomenclature of Kedarkhand and Garhwal- Dehradun Garhwal;


 

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