Author Topic: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh  (Read 44900 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #280 on: May 29, 2016, 11:08:43 AM »

                 Bamshah Worrying about his Future in Nepal -2         
   
                 History British Campaign for Capturing Kumaon -66
      
          Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -282
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -811   
               
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
            Bamshah informed, “Ochterloni surrounded Amar Singh Thapa’s troop in Malaun. When Amar Singh Thapa would receive my letter he would vacate Malaun as per my advice.  He would save his skin but would report to Nepal court that he was at the verse of winning British army but Bamshah called me back to Kali River. Bamshah Chauntara did not allow me for winning British army”
     Further, Bamshah said, “There is no doubt that there would not be base for Amar Singh commenting so. However, Khasia Dal (Thapa Group) would create dangerous situation for me in Nepal Court. The king likes me but the King is surrounded by Khasia Dal (Thapa group). It is possible that soldiers would be instructed for killing me. I would like to stay in Kumaon with my two troops till I get letter from the King.” ( From - History Papers of   Kumaon by Saxsena)   
  Bamshah was sure that Khasia Dal would accuse him for loss of 8 lakhs per annum territory and Bamshah was defeated even after having 5000 soldiers.
  Lieutenant Colonel Gardner made Bamshah understand that “You  did fine job by not fighting with British and saved many lives and did benefits for Nepal. You would not bear the worst consequences by fighting with us. If you would not have treaty with us we would have captured you all and would have attacked on Doti.  You go to Doti and keep your faithful soldiers with you in Garhi (Fort) there. You become in charge (Subba) of Doti in place of your brother Hasti Dal. If you go late Nepal court would appoint another Subba for Doti.
      Gardner convinced Bamshah and Chamu Bhandari and they became ready for going to Doti.  The Pundits fond auspicious day and that day was 13th May 1815 for starting journey. Bamshah crossed Kali River on 14th May. L.C Gardner was there at Kalighat. Bamshah offered two young elephants in gift and tow letters for Edward Gardner and Nicholas.
    Still, Bamshah was worried man. He sent letter to the King that he should sent letters to Amar Singh Thapa and his son for stopping fight with British that Nepal could have opportunity for treaty with British.



 (From writings of B D Pande, Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Letter of Bamshah  for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 29/5/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -812
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference    
   
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal


















Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #281 on: May 30, 2016, 09:09:21 AM »

                        Defense Tactics for Kumaon
   
                 History British Campaign for Capturing Kumaon -67
      
          Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -283
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -812   
               
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

             Immediately after surrender of Bamshah, Edward Gardner arranged defense mechanism for Kumaon.
   After Bamshah crossing Jhulaghat, Nicholas and lieutenant colonel Gardner reached to Champawat.  Nicholas took charge of defending East region and Lieutenant Colonel Gardner took charge of country side. It was not possible to attck on Doti from Jhulaghat. After crossing Jhulaghat, there was two miles steep terrain for reaching towards Doti. The soldiers could attack by stones from hill. British kept 6 soldiers, 7 messengers and one clerk at Jhulaghat. On the road for Jhulaghat, British established camps in Munjil Kanda and Miyalakh. In each camp, there were 15 soldiers. At Jamalipani Ghat ( north of Jhulaghat) , British commanders kept 4 messengers. British soldiers cut rope way bridges at 16 Kali River Ports and necessary arrangement was done for defending ports. At Muldab Port , boats were burnt. 
 Bamshah and Rudravir Shah arranged defense tactics in Doti.
 In Jhulaghat the person was checked thoroughly and then only was allowed to cross or walk . The soldiers used to  shout- Khabardar.



 (From writings of B D Pande, Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Letter of Bamshah  for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 30/5/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -813
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference    
   
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal



















Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #282 on: May 31, 2016, 08:59:20 AM »
          Death of Harsh Dev Joshi and British Establishing Kumaon Battalion
   
                 History British Campaign for Capturing Kumaon -68
      
          Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -284
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -813   
               
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
 
          Hindered of soldiers left Gurkha army and joined irregular British army at the time of Kumaon Campaign.  After capturing Kumaon, British commanders appointed those soldiers as regular British army soldier and established Kumaon Battalion. The adjutants and commandants were European for Kumaon Battalion.
    The Rohila irregular soldiers proved to be problematic for British. When Rohilla soldiers returned back to plains (south of Kumaon), those soldiers started looting nearby villages and looting articles from their own Army stores. (John Premable).
                        Attraction for Hill Roads
   Edward Gardner tried pleasing Bhotias of Bhotantik region (north of Uttarakhand). The maps available with East India Company officials were with lot of mistakes. British officials were ready for Kali River as border demarcation between Nepal and Kumaon. However, British high command was anxious to have roads to Tibet under British. Therefore, British High Command instructed Edward Gardner for sending his suggestions for border line. Gardner sent  a map made with the help of Hearsay showing roads towards Tibet. The map was showing Neeti valley road to Tibet so simple that a person could reach easily to Daba valley of Tibet. Governor General decided to bring whole East of Alaknanda region under British rule.

                     Death of Harsh Dev Joshi

  Till first week of January 1815, Harsh Dev Joshi was in Kashipur in British camp. It is said that Harsh Dev Joshi was with the army that camped in Almora led by Lieutenant Colonel Gardner.
         Harsh Dev Joshi expired on 26th July 1815. Before the death, harsh Dev Joshi wnet to Gannath and wrote his will on Ashadh sudi Ashtami sambat 1872( July 1815) (Pade, Kumaon ka Itihas) .
               Harsh Dev Joshi was sucssful in getting his Jagir from British that he was offered by Chand King and Pradyuman Shah. British also accepted Rs 1000 monthly pension for Harsh Dev Joshi.


 (From writings of B D Pande, Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Letter of Bamshah  for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 31/5/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -814
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference    
   
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal




















Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #283 on: May 31, 2016, 09:54:44 AM »
               British Campaign for Capturing Himachal -1
   
      
          Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -284
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -813   
               
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                              Ochterlony Marching to Himachal 
           British High Command made Ochterlony responsible for winning Gurkha in Himachal region by fighting with Amar Singh Thapa.   Hastings had a guess that after defeat of Nepal in Gorakhpur, Dehradun and Kumaon, Amar Singh Thapa would march from Himachal to Nepal for defending Nepal. Hastings guessed that main job of Ochterlony would be to follow Amar Singh Thapa than head on. However, Amar Singh Thapa was confident that Nepal army was enough for defending Nepal from British attack.  Amar Singh Thapa was bent for defending the territory of West of Garhwal and Himachal that he won in past. Amar Singh Thapa was the real king without crown of Garhwal and Himachal for last 11 years.  Kaji Bakhtwar Basnet in Shrinagar and Kaji ranjor Singh Thapa in Nahan were ruling under Amar Singh Thapa.
  In the end week of October 1814, Ochterlony marched from Ropad Camp for Himachal. Ochterlony had following armed force-
Indian artillery battalions – 4.5
Indian Horsemen army  battalion- 2
Pioneers Companies- 2
Gun artilleries – 1
Loaders, gun loaders, animal takers etc – 6000
          Besides the above, 4000 soldiers from other states were supposed to go with Ochterlony. There were 3000 civilians and 6000 camp servants too.
           It was guessed that there were 7000 soldiers with Amar Singh Thapa. Premble assumed 5000 soldiers.
 Around 18000 personnel marched with Ochterlony. There was shortage of loaders and animal care takers. Many loaders started running away from the army. Therefore, Ochterlony bought 5000 bulls. 
   For 4-5 years, Ochterlony was having eyes on the strength and weaknesses of Amar Singh Thapa and his army.  Ochterlony was aware that winning Amar Singh Thapa, it required patience, hard work in hill terrain, different power and Guns. Therefore, Ochterlony took following guns with him-
18 Pound guns- 2
6 pound guns- 6
Heavy Howitzers- 2
Heavy Mortars- 2
  Amar Singh Thapa was stationed at Arki. There was full protection for the camp. Mahachand the  king of Bilaspur  adjascent to Thapa territory was friend of Thapa. Food supply was easily availavle from Bilaspur region. Therefore, Amar Singh Thapa did not change his head quarter.
 

 (From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Letter of Bamshah  for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 31/5/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -814
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference    
   
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal





















Bhishma Kukreti

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  • Posts: 18,808
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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #284 on: June 01, 2016, 10:02:28 AM »
                British Army Capturing Nalagarh, Himachal

                British Campaign for Capturing Himachal -2
            Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -285
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -815   
               
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
           Nalagarh (Solan District of Hindur kingdom) was gateway for various princely states of Himachal. On 14th November 1814, British army with 18 Pound guns on elephant reached near Nalagarh fort.   British army socilerds fired by 6 and 18 pound guns on wall of Nalagarh fort. The Nalagarh fort wall was demolished on 5th November. There were 95 Gurkha soldiers in  Targarh camp of Nalagarh.  British army captured 95 Gurkha soldiers. British commanders sent those captured soldiers to Ludhiana.
         Ochterlony established British army camp and depot at Nalagarh Fort. The Camp was need of the hour for communication with army of plains region.  Nalagarh was strong fort /camp for Amar Singh Thapa as he was staying at Arki. Ramgarh, Jorjoru, Targarh, hills and forts were on the road from Nalagarh to Arki. Goyala was in between Nalagarh and those hills.  When Ochterlony was marching for Goyala, Amar Singh Thapa reached to Ramgarh fort with his 3000 soldiers and 1000 soldiers of Bilaspur King. In fact the numbers of Gurkha soldiers with Amar Singh Thapa was minimal. Most of the soldiers were either from Garhwal or Himachal.  Amar Singh Thapa built fences for soldiers in many Garhis around Ramgarh. Amar Singh Thapa kept soldiers with fence in Kota Garhi too. Kota Garhi was one mile away south of Ramgarh. Now, Amar Singh Thapa was waiting for British army.


(From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Letter of Bamshah  for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 1/6/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -816
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference    
   
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal






















Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #285 on: June 03, 2016, 11:20:55 AM »
                 British Capturing Ramgarh 


                British Campaign for Capturing Himachal -3
            Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -286
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -816   
               
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                   British unsuccessfully Surrounding Ramgarh

                 Ochterlony camped with his army in Goyala on 12th November. It was difficult most reaching to Ramgarh from Goyala. However, on back of Goyala, there was plain place for camping at Nori. From Nori, it was possible to watch on Arki road too.  On 24th November, Ochterlony army reached at Nori. As soon as Amar Singh came to know about British activities, he ordered building fences and establishing camps and keeping soldiers at various hillocks and other important places.  British army lost 1 European officer and 40 Indian soldiers in searching suitable place for Gun on the road of Nori to Ramgarh. British army surrounded Ramgarh from three sides. However, British army could not surround on north that is road from Ramgarh to Bilaspur
       It was expected army help from Kangra King Sansar Chand. However, Sansar Chand could not help.  Ochterlony was disappointed as in Dehradun too British army was unsuccessful at Nalapani. Many soldiers from plains got ill.
         Ochterlony decided surrounding Amar Singh Thapa from four sides. Ochterlony decided capturing Mangugarh four miles away north of Ramgarh. Amar Singh came to Mangugarh with 2000 -2500 soldiers. There was fierce war for three hours between British and Gurkha armies. Many Indian soldiers ran away due to fear of Khukri of Gurkha soldiers. British killed 150 Gurkha soldiers and injured 250 Gurkha soldiers by gun fires. Gurkha killed 6 British soldiers and injured 40 soldiers. Amar Singh Thapa lost armed force heavily. However, Amar Singh Thapa could protect Mangugarh and the road from Ramgarh to Bilaspur was available for Amar Singh Thapa. 
                      Army Strategy by British Commander

     It was bad situation for Ochterlony. Amar Singh Thapa and his troops could go further nort of Himachal where the terrain was difficult for British army. Then, it was difficult attacking Gurkha camps.  The winter season was due very near. Snow fall and rain was also part of winter season in Himanchal. It was difficult for British army to win over Thapa in Mangugarh and Ramgarh. It was necessary for British that Amar Singh Thapa leave Ramgarh hill region. It was necessary that Amar Singh shift to other place where British would win over him.
    The Garhis were on hillocks/hills of Kot, Ramgarh, Nori, Mangu , Taragarh hills. Below those hills/hillocks Gambar River was flowing. From the place where there was confluence of Sutlej  and Gambar Rivers, from there was a place  3 miles north  where Gamrola River meets Sutlej. There was hill in between Gambar and Gamrola Rivers. That hill was higher than Ramgarh hill.
        There were Ratangarh, Surajgarh, and Malaugarh Garhis on that hill. Malaugarh was the most strong and protective Garh (fortress). On that Garhi, the family of Amar Singh Thapa was staying and treasury was also there. Ochterlony deeply studied the maps and details about that region given by Field Engineer Peter Lotto. Ochterlony came to conclusion that if Amar Singh Thapa was brought to Malau Garh, it was easier to win Amar Singh Thapa at Malau Garh.  Ochterlony planned to surround Malaugarh from three directions -east, south and west. It was plan that when Amar Singh reached to Malaugarh, British would attack from North too. It was assumed that when Thapa would know that British were attacking on Malau, he would come to Malau Garh for protecting his family and treasury. 
       It was also discussed that Amar Singh Thapa would shift to Bilaspur that was at the both ends of Gamrola River and the region was ruled by friendly King. Ochterlony sent an army of 2000 Hinduriyo soldiers (irregular British army soldiers from Hindur) under Lieutenant Ross towards Bilaspur city. Hindur soldiers were old enemy of Bilaspur.  Hindur soldiers won the territory and Bilaspur King Mahachand, Shivdatt Ray the astrologer friend of Amar Singh Thapa ran away crossing Sutlej. Ochterlony wanted to make Mahachand and his subject goof friends.  Therefore, Ochterlony stopped looting of Bilaspur by Hindur soldiers.
           There was specific difficult situation for British army even after capturing Bilaspur. The British army was divided on two sides of Ramgarh hill shines. Gurkha army was centered at Ramgarh region only. If Amar Singh Thapa would have attacked on both sides or from one side, British would have lost the ground and soldiers. The winter was on its peak, snow was falling and plains soldiers were not habitual of such type of winter. British army spent three weeks just sitting idle. Ochterlony was busy in planning for winning over Thapa. Thapa had golden time .
     However, Amar Singh Thapa did not take the advantage of the golden situation.  As soon as Thapa came to know that British are moving toward Malaugarh, Thapa marched with his whole army towards Malaugarh. He kept scanty army at Ramgarh, and three nearby Garhis. Amar Singh Thapa could not take advantage of golden opportunity and caught in the mousetrap spread by Ochterlony.
       Arnold captured a strong Garhi in north of Malau Garhi region. Now, Amar Singh Thapa could not escape towards North without head on with British.

                 British Capturing Ramgarh 

      After Amar Singh Thapa reaching to Malau, Cooper forwarded his army for capturing Ramgarh and nearby forts as Jorjoru, Taragarh, Chamba etc. That territory was motherland of Hindur soldiers. Gurkha capture Ramgarh region from Hindur people. Field Engineer Lotto with 600 irregular Hindur soldiers reached near Ramgarh on 12 the February 1815.  Gurkha soldiers came out from Garhi with Khukari, Hindur soldiers jumped on them with swords. Gurkha soldiers were surprised by bravery of Hindur soldiers. Gurkha soldiers took shelter in shrubs and small stone caves (Udyar). They started firing guns on Hindur soldiers. It took three days for British heavy guns reaching to that region. British started firing heavy guns on Gurkha soldiers. Ochterlony instructed that let captured Gurkha soldiers run towards Malau Garh. The idea was that when more and more Gurkha soldiers would reach to Malau Garh, there would be sever food shortage at Malau Garh.  British army offered two days for Gurkha soldiers surrendering. However, brave Gurkha soldiers were not ready for cowardly act of surrendering. On 15th February, the gun fires was increased and the wall of Ramgarh Garhi was demolished, Gurkha soldiers surrendered. British army allowed Gurkha soldiers going to Malaugarh with their   weapons, flags, musical instruments, individual and kingdom properties and even Guns to Malaugarh.  Gurkha soldiers were assured that they can take other materials after a few days too.  The Gurkha soldiers of Jorjoru surrendered next day. When the brave Grukha soldiers of Ramgarh and other Garhis reached to Malaugarh Amar Singh Thapa ordered for cutting their noses and ears. He was so angry that he ordered to kill them. He ordered to put handcuffs on officers who came from Ramgarh and other forts.
        Bhakti Thapa made Amar Singh Thapa to understand and Thapa cancelled death sentence for loosing soldiers.

 
(From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Letter of Bamshah for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 3/6/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -817
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference    
   
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal























Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #286 on: June 04, 2016, 10:36:21 AM »
                 
                          Amar Singh Thapa’s Response to the Nepal King

                British Campaign for Capturing Himachal -4
            Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -287
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -817   
               
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

          At that time, Amar Singh Thapa got a copy of a letter from Nepal King for  Ranjor Singh in which Nepal King instructed Ranjor for having Treaty with British. Nepal King authorized Ranjor Singh for offering Bhabhar, Tarai of Central Himalaya including Dehradun and west of Yamuna region to British in exchange of Treaty with British. On 2nd March 1815, Amar Singh Thapa sent a letter in response of the King writing letter to Ranjor. British spy snatched the letter from the Gurkha messenger. The letter was as-
      “After British making such huge war preparation British would not be ready for small territories. Even after having treaty, British would capture Nepal as British did with Tipu Sultan. Initially British took territory of 6 Crores income land from Tipu and after some time, British captured whole of Tipu Kingdom.
   If we leave those potential territories it would be difficult for maintaining such huge army. I f we reduce army strength British would capture our Kingdom. If we leave Bushehr, the Bhateda (inhabitants of Bhatwari) will meet enemy. Garhwal being near Dehradun and Ravain, we shall loose Garhwal too.  By that logic we shall loose Kumaon, Doti, Dulu, Dailakh etc one by one.
  Ranjor defeated British in Jaithok. The inhabitants of this region and their Rana, Rao, Raja (Chieftains) are now with British. I am surrounded by British from four directions. But I want to defeat Ochterlony for two times. After my win, Ranjit Singh, Maratha and Nabab of Awadh will go against British and will fight with British.
           We should not worry. This is not time for treaty and bent upon before enemy. It is suitable for surrendering smaller disputed territory.  Please don’t ask me going for such shameful acts. Please call me (old one) to Kathmandu than making treaty with British.
  From the time you seized the Vriti /scholarship/donation of Brahmins they are spending life in poverty. You promised to offer back the Vriti to Brahmins at the time of capturing Kangra fort. However, after capturing Kangra Fort you did not return the Vriti to Brahmins.  By pleasing Brahmins will  pray for your defense  and your prosperity. Astrologers told me that Baishakh (April) will be lucky for Gurkha. Till that time, I am delaying head on with British. I shall campaign from Baishakh. You get help from China, Lams of Lhasa by sending diplomatic letter.”
          Thapa cleared that Nepal should not offer more territories to British. Amar Singh Thapa was ready for disobeying his King and was ready for war with British. However, he neither could guess the exact strength of British nor could inspire Hindu brigade to fight with British together.
                British capturing Taragarh and Chamba

       After capturing Ramgarh, Cooper established made main depot at Ramgarh in place of Nalagarh. On 11 th March, British army fired on Taragarh. On 12th March, British found that Gurkha soldiers ran away from Garhi in night.
         On 16th March, British fired shells by 18 pond gun on Chambagarhi. The wall was demolished within a hour. Most of Gorkha soldiers ran away from Chambagarhi. The remaining soldiers requested British cmmanders that they should be kept there as arrested soldiers and they were not ready for going to Malau. Their families were in Malau. Cooper ordered for gun firing on garhi till a couple of Gurkha bring back families of surrendered Gurkha soldiers from Malau.
           

(From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Balchandra Sharma, Letter of Bamshah for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 4/6/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -818
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference    
   
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal
























Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #287 on: June 05, 2016, 11:38:49 AM »
                  British Completing Surrounding Thapa’s Fort         
             
                British Campaign for Capturing Himachal -5
            Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -288
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -818   
               
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

              When Arnold captured Bilaspur city, the Bilaspur King Mahachand was in dilemma that British would hand over his Kingdom to other person.  There was marriage between Bilaspur King Family and Amar Singh Family. However, after British capturing Bilaspur, Mahachand left Amar Singh Thapa and took shelter under British. 1000 Bilaspur Kingdom Soldiers were helping Thapa and then after soldiers joined irregular British army. By help of Bilaspur soldier, Arnold captured Ratanpur Garhi two miles in north of Malau Garh. Now, the road for Amar Thapa towards north was also blocked by British. On first April, Cooper captured a Hill on the south of Malau Garh and blocked south way for Thapa. From that hill Surajgarh was two miles away. Bhaktivir Thapa the deputy of Amar Singh Thapa was camping in Suraj Garh.

                 British establishing Nasiri Battalion

       Now, British surrounded Malau Garh from all directions. There were 334 Gorkha soldiers in British camp in April beginning. Ochterlony appointed them in Nasiri (friendly) Battalion.
        British stopped food ingredients supply reaching to Malaugarh. Soldiers and other persons were feeling nervous due to non supply of food for many days. Daily, Gurkha soldiers were reaching to British camp from Malaugarh. British appointed them in Nasiri Battalion. Those soldiers were very helpful in building camps, fence, etc.

                       Attacking on Malaugarh

          The camp of Amar Singh Thapa in Malaugarh was at 4500 feet Height. Surajgarh was 4 miles away from Malaugarh. Bhaktivir Thapa was camping at Surajgarh hill. There were army camps built by mud, stone leaves, and wood. There were soldiers on those huts. Field Engineer found out that there were two such places in between Surajgarh and Malaugarh that there British could camp army. One place –hillock was Raila away from Surajgarh and other place was Diuthal one mile away from Malau Garh. Ochterlony planned that British army should had camps at both the places. The army at Raila would stop help of Bhaktivir Thapa to Amar Singh and army at Diuthal would stop help from Amar Singh Thapa to Bhaktivir Thapa.
         On 15th April night, a British Battalion reached at Raila. And in morning two other battalions also reached there. Nasiri battalion and pioneers battalion started making fences as Gurkha used to build the fences at Raila camp. On the same day, two me battalions reached Diuthal. Around 4 Pm, British army took two 6 ponds Guns at Diuthal.  At the same time two British army battalions started attacking on Malau from two sides. The attacking force Malau took various losses but by that means, British army could captured Diuthal.


 (From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Princep, Maularam, Balchandra Sharma, Letter of Bamshah for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 5/6/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -819
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference    
   
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal

























Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #288 on: June 06, 2016, 10:04:10 AM »
                             Death of Brave Bhaktivir Thapa

                British Campaign for Capturing Himachal -6
            Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -289
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -819   
               
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                 15h April 1815 night was disastrous night for Nepal. On that night, British surrounded the Fort occupied by Amar Singh Thapa. British army created hurdles on the path of Bhaktivir Thapa for going to Malaungarh. In night, silently, Bhaktivir took a  path from west of Surajgarh for reaching Malaungarh. However, in Raila, irregular Hindurian soldiers led by Lieutenant Mare killed and injured the soldiers of Bhaktivir. By sever struggle, Bhaktivir Thapa reached to Malaungarh.
           It was decided that Bhaktivir would attack on British army with 2000 soldiers at Diuthal. Bhaktivir Thapa put his son under the guidance of Amar Singh Thapa. 70 Years old Bhakti Vir Thapa advised his wife both the wives be ready for being Sati (Burning with dead body of husband on pyre).
      By 4 AM, on 16th April 1815, Bhakti Thapa marched from Malaungarh for Diuthal with best 2000 soldiers.  The Nepalese Soldiers were putting Broadcloth dress. After reaching at Diuthal, soldiers stood in line on a narrow hillock valley. After receiving order, Gurkha soldiers attacked on British army camp with bang by blowing war music instruments and shouting slogans. Gurkha soldiers started firing guns from north and two flanks.
           Bhaktivir Thapa wanted capturing two 6 pond gun of British army. By capturing both the guns, Gurkha would have won the war.  Gurkha soldiers Khukari in one hand and gun in other hand marched fast towards guns.  British soldiers were firing guns continuously that the valley became fire jungle.  Due to heavy firing Gurkha soldiers dead bodies were flying in the sky. There was heavy casualty in Gurkha camp. Now, live Gurkha soldiers did not have capacity for capturing 6 Podn guns from British.
 Bhakti Thapa instructed to back the front line soldiers and push fresh soldiers in their place. The British gun fires killed and injured Gurkha soldiers. Gurkha army attacked three times but had to face casualties only. Amar Singh Thapa and his son Ramdas were shouting and waving flags for enthusiasting Gurkha soldiers at Diuthal. Soldiers from Diuthal could see Amar Singh Thapa and company in Malaugarh. A few Gurkha soldiers reached near Guns but British gunmen killed many of them and remaining were forced to go back.
        Later on, Bhaktivir Thapa took an army company and attacked on British camp from east. Guns could not be taken at that place immediately by British loaders. Therefore, there was fierce fighting between Gurkha army and Hindur soldiers of British army for two hours. Suddenly, a British soldier fired on the chest of Bhaktivir Thapa and he fell down, Bhaktivir Thapa died there. , Falling down of Bhaktivir, Gurkha soldiers went back and Hindur soldiers followed them and again there was fierce fight between the two side soldiers.
        Bhaktivir Thapa was brave, courageous, calm-cool and a liberal commander and was the most trusted commander of Amar Singh Thapa.
          In Diuthal war, around 700 Gurkha soldiers were killed (by Gurkha source –Balchandra Sharma). British source (Premble) stated that 150 Gurkha soldiers were killed and 20 British soldiers were killed, 253 British soldiers got injured in the war. It was sure that the numbers of Gurkha soldiers injured would be around 500.
            British lost Commander Charles Shoves and when he was being buried, both the wives of 70 years Old Bhaktivir Thapa were also burning them with dead Bhaktivir in Malaugarh.
         Maularam illustrated the funeral o f brave Bhaktivir Thapa.   

 (From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Princep, Maularam, Balchandra Sharma, Letter of Bamshah for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 6/6/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -820
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference    
   
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal


























Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,808
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #289 on: June 07, 2016, 11:39:00 AM »
                               Revolt in Malaun

                British Campaign for Capturing Himachal -7
            Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -290
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -820   
               
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

           Gurkha not only lost the huge army in Diuthal battle but Amarsingh Thapa lost respect from his armed forces and also lost the hope of defending the territory from British. Most of soldiers did not respect Amar Singh Thapa. Now, soldiers also lost faith in Kingdom (Premble).
    Nepal King already suggested Ranjor to have treaty with British by offering them Bhabhar, Tarai, Doon territories. However, Amar Singh Thapa did not abide the order of the King and continued enmity with the British.
     Amar Singh Thapa sent a letter to the Nepal King and British spies got that letter. British started spreading rumors due to that letter. The information was spread among Gurkha soldiers that Nepal King was ready for treaty with British but Amar Singh Thapa was in denial. Gurkha soldiers from Malaun started leaving Gurkha Army and started joining British army. Amar Singh tried to stop them by cruel methods but could not be successful in doing so.
         Amar Singh Thapa had two major non Gurkha friends- King of Bilaspur Mahachand and Prime Minister of Bushehr Dangi. Mahachand joined hand with British after British capturing Bilaspur.  Bazir Dangi was with Amar Singh from 1811. Dangi Bazir left Amar Singh Thapa and joined British camp just before the Diuthal battle. In bushehr, Bazir Tikkandas and Bazir Badaridas were organizing revolt against Gurkha. On 15th April Bazir dangi reached to Bushehr for participating in revolution.
    Ochterlony captured all Garhis of Malaun. On 7th May, British army could reach with two 12 pond bronze Guns (loaded on elephants) Ochterlony was successful in sending at Malaun Hill. Amar Singh Thapa was suffering from food supply for his family and troop. He was of opinion that he should wait till rainy season start as British army would go to plains in rainy season. Amar Singh Thapa reduced food supply for his soldiers. Gurkha soldiers were hungry and started taking jungle leaves and roots. Gurkha soldiers started shouting- “Sardar! Either offer us food or let us go out to fight with British” . There was unrest allover Malaun Garhi. Amar Singh Thapa did not have alternatives.
     British army surrounded every corner of Malaun Garhi. It was just impossible for reaching food supply to Malaungarh. The higher Army commanders of Amar Singh Thapa requested Amar Singh Thapa either surrender or fight till death. Amar Singh Thapa asked them for waiting. Now, Gurkha Army commanders did not abide their superior’s order and went to British camp with around 1600 soldiers.
            Ranjor Singh at Jaithok was also trapped there.
            The higher commanders would be Gurkha but soldiers were mostly non Gurkha but either Himachali or Garhwali. British officers offered lot of tasty feast like food to Gurkha army soldiers and sweets too. Now, it was probably that Amar Singh Thapa would have had only 200-250 soldiers with him. On 8th May, 1815, Amar Singh Thapa sent a letter to Ochterlony about Ochterlony’s his desire. Ochterlony answered that Thapa should behave as defeated commander behaves. Till 10th May, Amar Singh Thapa did not reply. On morning of 10th May, British army started firing heavy guns on Malaungarhi. Next day, British soldiers took 18 Podn gun near Garhi. Now, Amar Singh Thapa was ready for surrender.
    On 11th May, Ramdas (the son of Amar Singh) met Ochterlony. Ramdas informed Ochterlony that his father was ready for surrendering.
        By 15th May 1815, there were many rounds of discussion between Amar Singh Thapa and Ochterlony for the conditions of surrendering.
        Now, British had rule over Kumaon, Garhwal and Governor General was not ready for soft conditions for Amar Singh Thapa. Governor General was not ready for offering same conditions to Amar Singh Thapa as offered to Bamshah in Kumaon. Governor General clearly instructed that not to let Gurkha take heavy weapons from forts captured by British from Gurkha army. Governor General instructed that let defeated Gurkha take small weaponries. Governor General accepted that British would offer loaders to Gurkha for taking necessary articles to Nepal. Governor General offered full authorities to Ochterlony for taking decision of surrender by Amar Singh Thapa.
           However, Ochterlony offered more liberal and respectful conditions for Amar Singh Thapa. He was of opinion that liberal conditions would be helpful in having treaty with Nepal Kingdom.

 (From writings of Atkinson, Preamble, Sanwal, Saxsena, Fraser, Princep, Maularam, Balchandra Sharma, Letter of Bamshah for Amar Singh Thapa etc) 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 7/6/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -821
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference    
   
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  History of Nepal, History of Doti Nepal, History of Nepalese/ Gurkha regime
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal



























 

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