Author Topic: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh  (Read 37918 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #40 on: February 23, 2015, 07:55:45 AM »
        Saklani and Khanduri Cooperating Gorkha

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -43
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -562
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

     After killing of Rama and Dharni in Pradyuman regime, Saklani brothers Shishram and Shivram became powerful administrators.
 According to Minyan Prem Singh (Guldast Tavarikh), initially Saklani brothers cooperated with Gorkha regime. After Khurbura Battle, Jwalaram became supporter and advisor of Amar Singh Thapa.   However, battle of Nepal and British, Shiv Ram contacted British army officers.
       Gajadhar the son of Rama Khanduri and Krishna Datt the son of Dharani Khanduri along with their uncles Krishna Nand and Harshpati started cooperating with Gorkha and Gorkha representatives appointed those four as Daftari in Garhwal Court, Shrinagar. Amar Singh Thapa wrote to Nepal Court that Gorkha Representatives in Garhwal handed over Gajadhar the son of Rama Khanduri and Krishna Datt the son of Dharani Khanduri along with their uncles Krishna Nand and Harshpati the jobs of calming down rebellions, calling back farmers to Dehradun, establishing ruined villages and those Khanduris were administrating their works effectively. Before Nepal British war, Khanduris had internal secret meeting with Rutherford the British officer.
 Most of high and low ranked administrators accepted rule of Gorkha in SHringar Courtand got their positions enacted. Soldiers started getting appointment in Gorkha  Army in Garhwal.
   Most of administrators including village chiefs and regional chiefs (Padhan, Kamin, Sayana, Thokdar) accepted Gorkha rule and cooperated with them. Gorkha retained their positions as they were. 

*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 44
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 23/2/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -563
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press

XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #41 on: February 24, 2015, 10:31:07 AM »
             Gorkha Planning for Capturing Himachal Hills

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -44
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -563
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
       Maularam handing over Map of Kangda Fort to Amar Singh Thapa
         
   As soon as Ran Bahadur returned from Banaras  he ordered to his lieutenants to win over west of Kali Hills (Today’s Kumaon and Garhwal, Himachal). The soldiers were pleased by his objective oriented orders as they would get materials by looting the victims or won territories.
 Amar Singh Thapa was chief of campaign for capturing Garhwal, After winning Garhwal, Gorkha King sent order to Amar Singh Thapa for handing over Garhwal to his assistant Hastidal Chautariya and he should campaign for winning Himachal or Kangda Hills. He was asked to plan for winning Delhi. Thapa was advised to take those with him who support and kill those who resisted.
       There were small Thakurai or kingdoms in between Yamuna and Sutlej Rivers. It was not hard to win those pity kingdoms or Thakkurais.
West of Sutlej, there was Kangda Kingdom. The Kangda King Sansar Chand captured small Thakurai or pity kingdoms into Kangda.   Sansar Chand had stronger army as he had trained army with modern arms and ammunitions. Kangda King Sansarchand had strong Garh or forts too.
 Amar Singh Thapa asked Maularam for the secrets of winning Kangda and other western territories of Yamuna River. Maularam offered a map of Kangda King. Maularam also cautioned that the rulers should have amicable relationship with the subjects for last longing Kingdom.
 Amar Singh Thapa handed over the administration of Kumaon to his son Ranjor Thapa and grandson (from daughter) Veerbhadra Kunwar. Thapa handed over the administration of Garhwal to his daughter’s husband Chandraveer Kunwar and Governor Shurveer Khatri. Amar Singh left a small numbers of soldiers in Kumaon and Garhwal and too major numbers of army with him for capturing Himachal Hills.


*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 44
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 24/2/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -564
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press

XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #42 on: February 25, 2015, 11:42:47 AM »
      History - Gorkha Capturing Sirmaur Kingdom, Himachal 

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -45
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -564
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                  Infighting among Thakurais of West South Himachal Pradesh
 By capturing Garhwal, Gorkha had rule up to east of Yamuna River. Beyond Yamuna east, in west Sirmaur Kingdom was there.
 In 1793, Ktoch King or Kangda King Sansarchand attacked on Kahllod /Bilaspur and captured   Gadhi (Forts ) of North Sutlej River from King Mahachand. Bilaspur King requested help from King Dharmaprakash of Sirmaur Thakurai or Kingdom. Mahachand agreed to pay one lakh rupees as gifts to Dharmaprakash. Dharmaprakash had small Thakurais under his Kingdom. They along with army of Dharamprakash and Mahachand reached to  Chartadu of Kangda Kingdom. Kangda King Sanasarchand came with his army to stop the force of Mohanchand and company. Sansarchand killed Dharmapraksh in battle of Chartadu.
     Dharmaprakash did not have any child. Therefore, his brother Karmpraksh ascended the throne of Sirmaur. However, many Sirmaur officers were unhappy by Karmpraksh getting the crown.  Those dissatisfied officers conspired for Kunvar Ratna Singh getting Sirmaur Kingdom. Ratnasingh was also brother of Dharamprakash.  The force of conspirators surrounded Karmprakash in Kangar Fort 32 miles away from Nahan. There was person who resembled with Karmaprakash. He was killed in the battle. The conspirators rumored that Karmaprakash is killed in the battle. There was chaos in whole of Sirmaur. Karmaprakash ran to Kalsi (Garhwal) with his fmailes. Ratna Singh was crowned as Ratnaprakash.
 Karmaprakash requested help from Gorkha Commander Ranjor Thapa the son of Amar Singh Thapa. Gorkha army attacked on Sirmaur for helping Karmaprakash. Gorkha captured Sirmaur and Gorkha expelled Ratanprakash and he took asylum, in Morni Fort. Instead of handing Sirmaur Kingdom to Karma Prakash, Gorkha included Sirmaur under Gorkha regime. Gorkha established their government there.  Karma Prakash was left in lurch. He stayed in Subathu of Ramgarh Thakurai for awhile and then fled to Buria where he lived till his death in 1826.


*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 46
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 25/2/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -565
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press

XX
Gorkha Capturing Sirmaur Kingdom, Himachal  & History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha Capturing Sirmaur Kingdom, Himachal  & History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha Capturing Sirmaur Kingdom, Himachal  & History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha Capturing Sirmaur Kingdom, Himachal  &  History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha Capturing Sirmaur Kingdom, Himachal  & History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha Capturing Sirmaur Kingdom, Himachal  & History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha Capturing Sirmaur Kingdom, Himachal  & History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule over Sirmaur Himachal, History Gorkha Capturing Kangda, Kingdom, Himachal, History Gorkha Capturing Bilaspur Himachal; Gorkha Capturing Kota  Kingdom, Himachal; History Gorkha Capturing Bushehar Kingdom Himachal; History Gorkha Rule Kyunthal, Himachal
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #43 on: February 26, 2015, 07:53:40 AM »
History Aspects of Gorkha Capturing Bushahar /Bushehar/Bussahir Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -46
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -565
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

          Just after capturing Sirmaur deceptively, Gorkha captured Jubbal a petty Hill  Kingdom in north of Sirmaur. The Khaneti Thakur Risal Singh took asylum in Bushehar/Bushahar Kingdom. Gorkha captured Thakurai of Risal Singh.
          Gorkha captured Thakurai (petty Kingdoms) as Bilsan, Keyunthal, Tharoch, Ghoond, Kotkhai, Thiyog and Kotgarh without any resistance. That was the terror of Gorkha in Doti, Kumaon and Garhwal that none of above Kings resisted against Gorkha. Those Kingdoms were also engaged in petty quarrel among themselves and their power was meanly divided. After winning the above territories, Gorkha army reached towards Bushehar. Bushehar/Bushahr King and his subjects did not lose their hearts and resisted against Gorkha. By any means, Gorkha army reached Hatu Hills. The minor prince Ugar Singh of Bushehar/Bushahr/Bussahir Kingdom ran and took asylum in Kamrun Kingdom.
    Gorkha inavadors captured Hattu, Kuran, Baghi, Navgarh, Sungari and Bahli Gadh or Forts and kept soldiers in those forts.
Once, Gorkha could reach Rampur, Himachal Pradesh. Gorkha soldiers looted the treasurer and burnt the records of Bushahr etc. This was the biggest loss for History. Gorkha could not have control over Kinnaur or Kannaur region with ease and stability.  Once, Gorkha commander sent its army to capture and loot Kamru Treasury. Gorkha army camped near Chuganv (Tholang) at bank of Chholtu  River. In Night Kinnaurs burnt Chholtu River Bridge and attacked on Gorkha army as Guerilla attack. Gorkha were surprised and were in very disadvantage position. Gorkha had to flee from there as they faced food and other material problems there.


*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 47
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 26/2/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -566
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh

XX
History of Gorkha rule over Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Gorkha rule over Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Gorkha rule over Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Kota, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Ramgarh, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Laharpur, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Morani, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Pinjor, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Jagatgarh, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Capturing Bushehar Kingdo,  Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Jubbal Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Bilsan, Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Keyonthal Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Tharoch Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Ghoond  Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Kotkhai Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Thiyog Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Kotgarh Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh;
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #44 on: February 27, 2015, 10:17:46 AM »
              History of Gorkha Capturing Hindur (Nalagarh) Himachal

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -47
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -566
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

 Nalagarh was the capital of Hindur.
                 Winning after Sirmaur, Gorkha started invading towards West. Gorkha captured Solan, Dagsai,Sabathu and other small kingdoms. Gorkha attacked on Nalgarh.King Ramsharan was the King of Hindur and Nalagarh was capital of Hindur. Raja Ajay Chand (1100-1170) is called the founding King of Hindur, Nalagarh. Raja Ramsharn Singh (1788-1848) expanded his Kingdom to Palsi and Matiyana. It is said that he also won the Ajemrgarh fort. Dharma Negi of Sabathughrh accepted the supremacy of Ramsharan. Gorkha captured villages of Nalagarh. When Gorkha army reached to Ramshar, Gorkha army had to face adversaries. When Gorkha army was unable to capture Ramshar Fort, Gorkha surrounded Ramshahar Fort and blocked the supply into Ramshahar Fort. There was ample water supply due to storage of rain water hoarding system in the Fort. The food stores were already kept in the fort. Gorkha waited for three years kept surrounding the Fort. It was not possible for Ram Sharan to be in Ramshahar Fort for more days. Ramsharan fled from the Fort and reached Bishauli of Hoshiyarpur. After thrre months, he reached to Palsi around 1804. From 1804-1814, Raja ram Sharan had to rule over small territories on Palsi, Baddi, Gullarwala Gadhis, Gorkha captured his other territories. Many other small Kingdom Kings also took shelter in Palsi region.


*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 48
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 27/2/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -567
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1

XX
History of Gorkha rule over Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Gorkha rule over Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Gorkha rule over Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Kota, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Ramgarh, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Laharpur, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Morani, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Pinjor, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Jagatgarh, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Capturing Bushehar Kingdo,  Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Jubbal Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Bilsan, Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Keyonthal Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Tharoch Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Ghoond  Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Kotkhai Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Thiyog Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Kotgarh Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha Capturing/winning Hindur, Nalagarh; History Gorkha capturing Solan Himachal Pradesh; History Gorkha capturing Dagsai Himachal Pradesh; History Gorkha capturing Sabathu Himachal Pradesh;

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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #45 on: February 28, 2015, 09:08:11 AM »
History of Gorkha Capturing Keonthal/ Kyonthal, Himachal Pradesh 

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -48
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -567
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
 The History of Keothal/Kyonthal is as other hill states of Himachal. The Kingdom was busy always in war with Bushahar or Sirmaur. 
 The Sen dynasty was started by a Bengal warrior Giri Sen. 
 It is said that there were 18 following tributary Thakurais (Jameendari or regions or petty Kingdoms) under Keonthal/ Kyonthal Kingdom-
Koti
Ghund
Thyog
Madhan
Mailog
Kuthar
Kunihar
Dhami
Tharoch
Sangari
Rajan
Kharentu
Maihili
Khalasi
Bagari
Tingthali
Ghat
Dr Dabral doubts about the above saying as at Gorkha invasion Kumhar , Sain Thakurai were under Bushehr/Bushahar. Gorkha attacked on Keonthal/ Kyonthal (1803). As soon as Gorkha army reached to Kyonthal, the Rana or King Raghunath Sen fled  away from Keonthal/ Kyonthal and reached in Suket Kingdom.  Rana Raghunath Sen died in Suket in 1831. His son Sansar Sen was born there. In later period, British returned Thakurai of Keonthal/ Kyonthal to Prince Sansarsen. According to 



*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 48
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 28/2/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -568
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1

XX
History of Gorkha rule over Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Gorkha rule over Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Gorkha rule over Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Kota, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Ramgarh, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Laharpur, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Morani, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Pinjor, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Jagatgarh, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Capturing Bushehar Kingdo,  Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Jubbal Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Bilsan, Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Keyonthal Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Tharoch Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Ghoond  Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Kotkhai Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Thiyog Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Kotgarh Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha Capturing/winning Hindur, Nalagarh; History Gorkha capturing Solan Himachal Pradesh; History Gorkha capturing Dagsai Himachal Pradesh; History Gorkha capturing Sabathu Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Capturing Keonthal/ Kyonthal, Himachal Pradesh;   
 

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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #46 on: March 01, 2015, 10:54:45 AM »
                 History of Gorkha Capturing Punar Himachal and Ravingarh Garhwal
 
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -49
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -568
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                History- Resistance to Gorkha Campaign from Punar, Himachal People
          Though Jabbal was called the ruler of Punar but the people never accepted the rule of any King as they did not pay tribute to Jubbal King. Punar had fertile land was prosperous land (Gazette of Shimla Hills 1910A Page 6). Punar people were courageous and expert in looting, killing people. The territory was inaccessible. They could muster 1000 fighters within a hour. They used to apply atrocious means to terrorize neighboring regions. Punar people used guerilla tactics to defend and to attack. Gorkha tried for years to capture Punar but were failure. At last there was fierce battle in Matil, Himachal and Gorkha defeated Punar Fighters. There was hundred of human losses in Matil battle. Gorkha looted , killed the people of Punar with cruel and inhuman methods.
                           Capturing Ravaingarh
   Ravin region was in between Tons and Pawar Rivers. Before Gorkha invasion, Ravain was under Garhwal Kingdom. However, just before Gorkha invasion into Garhwal, Bushehr King Himmat Singh captured Ravaingarh. Jubbal King was also ready for helping Bushahr King. Himmat Singh died before Gorkha invasion in Himachal. Amar Singh Thapa appointed Runa the brother of Himmat Singh  ruler of Bushahar. Ucchwa a son of Himmat Singh was with Gorkha army for capturing Kangda Fort. Ravain Garh came under Gorkha rule as soon as   Gorkha took Bushahr.
               The following couple of lines of a long folk song from Ravain region shows the terror and looting by Gorkha solders along with historical aspect f the area too.
Gorkhyani Lok Geet: Historical Ravanlti Folk Song illustrating Gorkha Repression and Looting

          गोर्ख्याणी/गुर्ख्याणी आतंक-लूटमार  इतिहास दर्शाता रवाँल्टी लोक गीत

(सन्दर्भ: महावीर रंवाल्टा, 2011, उत्तराखंड में रंवाइ क्षेत्र के लोक साहित्य की मौखिक परंपरा, उदगाता, पृष्ठ 48- 56 )   
( इंटरनेट प्रस्तुति  एवं अतिरिक्त व्याखा - भीष्म कुकरेती )


  माट्या पाथी घड़ी
बच्चू वादी बखर्याटु तेमासी न झड़ी
गुल्यारु वादी बडेड़ी लगी सून कू धारु
       When Gorkha rule was over from the area Gorkha soldiers were fleeing from the area. Garhwali and Kumaoni people took revenge against those soldiers who harassed them.  People tied a soldier and the folk song lines describe –

*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 50
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 1/3//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -568
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1

XX
History of Gorkha rule over Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Gorkha rule over Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Gorkha rule over Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Kota, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Ramgarh, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Laharpur, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Morani, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Pinjor, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Jagatgarh, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Capturing Bushehar Kingdo,  Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Jubbal Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Bilsan, Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Keyonthal Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Tharoch Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Ghoond  Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Kotkhai Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Thiyog Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Kotgarh Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha Capturing/winning Hindur, Nalagarh; History Gorkha capturing Solan Himachal Pradesh; History Gorkha capturing Dagsai Himachal Pradesh; History Gorkha capturing Sabathu Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Capturing Keonthal/ Kyonthal, Himachal Pradesh; History Gorkha Capturing Punar, Himachal; History Gorkha Battle Matil, Punar,  Himachal; History of  Gorkha Capturing Ravingarh, Garhwal. 
 

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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #47 on: March 02, 2015, 11:59:25 AM »
      History: Gorkha –Kangra King Sansar Chand Treaty

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -50
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -569
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

            Sansar Chand was the King of Kangra Kingdom. His territory was in east of Sutlej but capital was in west of Sutlej.
 Gorkha captured Nalagahrh Kingdom and reached east of Sutlej.  Kangra King Sansar Chand was aware of Gorkha power. Gorkha Army crossed Sutlej and attacked on Kangra. Sansar Chand Army fought back with Gorkha army and dispatched them. Gorkha were not in position to attack on Kangra as there were disturbing incidents taking place in Nepal. Gorkha did treaty with Kangra King Sansar Chand. Sutlej River became the dividing border between Nalagarh region of Gorkha and Kangra Kingdom.
 Amar Singh had to weaken the winning campaign as there were disturbing incidents taking place in Kathmandu. 

*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 51
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 2/3//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -570
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1

XX
History of Gorkha rule over Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Gorkha rule over Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Gorkha rule over Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Kota, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Ramgarh, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Laharpur, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Morani, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Pinjor, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha rule over Jagatgarh, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Capturing Bushehar Kingdo,  Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Jubbal Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Bilsan, Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Keyonthal Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Tharoch Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Ghoond  Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Kotkhai Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Thiyog Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha capturing Kotgarh Kingdom, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha Capturing/winning Hindur, Nalagarh; History Gorkha capturing Solan Himachal Pradesh; History Gorkha capturing Dagsai Himachal Pradesh; History Gorkha capturing Sabathu Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Capturing Keonthal/ Kyonthal, Himachal Pradesh; History Gorkha Capturing Punar, Himachal; History Gorkha Battle Matil, Punar,  Himachal; History of  Gorkha Capturing Ravingarh, Garhwal.      History: Gorkha –Kangra Himachal Hill King Sansar Chand Treaty
 
 

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स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत

Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #48 on: March 04, 2015, 07:57:33 AM »
            History: Kangra King Sansar Chand Expanding his Kingdom

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -52
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -571
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
         Kangra Kingdom was one the strongest Kingdoms of today’s Himachal Pradesh at the time of Gorkha invasion in Kumaon and Garhwal. Kangra King Sansar Chand Katoch was strongest Kings at that time. His grandfather Ghamand Chand Katoch expanded the territory in between Ravi and Sutlej Rivers. Ghamand Katoch snatched the northern part, Chauki and Palam of Kutlairgarh and Forts of Padhiyar Garh.  However, Kangra King was failure in getting back Kangra Fort from Mughal. Ghamand Singh Katoch had huge army of Rohilas, Afghan and Rajputs. Ghamand Chand Katoch established a city Sujanpur at the bank of Vyas River Ghamand Chand Katoch also built forts and palaces in Tora Hills.
          In 1788, Sikh Army of Jay Singh of Kanhaya Misal  and Kangra combined army captured Kangra Fort from Mughal. Jay Singh captured Kangra Fort diplomatically. Sansar Chand started attacking on Jay Singh kingdom and started looting the territories. Jay Singh had to return Kangra Fort to Sansar Chand.
 After getting back Kangra Fort, Sansar Chand compelled 11 nearby Kings of Kangra to be under Kangra Kingdom. He ordered those 11 Kings to attend court for offering tribute to Kangra Kingdom. Sansar Chand also compelled those Kings to help him in his winning spree.
 After taking charge of 22 Hill petty Kingdoms, Sansar Chand started expanding to south of Kangra. Sansar Chand attacked twice on Hoshiyarpur and Bijwada. However, Raja ran Jit Singh defeated Sansar Chand both the times.
Sansar Cahdn captured complete territory of Kurail Kingdom a hill kingdom. The hill kings were unhappy by acts of Sansar Chand capturing smaller Kingdoms. Sansar Chand insulted by all means those 11 kings.
Those 11 kings united and decided to take help of Gorkha Regime. They sent Maha Chand of Kahlur whose kingdom was snatched by Sansar Chand to meet Amar Singh Thapa.
 It was decided that when Amar Singh Thapa and his army would camped in Kangra territory by crossing Sutlej River, the Kings of Guler, Jasvan, Datarpur, Seeba, Chamba, Suket, Nurpur, Bisauli, Kutlair, and Kahlur with their army would come to help Amar Singh Thapa for capturing Kangra Kingdom.

*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 52
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 4/3//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -572
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1

XX
  History: Kangra King Sansar Chand Expanding his Kingdom in of Guler, Jasvan, Datarpur, Seeba, Chamba, Suket, Nurpur, Bisauli, Kutlair, and Kahlur, Himachal Hills; History of Guler, Himachal, History of Jasvan, Himachal; History of Datarpur, Himachal; History of Seeba, Himachal; History of Chamba, Himachal; History of Suket, History of Nurpur, Himachal; History of Bisauli, Himachal; History of Kutlair, Himachal; and History of Kahlur in context History Gorkha Rule over Himachal
XXX
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #49 on: March 05, 2015, 08:42:15 AM »
               History: Gorkha Army Capturing Kangra (Himachal) Kingdom 

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -53
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -572
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

     Around December 1805, Gurkha/Gorkha army started invading Kangra Kingdom territories by crossing Sutlej River. The 11 Kings who were under Kangra Super Kingdom met Gorkha Commander Amar Singh Thapa for helping Gorkha to topple Kangra Kingdom. It was decided that Gorkha would keep Trigart or Kangra Fort and rulers would returned their territories after defeating Kangra King.
 Combined army defeated Sansarchand Army at Mahalmoriya and Sansar Chand fled to Teera Sujanpur. However, Gorkha and Himachal Hills army defeated again Sansar Chand Army. Sansar Cand and his family fled to Kangra Fort.
 Amar Singh Thapa freed jailed Kutlaid Kingdom King Ishwari Singh from Naudan Fort. Sansar Chand kept Ishwari Singh as prisoner in Naudan Fort. Amar Singh Thapa handed over the Kutlaid Kingdom to Ishwar Singh. The subjects of 11 Hill Kingdoms insulted by Sansar Chand thanked to Gorkha and started appreciating Gorkha Kingdom and rule.

*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 54
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 5/3//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -573
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1

XXX
History Gorkha/Gurkha capturing Kangra, Himachal; History Gorkha/Gurkha capturing Kangra, Himachal by crossing Sutlej; History Gorkha/Gurkha capturing Mahalmoriya Kangra, Himachal; History Gorkha/Gurkha capturing Teeera Sujanpur Kangra, Himachal; History Gorkha/Gurkha capturing Nadaun, Kangra, Himachal; History Gorkha/Gurkha capturing Nadaun Fort Kangra, Himachal; History Gorkha/Gurkha Freeing Kutalid Kingdom from Sansar Chand, Himachal;


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