Author Topic: History of Plant Science , History of Botany , Botanical Researches In India  (Read 6728 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Main Sites of Indus valley Civilization in Indian Subcontinent

History Botany in Indus Valley Civilization in in indie – 1
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent -11
History of Plant Science Knowledge in Indus valley Civilization in India -1

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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   Indus Valley Civilization, Sindhu Ghati Sabhyata or Harappa Civilization was a Bronze Period Civilization in West North India .
            Age of Indus Valley Civilization
Lasting from – 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE (Wright)
Mature Period – 2600-1900 BCE (Wright)
      Sites of Indus Valley Civilization In Indian Subcontinent
    As per Upendra Singh (2), there are 475 sites of Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan and 925 sites in India and a couple of trading centres in Afghanistan –
Explanation -  Place-District
    A – Indus Valley civilization Sites in Afghanistan (Trade Centre)
Mundigak-Kandhar ; Shortugai ;
                 B – Indus Valley Civilization Sites in India
  Gujarat – Nageshwar- Kutch; Kotada-Kutch; Vejalka- Botad; Surkotada –Kutch; Shikarpur-Kutch; Rojdi-Rajkot; Rangpur-Ahmedabad; Pabumath-Kutch; Navinal-Kutch;  Malwan-Surat; Lothal-Ahmedabad; Loteshwar- Patan; Kuntasi-Rajkot; Padri-Saurashtra; Khirasara-Kutch; Kanjetar –Gir; Juni Kuran-Kutch; Gola dhoro-Kutch; Dholavira-Kutch; Desalpur-Kutch; Bhagatrav-Bharuch; Bet Dwarika-Dwarika; Babarkot-Saurashtra;
Haryana – Balu-Kaithal, Banawal- Fatehabad; Bhirana –Fatehabad; Famana –Rohtak; 
Hisar; Jognakhera; Kunal-Fatehabad;  Siswal-Hisar; Kunal-Fatehabad ; Mitathal-Bhiwani; Rakhgarhi-Hisar;
J&K India – Manda-Jammu ;
Maharashtra-Daimabad –Ahmednagar
Punjab-Rupar- Rupnagar-
Rajasthan – Baror-Shriganganagar; Kalibangam –Hanumangarh ; Karanpura –Hanumangarh ;
Uttar Pradesh – Alamgirpur , Meerut; Barganv-Saharanpur; Hulas -Saharanpur , Mandi-Mujffarnagar ;Sanauli –Bagpat ; Sothi near Baraut – Bagpat ;
                 C- Indus Valley civilization Sites in Pakistan 
Punjab- Chapuwala-Choistan ;Harappa –Sahiwal  ; Gunweriwala ;
Balochistan- Pathani damb –Makran; Sutakagan Dor –Makran; Sokta Koh –Makran; Mehragarh ; Kot Bala-Balakot ;
Sindh- Ahaladino-Karachi;  Pirak-Sibi ;Pir Shah Jurio –Karachi . Ongar-Hyderabad ;Mohenjodao- Larkana .Lakueen jo daro- Sukkur;  Kot Diji-Khairpur ; Chhanhudaro  ; Amri-Dadu
Khaibar Pakhtunawala – Sherikhan tarakai –Bannu; Rehman Dheri –Dera Ismile ;

References –
1-Wright, Rita P., 2009, Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society ,  Cambridge University Press ,page 1
 Singh, Upendra  , 2008, A History of Ancient and Early Medieval  India : from stone age  to 1200th century .Delhi , Pearson Education pp 137, 222

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HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter


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Arable Crops of Indus Valley Civilization /Sindhu Ghati sabhyata /Harappa Civilization

History Botany in Indus Valley Civilization in in India – 2
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent -12

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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 The contemporary civilizations of Indus Valley civilization were Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Assyrians, Egyptians, Mesopotamian, and Chinese Culture.
   The use of science or gaining knowledge of science started because of utilization reasons. R.N. Kapil (1) states rightly that the foundation of life sciences in India was, however, laid during the period of Indus Valley Civilization.  As per Kapil (1)  , the Indian science began around 2500 B.C..
  Kapil states that there is no evidence of knowledge of *uality in plants in the Harappa /Indus Valley culture or Sindh Ghati Sabhyata
   The following crops were grown in Indus valley regions across whole Indian subcontinent-
          Arable Agriculture
McIntosh (2) offers following information on the crops of Indus Valley Culture-
  Ravi Crops – Wheat and Barely were staple crops of winter or Ravi. Harappans cultivated various types of Wheat and they cooked three kinds of wheat bread. The common wheat was shot wheat (Triticum aestivum sphaerococcum) . Inmany sites Barely was more important than Wheat ( 2 ).  Harappans used to grow three or four varieties of barely. That means those varieties were sufficient for exploiting various soil types. Oats (Avena sp.) were found in Mehrgarh site too.
  The other Ravi crops were –
Lentil
Peas or field peas
Chickpeas
Linum
Grass-peas (perhaps was not grown for humans but for animals as it is poisonous if eaten in large quantity (2)) That means people were aware about poisonous and non-poisonous characteristics of plants.
         Millets –
South Asian culture or Indus culture brought many cereals under cultivation during third millennium. Little Millet (Panicum sumatrense) was common  in mature Harappa period .
Brown top Millet (Brachiaria ramose) was grown in Rojdi.
Small portion of Setaria sp. Was also cultivated.
Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) was started growing in late Harappa  periodand perhaps it was introduced crop ( McIntosh) .
Job’s tear (Coix lacrima –jobi) seeds were also found in a site.
Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) was introduced and brought under cultivation through trading medium.
 During the early second in Gujarat, millennium, Indians introduced many crops of African Orgin (McIntosh)  as Sorghum (Shorgum bicolor), Bajra or pearl millet  ( Pennisetum typhoids), and Ragi or finger millets ( Eleusine coracana) .
 Rice – rice is indigenous of Indus and Ganges Valleys regions.
Other Food Plants- McIntosh cited following other food plants grown in Indus Valley culture period in India –
Green Gram
Black gram
Horse Gram was domesticated in South India during Indus Culture period
African origin pulses were also added in the period –
Hyacinth beans (Lablab perpureus )
Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata
There is evidence of following other plants in Indus valley sites-
Brassica
Gourds
Okaras
Grapes
Sesame
Melons
Herbs , spices-
Herbs , spices as garlic, ginger, cumin. Coriander  and cinnamon  either were grown or collected by the Indus valley civilization people.
Fibbers- Linseeds (Linum ) usitatissimum) , was grown for oil as well as for fibre.Cotton was grown in the regions of Indus valley culture .It is said that Indus culture was first to grow Cotton and make clothes  from cotton in the world (Tyler). Perhaps Indus people used cotton for oil too.
 Fruits or plants etc. collected or grown in Indus culture Period
   Many fruits as dates were ether brought from other region or grew in wild .  Jujube (Zizyphus jujube) , almonds, caper, mango cucumbers, pistachio , nuts were eaten by inhabitants of Indus Valley Culture .There is no surety whether those food items either were collected or cultivated . Perhaps indigo was either imported, cultivated or collected  for colour.  Sugarcane was also consumed by Indus valley people. There are evidences of Citrus fruits (cultivation or import) in later Harappa Indian Punjab site.   

References-
1-Kapil R.N., 1970, Biology in Ancient and Medieval India, Indian Journal of History of Science Volume V, No1, pp 119- 140
2-McIntosh, Jane R.2008, The Ancient Indus Valley: the New Perspectives, ABC-Clio inc, California ,  pp 110- 120
3-Tyler M.,  The Indus Valley , Kidheaven publishing NY pp 26

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Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Crops of Indus Valley civilization, History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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Trees, Wood and wood related  Life Science Knowledge by Indus Civilization People

History Botany Neolithic India – 13
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indus Valley Civilization in Indian Subcontinent – 4
By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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  There were seals found in the archaeological sites of Indus Civilizations at various places.
Kapil states “Plant forms represented on the seals are rare”.  There are 12 seals depicting Tress on them (1). Mackey (2) states that the scientists identified those  tress on the seals  as –
Ficus religiosa (Pipal)
Acacia arabica (Babul)
Prosopis spicigera (Jhandi)

 The Indus valley humans understood very well the qualities and values of wood, strength, durability and preservative power of various wood(3).
Chaudhari and Ghos informed following wood uses in Indus Valley civilization (4)-
Dalbergia latifolia (Rosewood)
Cedrus deodara (Devdar)
The above were used for making coffin
Following plant remains were also identified
Zizyphus sp (Ber) was used for making mortar for pondering the grains
Ulmus (Elm)
            Wood Used in Constructing Buildings in Indus Valley Culture
  Indus Valley People used wood in building construction as ladders were made of wood (5). Mahajan (5) states that perhaps the lintels and side jambs of the door were made of wood but none of them survived.
 It is one probability that wooden shafts were used for inserting into holes of limestone pillar found in the site (5)
  Knowledge of Characteristics of various Wood and Tress 
Chaudhary (3) states that Indus people were having knowledge of trees, wood, shocking absorbing quality of each type of wood but also the seasoning quality of timbers. Lothal (Indus Valley site) people constructed dockyard and boats. That clearly suggests that Indus people were having good knowledge of wood, timber quality and its preservative quality.  (3) Indus valley people also knew how to cut the wood and how to use specific tree parts.
 Indus People were having knowledge of relationship of wood with building materials too.
Since Indus people used to raise animals, therefore, knew the plants useful for particular animals and knew the relationship of plant part beneficial to  animal  too.
 References-
1-Kapil R.N., 1970, Biology in Ancient and Medieval India, Indian Journal of History of Science Volume V, No1, pp 119- 140
2-Mackey .E., 1931 , Seal Impressions and copper  tablets with tabulation , In , Marshal J. (ed.) Mohenjo –daro and the Indus civilization . pp 390-391
3-Chaudhari, K.A, 1968, Wood Anatomy, Aligarh Muslim Uni. Press pp 26-35
4-Chaudhari K.A., Ghosh S.S. 1951, Plant Remains from Harappa , Ancient India , 7, 17
5-Mhajan V.D , 1998 , Ancient India , S Chand and co ND, pp 57



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Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Trees , Woodcrafts Indus  valley , History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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Plant Science (Life Science) Knowledge by Indus Valley People
History Botany Neolithic India – 14
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indus Valley Civilization in Indian Subcontinent – 5
By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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  Ghosh and Lal (1) inform that till date historians /scientist did not find the record of grains or spikelet  of rice and bajra in Indus Valley civilization sites there was no record. However,  the manner in which their by-products as husk were utilized indicate that Indus Civilization people had knowledge of  plant science .
     There is not enough evidence that Harappa people knew about *uality in plants.
It might be concluded freely that Harappa , Sindhu Ghati or Indus Valley people knew understood the life history of plants and animals too.
 Indus People were having knowledge of rising and propagation of plants and animals in general way .
  Since, seeds wre sown in causal ways that show that the Indus people have some general knowledge about breeding of plants and animals but were not having in depth knowledge of plant anatomy and plant physiology .
References
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1-Ghosh S.S, Lal Krishna,1962-63  Plants remains from Rangpur , In Rao, S.R., Excavation of Rangpur and other Exploration in Gujarat , Ancient India , 18 and 19 pp.  172-173
Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science Knowledge by  Indus Valley People, History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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Tree Worshiping in Harappa / Indus Civilization Age

History Botany Indus Civilization – 6
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent – 13 B

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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     The tree worshiping was common among Harappa Civilization people. The seals fund in Indus Valley sites show the figures of Pipal and Acacia trees (1). These plants are regarded as celestial plants and were supposed to be inhabited by divine spirits.. The Pipal tree was the supreme deity of the Indus Valley.
        There was a struggle between the gods and demons for  tree possessions for donning  its branches crests or pig tails on their heads . (1)
      Mahajan informs, “ A study of the seals shows that although the tiger demon was always  trying to steal away the tree or branches , it failed to do so (1).
 However, in one occasion the tiger demon was able for stealing two branches of the life but his success was short-lived and soon the demon was killed by the guardian(1).
 Those seals are proof that Indus Civilization people offered importance to plants and trees because of their utility for human lives. The seals prove the Indus Civilization   were having sound knowledge of floras those were important for human lives. The tree  protection inscription on seals show that Indus Civilization people were definitely facing the problems of crops or edible wild plants being destroyed by wild or domesticated animals and definitely, those people  were having knowledge of plant protection from wild animals.
         
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References
1-Mahajan V.D., 1998, Ancient India , S Chand and co ND, pp 68-69
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Tree Worshipping in Harappa Age, History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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Characteristics of Vedic Period in India

Plant Science or Botany in Vedic Period of India – 1
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent -15

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
 -
  The Bronze period culture Vedic Age  is supposed to be from  1500-500 BCE. (1)
  There are many views on period of Rig-Veda and other Vedas.  However, most of scholars agree that Vedic culture was  just before Buddhism started . (2)
 
                 Rig-Veda
 Rig Veda is first written book in the earth.
  There are mentions of rivers in Rig Veda as Kubha, Krumu Gomal etc (rivers in Afghanistan ) and five rivers of Punjab –Sindhu, Vitasta (Jhelam), Aksini (Chinav), Parunni (Ravi), Vipasa (Vyas) and Satudri Sutlej many times and River Yamuna -Gnga etc are leas mentioned t. By that logic it is belived that Rig-Veda was created in Punjab region.  There is description  war between Sudas and other nine Kings and Sudas won the wars  Samhias of Rig-Veda  consists of 1017-1028 hymns or Suktas which have been divided into chapters according to Rishis and subject matters. The oldest  hymes are from Mandals from 2 to 9. The first and  tenth Madals are of later stage. Rig –Veda offers the readers the social life, political, economic, and religious life of North West India (Punjab and Afghanistan) of that period. (Mahajan )
   Samveda Samhita or Book of Chants –
    The Samveda consists of 1549 0r1810 hymns and were meant to be sung . There is nothing original in Samveda. Samveda show that Aryan loved music.(Mahajan).
       Yajurveda (Black and White)
The Yajurveda Samhita (Black and White) means ‘The book of Sacrificial Prayers’. Yajurveda lays down the techniques of sacrifice. (Mahajan )
             Atharva
For long period, Atharva was not named as one of Vedas.  Atharva deals with health  related subjects including prevention of evil spirits
-
References
1-McClish , Mark, Olivelle, Patrick, 2012, Introduction in McClish , Olivelle (ed.) The Arthashastra : Selections from  the Classic Indian Works on statecraft, Hackett Pub, , pp XXIV
2-Atrideva Vidyalankar , 1960 , Ayurveda ka Vrihat Itihas , Hindi Samiti , Banaras , pp 11
3-Mahjan , V.D., 1998 , Ancient India, S Chand and Co ND, page 106-107
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India,  2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Vedic Period, History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Vedic Period, Hisktory of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Vedic Period, History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;















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Plants and Plant Classification in  Rig-Veda

History Botany Vedic Literature,  India – 2
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent -16

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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  Vedic Literature comprises of Vedic Samhita, Brahmins, Upanishads and Sutras.
   The analysis of Vedic literature suggests that the compilers of Vedic literature were well versed with nature and there are terms of plant description along with plant classification too in Vedic i Literature. The Vedic sages collected information about forms, tastes and properties of plants.  Majumdar cited 739 plants and over 250 animals mentioned in ancient Indian literature (1)
     Classification of Plants in Vedas
   Vedas classified plants broadly into-
Tress
Herbs
Shrubs
Creepers
Grasses
(Rig-Veda X 97, 15; i, 164, 20, 22 ;  i , 161, 1 )
 Aushadhi or virudh   means medicines or healing power are and mentioned in Rig-Veda (X97).
Rig-Veda claims that Plants are lord of forests (Vanaspati)
 The following pants were described in Rig-Veda (2) –
Plant  Name -----Botanical name ----------------Rig-Veda References
Pipal --------------Ficus religosa -----------------------------1 ,  164 , 20
Indian Hemp -----Cannabis sativa ---------------------------IX,61, 13
Indian Beech ---------Pongamia glabera -----------------1 , 53; X , 48, 8
Jackal Jujube---------Ziziphus oenoplia  ----------------1,11; 2,6
Catechu Tree --------------Acacia catechu  ----------------III 53,19
Flame of Forest ---------Butea monosprma ----------------X,85, 20; X97,5
Banyan --------------------Ficus indica ---------------- 1, 24, 7
Silk Cotton Tree -------Bombax ceiba ---------------------------VII 50, 7
Indian mesquite ------ Prosopis spicegera --------------- X 95, 1 -18
Indian rosewood ----------Dalbergia sissoo --------------III 53, 19
Cucumber -----------------Cucumis sativus ------------VII 59, 12
Bustard myrobalan --- Terminalia bellirica ---8,86,6
Soma or Hemp
 Aquatic Plants
Water  lily -------------------Nemphaea alba ---------------------X, 10, 13
White Lotus ------------------Nelumbo nucifera --------------X142, 8
Blue Lotus -------------  ---Nemphaea caerulea --------------VI 10

              Grasses
Bermuda grass (durba) ---------- Cynodon dactylon -------- X 16, 13, 134, 5, 142 ,8
Wild Sugarcane (Kusha)  --Saccharum sponteneum ------ X 100, 10
Grass of Lucky augury  (Kusha) ---Poa  cynosuroides --- X, 1, 191 , 3
Bengal cane (Munja) ------------ Sacchareum munja --------1,191, 3
Bermuda grass(paka durva) -------------------------------  X16, 13
Bengal cane (reed) --------------Sacchereum species -------------1,191, 3
Lemon Grass (Trina)  Cymbopogon citratus -------------------1, 161, 1 162
Cogon Grass ( Ulapa) ----Imparata cylindrica ---------------X,142, 3
Bamboo( Vamsa) ------Bamboosa vulgaris -------------------1,10,1
Barely(Yubva) –Hordeum  vulgaris ---------------------------1 , 23, 13 and many times

References
1-Majumdar G.P. 1927 Vanaspati, University Press, Kolkata,
2-Krishna , Nandita , Amrithalingam M. 2014 , Sacered Plants of India   Penguine Press
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India,  2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants, Tress of Rig-Veda ,History  of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;


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Plants, Plant Science in Atharvaveda

Botany History of Vedic Period in India -
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent -
By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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    Atharvaveda was added to Vedic Literature (Veda) at later stage.  Atharvaveda comprises of 730 hymns and 6000 mantras and is divided into 20 Kand(books )(1).
The books  are  divided into Prapathak, Anuvak and Sukto. Branches of Atharvaveda are Saunak and Piplad. The Brahman of Atharvaveda is Gopat and Upnishad are Mundak and Mandukya . 
 
One sixth of Atharvaveda is derived from Rig-Veda (1).
Atharvaveda also divided plants as per their parts (AV-8.7)-
Herbs
Shrubs
Tress
Creepers and
Grasses
  Ayurveda is the sub Veda or upveda of Atharvaveda and offers the information about the medicines, the herbs, metals, diseases, and treatments (2).
Kapil informs that Atharvaveda (10,7,38) mentions the constituents of plants as  Moola (root), Tula (Panicle) , Kanda (stem), Valsa(Twing),  Puspa(flowers ) and Fal( fruits ).

  There are mentions of 110 plants in Atharvaveda (AV) (identified and non-identified and those plants were later stage, the Ayurveda literature put them in significant place as-
 Apamarga (AV-IV17.6)
Arka
Arjuna(AV.-II8.3)
Ashwattha (AV-III.6.5)
Audumbara and other herbs (AV-XIX3.1.1)
Rohani (AV4,12) etc,
-

     
  Further, Atharvaveda   developed the pant classification mentioned in Riga-Veda. Atharveda   creators (Rishis or sages) classified plants into –
Colour (AV8.7.1)
Morphological Characters (AV- 8.7.4)   
Habitats (AV- 8.7.9; AV8.7.17; AV -19.44.6)
Uses of plants (AV- ) 11.4.16; AV 11.6.15-16)
Use of Plants in various diseases and effects of plants on animals as boars, Snake, cows etc.(AV8.7.23-25)




       Diseases, Applied Botany  in Atharvaveda
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  Atharvaveda describes diseases, medicines names, characteristics of physicians. (4)
  Atharvaveda describes human and animal diseases, medicines made by plants and characters of medical trees, herbs, medical shrubs and medical creepers too. Atharv)veda also deals with geography related to medicines and plants.
That means Atharvaveda describes various aspects of applied botany as uses of plants for medicines, pharmacology
Another aspect about Vedic period is that Ayurveda (Life  Science , knowledge or medical science based on nature specially plant based medicines)  has taken shape in India (5)
References
1-Maurice B., 1886, The Atharvaveda, Harvard Uni. Press page 1-2
2-Satyakam Verma, 1984, Vedic Studies, Bhartiya Prakashan , ND, p.67
3-Kapil, R.N. Biology in Ancient and Medieval India, Indian Journal of History of Science Volume V, No1, pp  126
4-Atrideva Vidyalankar, 1960 , Ayurveda ka Vrihat Itihas , Hindi Samiti , Banaras , (Chapter –Atharvaveda me Ayurveda pages from 31- 63)
Atrideva Vidyalankar, 1960 , Ayurveda ka Vrihat Itihas , Hindi Samiti , Banaras , (Chapter –Atharvaveda me Ayurveda page 126
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants and Plant Science in Atharvaveda , History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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Plants, Applied Botany in Brahmans of Vedas 

Botany History of Vedic Period in India - 4
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent -18
By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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   Each Veda has Samhitas, Brahmans, Upanishads and Sutras. The Brahman books are explanations of each Veda. Main subject of Brahman is ‘Yagya’. The meaning of Brahman is told by Brahma.  Atrideva offers information as follows (1)-
 Rig-Veda has two Brahmans – Aitireya and Kaupitiki.
 Shatpath Brahman a Big book is the Brahman of Shukla Yajurveda .
Taitriya is the Brahman of Krishna Yajurveda
Tanyadya and Chandogeya are Brahmans of Samveda
Gopath is the Brahman of Atharvaveda
  Brahmans explain or offer knowledge about diseases of Transitional period of two seasons.
-
 Prevention and Curing of Ritusandhi diseases (diseases of transit time between two seasons)
-   
In Brahmans, there is information for preventing and curing methods for seasonal transitional diseases (mostly Yagya or Yajna) (1)
 The following materials are suggested for Yajna for preventing diseases happened in seasonal transition period.
     Fragrant substance creating  plants (1) –
Kasturi (Oysters)  (animal),
Saffron
White sandalwood
Cardamom
  Nourishing substances making plants
Ghee (animal)
Milk (animal)
Bidari (roots)
Cereals as wheat, barely, rice, urad
 Sweet substances
 Sugar , jiggery (got from sugarcane)
Honey
Dates
 Disease preventive substances (medicines)
 Most of medicines are extracted seasonal herbs as –
Kooth (Costus ) , Neem ,Bach (Sweet Flag) , Kulanjan (greater Galangal) and other plant substances
Brahman explains that Yagya are disease preventive acts .
Gopath Brahman (Brahman of Atharvaveda) explains the importance of medicinal plants /substances for Yagya performances   in transitional period between two seasons –
Bheshjya Yagay va ete, Tasmadritusndhishu prayujyante
Ritusandhishu vai vyaadhirjayate (Gopath Brahman 3/1/19)
(These medicines are Yagya. That is why Ygya are performed in transit between two seasons as disease happened (more) in this transit period.)
 The above explanations in   Brahmans of Veda show that Rishis or sages or learned people did various experiments with diseases and plants in past and they compiled the applied botany and applied zoology knowledge too.
          Microbes in Vedas
   Vedas  described many names for microbes (nonvisible by eyes)  as Rakshas, krimis, Yatudhan,  and other symbolic names as sarpa (, snakes).  (2)
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References
1-Atrideva Vidyalankar, 1960, Ayurveda ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Samiti , Banaras , p 64
2-Atrideva Vidyalankar, 1960, Ayurveda ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Samiti , Banaras , p-67
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Applied Botany  in Brahmans of Vedas  , History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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Agriculture Science in Vedic Period

Botany History of Vedic Literature in India – 5
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent  -19

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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 Once, Trelease stated, “Without Agriculture there would be no Botany. Without Botany agriculture would be little more than empiricism.” (1)
 The view of Mira Roy is that the information on agriculture practices on Vedic Literature is sporadic, not in the narrative form (2).
          Agriculture embraces two fold activities –
Raising a number of practices
And domestication of animals
 Agriculture was main economic source in Vedic Period.

            Types of Soil and Land in Vedic Literature
  Rig-Veda recognises two types of land ( 3)-
Fertile Land (Apnasvati)
Arid Land (Artand)
             Conservation of Soil
After thorough analysis of Vedic literature, Roy found that Vedic Agriculturists were deeply concerned about soil maintenance’s potentiality. And had knowledge of soil conservation concept (4) as Vedic literature discusses about ‘arable’ and ‘fallow’ lands

         Reclamation of Land

      Rig-Veda describes the burning of land and growth of new vegetation explains that the Vedic agriculturists were aware about reclamation of land for farming and good crops (5).
           
                        Manure and Manuring in Vedic Literature
         The Vedic society was well aware about replenishment of soil and manuring by animal produces or manure for individual plants (6).
 Rig-Veda recommends blood of cows and dungs of cow for restoration of earth (7) and that suggests that Vedic Agriculturists well aware about manure for increasing fertility of  land .
The hymn of Traitriya Samhita (V,1.7.3) states that Corn ripens twice a year and that   suggests that Vedic people were having preliminary or good  knowledge  of crop rotation and benefits by rotation of cereals and legumes one after other.
 Animal manures were of two types cow stable dung manures and farmyard cow –dung (8) and Satpatha Brahmana (II.1.17) suggests the animal  excrements is  suitable  for fertility growth etc.
   Green manures
Veda also discusses about benefits or uses of green manures as Atharvaveda (II 8.3.4) recommends the wood of Terminalia Arjuna, husk of barely and blossom of sesame for removing devilment from arable land (9).
Kaushika Sutra (later Vedic Stage) recommends maunuring of barely seeds by honey and clarified butter (10)
-
                  Ecological basis of Crops in Vedic Literature
 Vedic Literature describe very sketchy idea about crop characteristics (1)

                  Plant Protection Measures in Vedic Literature
There are descriptions of plant protection measures in Vedas.
  Rig-Veda describes farmer making noise for driving away the birds (11) and Taitriya Samhita describes rotation of crops (natural crop plant protection)  (12) .
                   Birds and Insects
   Vedic Literature shows that barring birds, people were not aware of pestiferous agents (13).
    The pests were described in Atharvaveda are (13)
  -
Borer bird or insects
Rodents and rats
Reptiles
              Agro-Technology in Vedic Age
     Taitriya Samhita and Atharvaveda describes ploughing with the help of sheep and oxen (14)
 Taitriya Samhita (V,2.5.4 and V.1.6.4) ) also describes  furrow marks  and mowing a post plough operation.

       Agriculture tools of Vedic Era
 Roy offers complete details of following Agricultural tools of Vedic Era (15) –

 Forest Clearance tools as axe and axe types of tools
Soil Treatment tools as mower and roller
Cultivation tools as plough (small and Big and having four parts) that was dragged by oxen and sheep.
Harvesting tools were a crooked knife type sickle type, sickle and reaping hook
 The sieves and winnowing fans were corn cleaning equipment.
Carts and wagon were used for carrying agricultural produces .
                       Irrigation for agriculture in Vedic Period
 There were two types of irrigation system at the Vedic Period - rain water and river water.
  Rig-Veda states (X, 43.7) states rain water lifting by bucket.
   Sindhu(Indus)  and other rivers as Sarswati  were described many times in Vedic literature.
 There is description of artificial way of irrigation too that is wooden bucket were used for storing and pouring water from well. (1)
 Roy gives the details of metrological observation in relation to crop prospects and details about Vedic literature describing (16) two seasons of rainfall; effects of rainfall on crops and livestock; unfavourable weather for crops;
 Thus it is clear that Vedic Period started fast developing agriculture science than its past .
-
References   
1-Trelease W.M. , 1924  The Relationship of Botany to Agriculture in Science (ed- Cattell  M.J.) Vol1,10,  Science, Lancashire,  August 1924, p-80
2-Roy, Mira, 20019 Agriculture in Vedic Period, Indian Journal of History of Science, 44..4(2009) p 497-520
3-Rig-Veda, 127.6
4-Roy, Mira, 20019 Agriculture in Vedic Period, Indian Journal of History of Science, 44.4 (2009) p 500
5-Rig-Veda, X,142.2-8
6- Roy, Mira, 20019 Agriculture in Vedic Period, Indian Journal of History of Science, 44..4(2009) p 502
7- Nagar B.R., 1963, “Manuring in Ancient India” Bulletin of National Institute of Science of India, No. 24, p 131
8-Atharvaveda, III 14.3,XIX 31.3 and Kaushiksutra XXIV .17.
9-Roy, Mira, 20019 Agriculture in Vedic Period, Indian Journal of History of Science, 44.4(2009) p 502
10-Kaushika Sutra ,XXIV,2
11 Rig-Veda . XX68.1
12- Taitriya Samhita V, 2.5.4
13- Roy, Mira, 20019 Agriculture in Vedic Period, Indian Journal of History of Science, 44..4(2009) p 507
14- Taitriya Samhita V2.5.2
15- Roy, Mira, 20019 Agriculture in Vedic Period, Indian Journal of History of Science, 44..4(2009) p 508
16- Roy, Mira, 20019 Agriculture in Vedic Period, Indian Journal of History of Science, 44..4(2009) p 513, 514, 515

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Agriculture Science in Vedic Period , History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

 

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