Author Topic: History of Plant Science , History of Botany , Botanical Researches In India  (Read 6730 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Plant Anatomy in Vedic Literature
Botany History of Vedic Literature in India – 6
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent -20
By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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 Anatomy a branch of biological science deals with internal part of organism. 
   Rig-Veda is an oldest documented script.
  Ratikanta Maiti (1) Sates offering the reference of Father of  A.K Chaudhary (2)“Perhaps the earliest documented studies on plant botany and anatomy carried out in the early Indian civilization in the Vedic age.  People of this age accumulated a great amount of knowledge about botany and anatomy of plants recognizing the values of different plants in agriculture, medicines, fuels, construction, and religious performances”.
 Rig-Veda the oldest Vedic literature termed wood as ‘daru’, differentiating it from bark ’vakala’, Later , Brihadarnyaka Upanishad’  described following anatomical differentiation of plants (1)-
Ashthi (Wood, xylem )
 Mamsa  (Soft tissues)
Majja (Pith)
Twak( bark,)
Snayu (Fibers)
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References
Maiti , Ratikanta, et all, 2012, Caby London, UK, p 2
Chaudhary A.K.1971, Botany: PrehistoricPperiod, In ‘Concise History of Science in India’ (Eds), D.M. Bose , S.N. Sen, B.V. Subbarayappa, New Delhi,  National Science Academy, Pp 371-375
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019 p p.2

HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Anatomy, History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;



Bhishma Kukreti

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Plant Physiology in Vedic Literature

Botany History of Vedic Literature in India -
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent -

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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           Plant physiology is subdivision of botany that deals with physiology of plants. Veda creative o did not ignore the plat physiology as people of that time were having correct knowledge of various phenomenon of life (1).
   Kapil cited examples of description of physiological terminology in Vedic literature as life, germination, assimilation, growth and movement in plants (1)
     Green manure of sesame and barley husk  was used at that time for soil fertility (Atharvaveda III 14.3..4 ),
 Majumdar (2) offers example of Rig-Veda (VIII, 43.9, II, 1.14) and states that Vedic people had some knowledge of manufacture of food, action of light on process and storage of energy in the plant bodies.
    People of Vedic period were aware about Plant sickness due to plant diseases (1).
   It can be concluded that  that Vedic people investigated the miseries and problems of nature and corrected various problems and did systematic study of nature.

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References
1-Kapil, R.N. Biology in Ancient and Medieval India, Indian Journal of History of Science Volume V, No1, Pp129
2-Majumdar G.P. 1951, Vanaspati , .University Press Pp 104
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Physiology in Vedic Period, History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Epic Age of India: a brief discussion

 Plant and Plant Science in Epic Age of India – 1

 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent – 23

By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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  Aryans created Ramayana and Mahabharata Sanskrit epics (1).  Ramayana is the oldest, popular and idealistic epic. Mahabharata is realistic than Ramayana.  Ramayana is about Rama and Ayodhya, Ravana and Lanka.. Mahabharata is about internal fights between two cousins Pandavas and Kauravas.   In Mahabharata, there are other thousands of stories and Mahabharata also deals with Sankhya Yoga, Neeti, Public administration etc..
   As far as Ramayana is concerned geographical territory is limited towards south to Vindhya shrines. Mahabharata deals all across India. 
 The age of both the epics is after Vedas creation and before Buddhist religion was born .
According to Pargitar, Mahabharata war was fought around or before 950BC (2).
 The opinion of Dr. Winternitzs is that Ramayana (by Valmiki) was created around 300B.C.. (2)
     Mahabharata was edited and compiled for many centuries till Gupta period.
    We have huge knowledge plants and applied plant science about the time Mahabharata and Ramayana was created
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References
1-Mahajan, V.D. 1998 Ancient India, S. Chand & Company, Delhi, Pp 147
2 Mahajan, V.D. 1998 Ancient India , S Chand  & Company, Delhi, Pp 149

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HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter


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Classification of Plants, Parts of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana

Plants Science in Valmiki Ramayana -1
Botany in Epic Age of India - 2
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent – 24


By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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   Sanskrit Epic Valmiki Ramayana one of the oldest epics in the world offer various information on plant and plant science.
      204 Plants in Valmiki Ramayana
    Balapure et all (1)  identified total  204 plants in Valmiki Ramayana (V.R.) and Tulsi Krit Ramcharit Manas (R.M.).
Balapure offered the above plant lists in following manner –
Plant name in V.R. or R.M., reference of V.R Or R.M. , Plant genus and spices, Plant family
.  Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana
     Valmiki Ramayana offers the classification of plants as and when require –
For example in Valmiki Ramayana, Aranyakand Chapter 2 (3.-2.-2) –
Nana mrig gan  akeernam  riksha shardul sevitam
Dhwasta Vriksha lata, gulmam durdarsha salilashayam
 That shows that  Valmiki e classify the  plants as  follows –
Vriksha (Tree)
Lata (creepers)
Gulma (Shrub)
There is mention of Trina or grass in Valmiki Ramayana too
Trina (Grass ( V.R. 2//88/22 )
   Parts of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana
   Valmiki Ramayana illustrates the following plant composition various times ( 2) –
Mool (Roots)
Skandh (Branch /stem)
Patra (leaves)
Pushpa (Flowers)
Fla (Fruits)
(Above information is based on information by Urmila Devi (2) )
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References
1-Balapure K.M., J.K Maheshwari, R.K. Tondon, 1987, ‘Plants of Ramayana’ Ancient Science of Life, Vol. VII No,2. October 1987, Pp76-84
2- Urmila Devi, 2018 Valmiki Ramyan me Vanaspti  vigyan ka anushilan , Varenya (Research Book )  (Edi-Somendra Singh , Research Scholar) , Utkasha Prakshan , Delhi , Pp-7to 16
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Classification of Plants in Valmiki Ramayana , History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia

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  Forest Classification in Valmiki Ramayana

Botany in Epic Age of India – 3
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent -25

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc[/b][/font].[/b] {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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 In Valmiki Ramayana or Hindu Sanatani based Rama  story , Rama and his younger brother Lakshamana go to forests before their marriage and go again to forests after marriage along with Rama’s wife Sita . Sita had to go forests after Rama and co returned to Ayodhya too. Therefore, there are full of descriptions of Forests in Ramayana.
   M. Amrithalingam states (1) that  in Ramayana  Valmiki described various forest characteristics   into four types are described and those four types are main human sentiments as- Shant (Peaceful) ; Madhura (Sweet), Rudra (Anger) and Vibhatsa (fearful) .
     As per Amrithalingam, Ramayana describes in detailed the fauna and flora , water elements (Rivers, Lakes, pond, ocean, streams, springs etc)  and plants , birds and animals of various forests (2) 
   Valmiki Ramayana describes about land surface, vegetation, diversity and degree of wilderness too.
    Valmiki Ramayana classify two major types of forest (2)-
1-Principal forests as – Chitrakoot and Dandakaranya and major description in Ramayana is about Dandakaranaya
2-Sub Forest as- Panchavati Vana as stretch of Dandakaranya
  Valmiki Ramayana describes following major types of forests (3)-
     1-Tropical Deciduous Forest- Chitrakoot comes under deciduous forest and Valmiki describes in full details. Valmiki named Chitrakoot as maha vana or great forest .  There are descriptions of edible and non-edible vegetation ‘ flowering trees; grass types of vegetation and medicinal trees/plants (3)
 From Chitrakoot, Rama goes to Dandakaranya van that is a maha-vana or gret or dense and fearful forest.
 2-Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest – Panchavati was such forest at the bank of Godavari River in Valmiki Ramayana (Amrithalingam).  Valmiki describes various trees, shrubs, creeping plants, aquatic plant, sacred plants and cereals in Panchavati forest.
3-Moist and Dry deciduous Forests – Valmiki describes moist and dry deciduous forest of Rishyamukh hill and Matanga hills. Pampa pond was there too in those hills. Valmiki describes vairous fruit yielding trees, non-fruit bearing trees, many plants as lotus and lilies, creepers etc. (4). Amrithalingam identified various common fruits , economical benefiting trees, shrubs and other plants those Valmiki described  about  Rishyamukh and Matang hills forests.
 Valmiki described luxuriant Vana or forest as found in heaven (4)
4- Himalayan Alpine Forests - In Yudhakanda (Valmiki Ramayana 74,30-31;61-63) , Valmiki narrates forest territories in between Kailash and Rishabha Mountains and Madhodaya mountains(5) . The region of Madhodaya (aushadhi or medicinal) was having the main plants were curative and aromatic in nature (Valmiki Ramayana, Yudhakanda 74,31-33, 101.31-33) . It is mentioned that Hanuman rushed to  Drongiri hill forest f for taking Mrit Sanjivani (medical plant for curing dead (here Lakshamana) ; Vishalyakarani ( capable of extracting weapons and healing of wounds by weapons); Suvarnakarni (Capable of restoring the body at its original complexion) and Sandhani (capable of restoring of joinits,  fractured limbs and joints, bones ) [Valmiki Ramayana , Yudhakanda 6.74.29-34].
  5-Evergreen Forests of Lanka- There is clear differences between tropical deciduous forests and Evergreen forests described in Valmiki Ramayana (6).  In Valmiki Ramayana too, the Lankan forests are described evergreen forests. The Lankan Forests has two basic characteristics – Natural forests and naturalized forests. Amrithalingam identified various trees and plants of Lankan forests of Valmiki Ramayana (6) .
     The naturalized forest or sub forest is Asoka Vana in Ramayana.
  Apart from naming the trees, shrubs, other plants of various forests , there is description of ecology and environment protection in Valmiki Ramayana . 
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References
1-Amrithalingam. M, 2013, Plant Diversity in Valmiki Ramayana , C.P . Environmental Centre, Chennai , India Pp 2
2-Ibid, Pp- 3
3- Ibid Pp 3to 9
4-Ibid  , Pp6
5-Ibid Pp-7
6-Ibdi pp-8

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Forests Classification in Ramayana, History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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Classification of Plants of Valmiki Ramayana as per Uses

Botany in Epic Age of India – 4

 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –26

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc.
{(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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  There are various types of plants described in Valmiki Ramayans and could be called as types of Plants (1)–
 Edible and Non Edible Types of Plants 
Scared Plants
Economically Useful plants
Medicinal Plants
Cultural Important plants
Miscellaneous Plants
     Flowering seasons of Different Plants in Valmiki Ramayana
 Valmiki Ramayana also offer us the information that common men and experts hd good idea of flowering season of various plants and fruit bearing seasons too (2)
 Amrithalingam rightly states that the narration of plants in Valmiki Ramayana is not imagery of poet but is consistent and full of botanical knowledge (related to ecology, geographical variation and plants are describes as per soil and as per water availavity too) (3). Valmiki Ramayana proves that Valmiki had deep observation about vegetation (3).


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References
1-Amrithalingam, M, 2013, Plant Diversity in Valmiki Ramayana, C.P . Environmental Centre, Chennai, India Pp- 9 to 18
2-Amrithalingam, M, 2013, Plant Diversity in Valmiki Ramayana, C.P . Environmental Centre, Chennai, India  Pp- 18
Amrithalingam, M, 2013, Plant Diversity in Valmiki Ramayana, C.P . Environmental Centre, Chennai, India  Pp-19-20


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter ..
Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Taxonomy in Valmiki Ramayana of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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Medicinal, Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period
Botany in Epic Age of India – 5

 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –27

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc.
{(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
-
    Varma studied and identified the medicinal plants described in Valmiki Ramayana (1) .The aim of Valmiki was not medical science or medical plant  but he mentioned medical plants for showing the cultural and socio-economic life  depending on plants.
 Ramayana describes 21 trees/plants as Amrit (eternal substance or lifesaving item). (1)
 Atrideva Vidyalankar (3) analysed Valmiki Ramayana from Ayurveda, medical practices and medicinal plants point of view too .
Atrideva  (3), Varma (1) and Urmila Devi (2) identified and detailed the  following medical plants described in Valmiki Ramayana –
(Valmiki Name, Hindi /Common Name, Botanical Name, Remarks if any )
1-Jambu, Jamun , Syzygium cumini
 2-Priyala , Chirounji , Buchanani alonzon
  3-Panasameasn , Kathal (Jackfrit ), Atrocarpus heterophyllus
4-Vata, Bargad (Banyan ) , Ficus bengalensis
5-Ashatha , Peepal, (Sacerd Fig) Ficus religiosa
6- Tinduka , Tendu, Diospyros melanoxylon
7-Amba , Aam (Mango)  , Mangifera indica
8-Dhava, Balkiand /Dhaur (Ale  Wood), Anogeissis latifolia
9-Tilak , Cinnamon  tree , Cinnamom uminers 
10-Naktamala, (Indian Beech) -, Pongami apinata
11-Nila, Fig , Ficus recemosa
12- Ashoka , Ashoka , Saraca asoka
13- Kadamba , Kadamba , Anthocephalus kadamba
14-Karvira, Kanhera , Nerium indicum
15- Surkata, Red Sandalwood,
16-Paribhadrakha , Mandar, Artocarpus heterophyllus
17-Malay Chandan , Santalum album
18-Parnas. Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum
19- Pippali , Pippali, Piper , Piper longum
20-Pdam, Kamal (Lotus ), Nelumbo nucifera
21- Kichaka Venu , Chhut Bans , Bambusa asundinacea
22- Arjuna, Arjuna, Terminalia arjuna 
23-Agnimukha (Bhel) –Semecarpus anacardium
     The purpose of Valmiki was narrating a chronological details of Ikshwaku dynasty through epic style and along the story Valmiki narrated medicinal valued plants too .
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References
1-Varma, Dipti, 2015 , ‘ Medicinal Plants used During the Period of Ramayana’, International Journal for Exchange of Knowledge , 2(1): 41-45
2-Urmila Devi, 2018 Valmiki Ramyan me Vanaspti  vigyan ka anushilan , Varenya (Research Book )  (Edi-Somendra Singh , Research Scholar) , Utkasha Prakshan , Delhi , Pp-7to 16
3-Atrideva Vidyalankar, 1960, Ayurveda ka Vrihat Itihas , Hindi Samiti, Banaras, Pp 76-81

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Medicinal , Herbal plants of Valmiki Ramayana Period ; History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Plants mentioned in Sabha Parva of Mahabharata 

Plant Science in Mahabharata -1
Botany in Epic Age of India – 6

 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent – 27

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}[/font]

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             Mahabharata is the biggest/largest Epic in the world and one of the oldest epics too.
   Mahabharata is not about plants but about societies, mentality of human beings and historical aspects. However, the story narrator described various aspects of plants and agriculture, forestry etc.
 There are 18 Parvas (divisions) in Mahabharata and each Parva has sub Parva and chapters having Shlokas.
Adiparva is first Parva of Mahabharata that begins the main story. We get description of trees but no name was found in Adi Parava of Maharashtra There is illustration of Khandva Forest and its burning and effects of wildfire in Adiparva .
 Sabha Parva (Book of Assembly hall ) is second book or Parva of Mahabharata . The stories of Sabha Parva are famous story of ‘Game of Dice between Pandavas and Kauravas. Thee is emergence of Maya Danava  built  famous palace of Indraprastha. 
 There are description of following plants of Sabha Parva of Mahabharata –
Sanskrit name = names mentioned in Mahabharata

S.N.-Common Name---- Sanskrit Name ------Botanical name----- Sub. Parva- Sholka No.
1- Bada Peelu --------- ---Peelu ------------------Salvadora oleoides ----II 47.4
2-Desert Teak -----------Rohitak ---------------- Tecomelia undulate ---- II 29.4
3-Shami ------------------Shami ----------------- Porsopis cineraria --- II 47.4
4-Kanta Bans /Ringal ) – Keechaka Venu—Bambusa aundinacea ---II.48.2

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants of Sabha Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Plants (identification) described in Vana Parva of Mahabharata

Plants Science in Mahabharata -2

Botany in Epic Age of India – 7

 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –28

By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
-
There is description of following plants in Vana Parva of Mahabharata –
Sanskrit name = names mentioned in Mahabharata

S.N.-Common Name---- Sanskrit Name ------Botanical name----- Sub. Parva- Sholka No.
1 –Ber,-----------------------Badari ------------ Zizyphus mauritiana -------III.174.23
2 - Bel ------------------------ Bilva ------------------Aegle marmelos -----III.174.23
 3-Jiyasuta----------------------- Inguda--------------  Balanites roxburghai -- III.174.23
 4- Karira ------------------------Karira ---------------- Capparis decidua ----- III.174.23
 5-Khair -------------------------- Khadir ----------------Acacia catechu----- --- III.174.23
 6- Bada Peelu -------------------Pilu ------------Salvadona oleoides -----    I II.174.23
 7-Peeopl------------------------- Palaksa --------- Ficu religosa ---------------- III.174.23
 8-Rohida ----------------------Rohitaka ---------- Tecomelia undulate - III.174.23; 241,67
9  Sonth ---------------------------Sanuha ------------ Zingiber officianle ------ III.174.23
 10- Siras ------------------------ Shirisha ------------Albizzia lebbeck ----------- III.174.23
11- Bargada ----------------------- Vata -------------- Ficus bengalensis ----------III, 1.39
12- Rattan Palm,    ----------------- Vetas ------------Calamus rotang ---------- III.174.23
 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Vana Prastha, Mahabharata ; History  of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

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Plants mentioned in Drona Parva of Mahabharata
Plant
Science in Mahabharata -3
Botany in Epic Age of India – 8

 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –29

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
-
 There are descriptions of   following plants in Drona Parva of Mahabharata-
Sanskrit Name = name mentioned in Mahabharata
DP= Drona Parva
S.N. Common Name   Sanskrit Name,  Botanical Name    DP no, Shloka number
1------Gandh babul, -- Arimeda------Vachelia farmesiana –------VII, 153.24
 2------Ber ------------Badari----------Zizyphus maurritiana----- VII, 153.24
3- Champa ----------Champak –----Michella champaka ----------VII, 153.24
4- Ingudi------------Inguda ---------Balanites roxburghi  -------- VII, 153.24
5-Karira --------------Karira ----------Capparis decidua-------------VIII, 153.4
6- Kachnar------- Kovidar ------------Bauhinia variegeta -------- VIII, 153.4
7- Bengal Fig ---Nyagrodha --------Ficus bengalensis ----------- VIII, 153.4
8- Bada Peelu --Pilu ------------     Salvadona oleoides------------ VIII, 153.4
9-  Peeple----Palaksa --------------- Ficus religosa -------------------VIII, 153.4
10-Shami- ---Shami -----------------Porsopis cineraria ------------VIII, 153.4






-

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants ,  Drona Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;
















 

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