Author Topic: HISTORY of MEDICAL and WELLNESS TOURISM IN INDIAN SUBCONTINENT , SOUTHEAST ASIA  (Read 7137 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Indications of medical Tourism for piles surgery in Vinay Pittika (Buddhist Literature)  – 3
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India -9
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 40
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
 There is instance in Vinay Pittika (6/313) that offers the indication of medical tourism in Buddha Period. A Buddhist Bhikshu was living in Venuvan kaldak of Palace. He got piles . Akashgotra was surgeon. The Surgeon was to do surgery for pile treatment. Buddha advised not to do surgery for piles as the skin around that anal part was very soft, it was difficult for cutting skin around that area and was difficult healing too.
 In this instance there are three aspects of medical tourism related to piles surgery-
 First either Bhikshu visited the surgeon Akashgotra or Akashgotra visited the patient (both are examples of Medical Tourism). 
   Bhikshu visited to Buddha the great Healer for suggestion or second opinion. Akashgotra also visited the great healer for consulting.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –

  Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;   Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,    Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, ,   Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia;   Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;      Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;     Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;    Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;     Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;    Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ;   Indication of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature, Vinay Pittika  and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 








Bhishma Kukreti

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Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India -10
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 41
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
 Nursing is one of major factor in developing Medical tourism not only in modern time but was major factor in old ages too.
    Atideva (Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas page- 6 , 7) comments on the characteristics of Nursing cited in Vinay Pittaka.
   In following conditions it was difficult for curing the illness of patient - 
Not having suitable nursing .
Nurse not knowing adaptation.
Patient not taking required medicines in time or quantity
Patient not informing  the exact knowledge of pain to nurse /doctor
Patient cannot bear the sharp body pain , unbearable or difficult pain
 On the contrast it was easy for curing in following conditions –
Getting Suitable Nurses
Taking suitable medicines
Knowing mixing of medicines
Informing exact conditions of disease
Bearing power of sharp body pain
 The Characteristics a  Nurse  were in Vinay Pittaka –
Suitable for serving the patient
Knows suitable and hard time
Not greedy for profit
Nurse that does not feel abhorrence in cleaning latrine, urine and vomiting etc
Nurse should be capable  in offering joys to patients by telling religious stories and inspire hopes ( V.P 8/7/4-5)
 Lord Buddha permitted Bhikshu for using mascara .mascara stick mascara box or containers ; using oil on head, massages on foot  and various types of  medicines ( V P 6/1/9- 14and 5/3/7).
    The above discussion is indication of medical tourism in Buddha period .
 





   




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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
,
Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Characteristics of Nursing in Buddhist Literature (Vinay Pittaka)   and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 






Bhishma Kukreti

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Navanitakam, नावनीतकमकम्: A Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India   - 1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India – 11
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 42
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
     Writing medical book, Taking medical book  from one region to other region for knowledge is nothing but part of Medical Tourism.
   Navanitakama (Quintessence) is an Ayurveda book found by Colonel H. Bower  in East Turkey in 1890, in a Buddhist  Stupa at Kuchar on the road to China.  Atideva states the book is a Buddhist literature. However, a few researchers objected it as Buddhist literature.
Bower found 6 more manuscripts in that Stupa.  The first manuscript and 6th manuscript are related to medicines. First manuscript ends abruptly at fifth chapter and 6th one is complete and totally a Ayurveda manuscript.
 The book seems to be written in Kashmir and Buddhist Monks or confessor took those books to
   The scholars vouch that the manuscript is of Gupta Era (4th -6th century AD) and the language of Navanitakam is Sanskrit with written in Sanskrit with high influence of Prakrit words and sentences (Pt Shri Murlimadhavan).
 Mehar Chandra Lakshman Das published Navnitakam from Lanhor and Vadiyavachaspati Balwant Singh compiled and edited the said Grantha .
 The ‘Grantha’ I collections of various medical subjects created by various sages. The main bae of Navnitakam are Charak Samhita and Bhel Samhita. Bhel was disciple of Atreya.
 There are 15 Yoga (Chapters or medical rules ) from Bhel Samhita; 29 Yoga from Charak Samhita and 44 Yoga are from various other sources or independent . Besides, Charaka and Bhel, there are mentions of Kakayan, Nimi, Usnam , Vrihaspari. In Navnitakam, there are yoga (medical principles) of Agustya , Jivaka and Dhanvantari . There are a few Yogas by Kshyap. It seems that there are folk medical principles or remedies  in Navnitakam too.
           
References
1-Atideva, 1960, Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, Chaukhamba Prakashan, Banaras, page 106-8 .
2-Pt Si Murlidhavan , N.K Sundareswaran , 2006, Sanskrit in Technical Age , New Bhartiya  Book Corp. Delhi, page 82
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
 Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Navanitakam , नावनीतकमकम्:  a Buddhist Literature and  History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 








Bhishma Kukreti

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Medical Concepts in Navnitakam (Buddhist Literature)
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India -12
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 43
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  The first chapter of Navnitakam is Lashun/Garlic. The book stresses more on taking garlic in diet. Lashun means salt less chemical or materials. Navnitakam states that there are all juices in Lashun barring salt quality. Navnitakam (1/52), describes benefits of garlic -
Swarsen Shakhpushpya brahmi mandukparni madhukanam
Megharogyavalarthi jivitukam prayunjit

    There are following other medical concepts in first part of Navnitakam –
Compounds for digestion
Juices, chemicals  or Rasayan
Vajikaran
Munjlep
Ashchyotan
   In second part and third part, there are extracts pf various Ayurveda concepts of past scholars. The are many traditional or folk medical concepts in Navnitakam too.
 There are extracts of Tantra Vidya in fourth and fifth parts.   
The sixth and seventh chapters totally deals with Mahamayuri and Vidharanjani Sutras (both are auspicious for Buddhists as for Hindus Gayatri Mantra . Both Mantras are used for protection and fear eradication. There are mentions of Mahmayuri in many contemporary Hindu granthas but no sholka or Sutra. Navnitakam provides Sutra of mahamayuri Mantra
 Navnitakam describes about Matang Viya too perhaps extract of Kashyap Samhita.
 The language of Navnitakam is very simple.
 Navnitakam recahing to central Asia from India means there was medical tourism concept in post Buddha period and Navnitakam became medium of spreading medical knowledge to China and other regions. Medical literature is major factor of developing medical tourism.



References
1-Atideva, 1960, Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, Chaukhamba Prakashan, Banaras, page 106-8 .
2-Pt Si Murlidhavan , N.K Sundareswaran , 2006, Sanskrit in Technical Age , New Bhartiya  Book Corp. Delhi, page 82


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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhism Literature ,  India will be continued in –

Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;  Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,   Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, ,  Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia;  Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;     Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;    Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;   Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;    Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;   Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ;  Medical concepts of  Navnitakam the Buddhist Literature and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



Bhishma Kukreti

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Ayurveda in Melinda Panha (Prashna) and History of Medical Tourism
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India -13
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 44
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  Milinda Prashna,  Melinda Panha or Questions of Melinda or Nagsena Sutra is one of the very important ‘Granthas’ in Buddhism religion. The Grantha reveals many facets of Buddhism  The period of Melinda Panha is judged around 100 BCE to 200 CE.
 There is less about Ayurveda in Melinda Panha (Prashna).
 Melinda Panha informs about Ayurveda as under
Eight kinds of pain –
Vayu Vikar ( disorder in air
Disorder of Pitta
Increase in Cough
Sannipat /Delirium
Changes in Seasons
Food related problems (indigestion, etc)
Effects of Outer atmosphere
  The Buddhist scholars translated Melinda Questions (answered by Nagsena)  into Shri Lankan Pali and Chinese . That means the travelrs too the Grantha from India to China and Shri Lanka . Definitely Buddhist translating scholars  addressed the medical aspects to their disciples and people at the time of preaching the Melinda Panha. By that way Ayurvea principle reached various places. Making medical science of One Place available to other places is part and partials of Medical Tourism .




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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;  Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,   Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, ,  Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia;  Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;     Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;    Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;   Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;    Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;   Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ;  Ayurveda in Panha (Prashna ) and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 




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Medical Tourism Links in Puranas
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Puranas Literature - 1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 45
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  Puranas are one of the important literatures in Hindu Religion.  There are 18 Puranas. Perhaps, those numbers had relations with Vyasa’s Mahabharata. There are 18 chapters in Mahabharata, the Kaurava- Pandava battle continued for 18 days and there are 18 chapters in Shrimad Bhagwat Gita too. Vyas is said to be narrator of Puranas. Though, there is different time for creation of each Purana.  The earliest written version of a Purana I found from Gupta era when other Puranas compiled and edited too.
 The distinctive characteristics of Purana are as under
सर्गश्च च प्रतिसर्गश्च वशी मन्वन्तराणी च
वशानुचरित चैव पुराण पंचलक्ष्णनम
Sarga- Creation of Universe
Pratisarga- Recreation after dissolution
Vansha – genealogy of Gods and sages
Manvantar – creation of human race
Vanshanucharit –  histories  of patriarch   of lunar and solar dynasties
The 18 Puranas are –
1-Brahma       2-Vishnu,   3-Agni,   4- Vayu, 5- Matsya 6 Skand , 7-Kurma  8- Linga
9-Bhavishya 10-Padma   11 Bhagwat  12- Brahmand   13-  Garur  14- Markandeya
15-Brahmvaivarta 16-Vaman , 17 Barah and 18 –Shiva
  Purana depict geographical social, genealogical and religious details more. However, there is importance of understanding medical aspects of the time of creation/narration of specific Purana if not much.


Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Medical Tourism link in Puranas  and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 




Bhishma Kukreti

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 Origin of Ayurveda  as per Purana Theory
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Puran Literature – 2
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 46
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
   The creation period of Puranas vary for 1300 years (Atideva)
(Atidev, 1960,Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas , Bhargava Press Banaras pp 110). Albertini (1030) informed about 18 Puranas. Kumarbhattil in 8th century and Shankaracharya in 9th century mentioned about Puranas. Kautalya in 3rd BCE mentioned about Puranas. There are mentions of Kings of Kaliyuga. Vishnu Purana mentions for Maurya Kings; and Matshya Purana mentions about Andhra kings. Vayu Purana mentions about Gupta Kings and Hoon, Shak, yavvan , Gardabha etc.
 Puaranas were medium of spreading, protecting Hindu Religion. Vyasas used to tell the Puranas stories of all castes of Hindus including scheduled castes.
                 Medical Subject in Puranas
 In Brahma part of Brahma Vaivarta Purana  there is mentions of origin of Ayurveda –
रिग्यजु सामायव्र्वाख्यान दृष्ट्वा वेदान् प्रजापति:
विचिन्त्य तेषामर्यन्चैआयुर्वेदम  चकार स
कृत्वा तु पंचम वेद भाष्कराय ददौ विभु :
स्वतंत्रसंहितां तस्मात भाष्करश्च चकार स
Brahma Vaivirt Purana mentions that Prajapati or Brahma originated Ayurveda and he told it to Sun. Bhashkar taught Ayurveda to his 16 disciples. Those learned disciples created 16 separate Ayurveda Granthas (Texts). Though, this story is not mentioned in other Ayurveda texts . The Brahma Purana Text about Ayurveda suggests that the pupil used to come to Medical expert and used to learn and then used to create texts by research or gaining knowledge. Students coming to study medical science and creating texts for other students or medical practitioners is nothing but part and partial of medical tourism.
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Origin of Ayurveda and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Chapters on Medical Science in Agni Purana
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Purana Literature -3
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 47
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  It is said that Agni Purana was created at different time between 7th century and 11th century (Green). Agnipurana has multiple subjects thus making it very important Purana in Hindu Religion. Scholars call Agnipurana as Encyclopedia for Hinduism. There are 15000 verses (sholkas) in Agni Purana .
 There are following Chapters regarding medical science in Agnipurana –
Subject --- Chapter number
Siddhopadhani ( 278)
Sarvrogharni Aushadhani (279)
Rasadi lakshn (280)
Vrikshayurveda (281)
Nana rog harani Aushadhani (282)
Mantra Rup Aushadh (283)
Mrit Sanjivani Siddha Yoga (284)
Kalp sagar (285)
Gaja chikitsa (286)
Ashwa vahan sar (287)
Ashwa Chikitsa (288)
Vantyaryuveda (291)
Gonsadi chikitsa (287)
Valaharhar and bal tantra ( 298)

(Taken from Agni Purana (Hindi translation) , 2013, Geeta Press Gorakhpur , India)
 Atideva states that there are special mentions of Ayurveda in Agnipurana. However, the time is behind Charaka Samhita etc. That is why there are many verses s cited in Charaka Samhita. There is no exclusivity about knowledge of Ayurveda in Agni Purana. There is description of treatments for animals as elephants and horses.
 
 References –
Atideva, (1960) Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, Bhargava Press Banaras p 113 , 114
Thomas Green (2001), Martial Arts of the world: An encyclopedia page 282

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Ayurveda and Medicines in Agni Purana and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 


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Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Purana Literature -4
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 48
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
   Medical Education Tourism is nothing but fundamental of medical tourism. Same way, doctor visiting patients is part of medical tourism.
     Agni Purana offers many examples of student visiting medical expert for medical studies (example of medical education tourism).
    The chapter of Ayurveda in Agni Purana starts by Dhanvantri telling about medicines to hi disciple Sushruta. Sushruta visits his Guru Dhanvantri, stays in Ashram for medical studies and that is medical tourism.
  Physician visiting Patients in Agni Purana
    In Agni Purana, Dhanvantri tells to Sushruta that physician attending a patient up with fever and fasting in consequence, should prescribe him such innocuous diet as Manda of fried paddy and boiled mixture. (www.indianetzone.com /48 /medicines_agni_ purana.html cited on 9/11.2018).
   Doctor visiting patients is part of medical tourism only.
  Above examples of Agni Purana shows that there was medical tourism (no doubt, different than today’s aspects) in India between 7th and 11th century and was strongly develop stage.
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Medical Education Tourism and Medical Visits in Agni Purana and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 


Bhishma Kukreti

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 Medical Science in Garuda Purana (Introduction) -1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Purana Literature -5
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 49
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
                     Garuda Purana Introduction
   B.K Chaturvedi rightly states that since Hindus thickly link Garuda Purana with post mortem ceremonies that scholars did less researches on Garuda Purana. Garuda Purana is another Mahapurana or Encyclopedia for Hinduism.
 Pitchman presumed that the Garuda Purana was created around 1st CE . Leadebeater  estimates that  Garuda Purna was created around 900 CE .However, the versions available today are of 800-1000CE.
  As per tradition, there are 19000 shlokas in Garuda Purana with 229 chapters but in some cases, chapters are up to 23 in Purva kand and 34-49chapters in Uttarkand (Preta kand).
     The Garuda Purana deals with Vaishnava sects and  there are stories related to Lord Vihnu . There are many stories relate to tours and travels and medical tour too (physician visiting patients or patients visiting doctors too. There are mentions of qualities of hosts too mentioned in Garuda Purana.
                          Medical Science in Garuda Purana
   There is separate chapter or chapters on diseases and remedies as in Agni Purana. However those verses are not original but extracts or modification of various old texts of Ayurveda (Atideva, page 114-15)
 The chapters from 146 to 202 deal with diseases and remedies. There are mentions of gems  (gemology) and metals too.
 References
Chaturvedi B.K, (2002) Garuda Purana , Diamond pocket Books, Delhi
Atideva (1960) Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas , Bhargva press Banaras
Pitchman , Tracy (2001) Seeking Mahadevi: , State University Of New  York  Press 
Leadbeater , (1927) , The Chakras: Theosophical Publishing House
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
 Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Medical Science in  Garuda Purana , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



 

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