Author Topic: History of Plant Science , History of Botany , Botanical Researches In India  (Read 6727 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Concept of Plant Photosynthesis in Mahabharata Epic

(Plant Consciousness explained in Mahabharata)
Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 114
Botany in Epic Age of India – 20
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –40
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By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc.
{(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
-
Mahabharata epic deals with various concepts of botany or plant science. Photosynthesis is one of such Botanical concepts that Mahabharata explains.
 As per one definitions (1) “Photo synthesis is the process used by plants, algae, and certain bacteria to harness energy from Sunlight energy and tern it to chemical energy”
Tow Shlokas   of section 3 of Vanaparva of Mahabharata clear the uses of sun energy by plants as follows
Nishiktashchandratejobhi Suyate jagto ravi : I
Aushdhya: shadrasa medhyastadannam praninam II (Mahabharata Vanaparva section 3, 8)
Evam bhanumayam hyannam bhutanam pranadharanam I
Nathyoyam sarvabhutanam tasmattam sharanam braj II Mahabharata Vanaparva section 3, 9)
The meaning of above sholkas is –
“With the moon, infused by its (Sun’s )  light , the sun energizes the plants with six major tastes  , those constitute the food for all living beings in the earth.”
 Above second Shloka of Vanaparva of Mahabharata explains that “Thus,  the food that supports the lives of all creatures is filled with energy of Sun. and The Sun is the father of all living things. Therefore, seek protection from Sun.”
 No doubt the above shlokas clarify the role of sun but also clarify the process of changing sun energy into food energy (Chemical Energy) .
There is another way of explaining process of plant photosynthesis in Mahabharata, Shantiparva 184.18 )-
Ten tajjalmadatam jarayatyagnin marutai I
Aharaparinamaccha sneho vridhishcha jayate II
Translation is as follows-
“Roots draw the water that which reacts with heat (light) and atmosphere air. The combination of water, air, and heat (light) makes the body fluid”
(shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/51045/19/19.appendix.pdf, excessed on 7 February 2020)
The above three shlokas offer us the proof that in the Mahabharata period, the learned scholars were aware about changing of solar energy into fluid energy or chemical energy. 


References
1-Vidyasagar Arpna , 15th October , 2018,What is photosynthesis,  livescience.com/51720_photosynthesis.html  (cited on 7th February 2020 12.8PM) 
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HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

Bhishma Kukreti

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Sight (Vision Power ) Sensation in plants mentioned in Mahabharata

(Plant Consciousness explained in Mahabharata)
Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 15
Botany in Epic Age of India – 21
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –41
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By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc.
{(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
-
 Mahabharata also speaks about the seeing capacity or vision power in plants. Mahabharata discusses about tree can see in following Shloka-
Valli Vestyate  Vriksham Sarvatashchaiv gacchati
Napyadrishteshcha margoasti tasmata pshyanti padpa: (Mahabharata Shanti Parva 184.13 )
The translation of above Shloka is as follows –
Sage Bhrigu further states that “The creepers of the tree further move and envelop at all around .This must be that plant can see as thing cannot move without seeing power.”
 The Mahabharata creators proved that the movement in plants (creeper movements) is because of visual sensation  among plants .
References
Mahabharata book twelve (translated by Alexander Wynne ), 2017  New York University Press 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019    
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

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Environment Protection Concept in Mahabharata

(Plant Consciousness explained in Mahabharata)
Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 16
Botany in Epic Age of India – 22
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –42
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By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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  Neel Mani (1) analysed and offered the references in Mahabharata those Shlokas discusses about human beings perceived the plants as forefathers and take blessing of plants and trees .The human beings should plant the trees, should raise plants as children
Ateetenagte chobhe pitrivansham cha Bharta I
Taryedavriksharopi cha tasmad vrikshanpraropyetII
Tasmatdage vrikhsa vai ropya shreyorthina sada I
Putravatparipalyashcha putraste dharmta smrita: II
(Mahabharata, Anushahan Parva 99.26.31)
   Mahabharata preaches about taking care of environment for the benefits of human beings and other living beings. In following Shloka , Mahabharata states that by raising and protecting the plants /tress the human being gets fame in this earth (Ihlok) ; )by plant raising /protection human being ) gets respect in Pitrilok (the forefather world ) and  gets  eternity in Devlok (Deity world ).
   Labhate nam loke cha pitribhishcha mahiyate I
    Devlokgatasyapi nam tasya na nashyati II
(Mahabharata, Anushashan Parva 99.25)
 Mahabharata creators (or writings in Mahabharata) had clearer idea than prior writing as Writings in Vedas about plant protection or environment. Mahabharata many times, cautions for plant protection .  It is said in following Shloka of Mahabharata that human beings should not act wrong even against to leaves of those plants/ trees  give shadow –
Yasyasya Chardasya vrikshasya Sheetchchayam samashrayet I
Na tasya Parna druhyeta  poorvvritamanusmaran
(Mahabharata Adiparva ,146, 95) -
References
1-Neel Mani, February 2007, Pancham Veda Mahabharata me Padap Vichar, 2nd World Congress on Vedic Science page 316-319

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HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

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Economic Botany in Mahabharata

(Benefits of Plan Kingdom explained in Mahabharata)
Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 17
(Botany in Sanskrit Literature)
Botany in Epic Age of India – 23
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –43
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By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)-
-
  Neel Muni analysed the Shlokas of Mahabharata those illustrate the benefits of plant kingdom (1).
 Mahabharata illustrates the following benefits from plant Kingdom
  Plants used for making the articles as fan from palm leaves (2); Ornaments from plants (3), Fuel wood from plants (4); Decoration from plants (5); Body make up through help of plants (6). Welcoming decorative articles by plants (7); Plants were used  in rituals (Puja) (9) ; plants used in making sport articles(10) .
Plants were used in making houses, beds, seats and flowers were used in making beverages (11). Mahabharata also illustrates the benefits of Khasa uses (12) and there is mention of cotton uses (13)
Mahabharata clearly show that people were using plant fibres and ghee etc. for making houses (14).
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 Utility utensils described in Mahabharata:
 Mahabharata mentions many times that people used plants/trees for making various useful utensils as Cups for yagna, big and small wooden spoons (Mani ibid ) .
  Mahabharata describes that people also used wood and flowers for funeral pyre s (as was used for Bhishma’s dead body) (Mahabharata Anushashan Parva 154.13)
Plants as Food mentioned in Mahabharata:
People and sages used fruits for food too as described in Mahabharata Anushashan Parva (53.17).
    Mahabharata Anushashan Parva (53.18) states that people uses various fruits as Ber ( Ziziphus mauritiana) , Ingud ( Balanities aegyptiaca) , Kashmarya ( beech wood) , Bhallataka  (Semecarpus anacardium) etc. for various  food uses .
Plants in Rituals of Shradha
 Mahabharata Anushashan Parva (88.3) states that people use Til (sesame) Brihi, Yava (Hordeum vulgare) , Urad (Vigna mungo) , etc for yagna .Havan of shradha.
In a figurative language, Mahabharata, Anushashan Parva 99.28 states that the plants offer prayers by their flowers and fruits to deities and offer shades to the guests. This stanza clearly speaks that Mahabharata mentioned various economic and ethno uses of plants.


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References
1-Neel Mani, February 2007, Pancham Veda Mahabharata me Padap Vichar, 2nd World Congress on Vedic Science page 318-319
2-Mahabharata Karna Parva, 91.68, Shalya Parva 9.20
3-Mahabharata, Anushashan Parva 151.19
4-Mahabharata, Virata Parva 9.18
5-Mahabharata, Vana Parva 284.1
6-Mahabharata, Shalya Parva 3.38
7-Mahabharata, Adi Parva 134.19
8-Mahabharata Virata Parva 9.13
9-Mahabharata Adi Parva 43, 24
10-Mahabharata Vana Parva 279.34
11-Mahabharata, Adi Parva 127.21
12-Mahabharata, Karna Parva 83.30
13-Mahabharata Adi Parva 13.17
14-Mahabharta , Vana Parva 20.41
The next chapter will discusses about medicinal plants and Ayurveda mentioned in Mahabharata


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
History of Botany in Sanskrit literature, Economic Botany in Indian great epics, Indian History of Botany from great Epics and    
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

Bhishma Kukreti

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Discussion on Medicinal Plants in Mahabharata

(Benefits of Plan Kingdom explained in Mahabharata)
Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 18
(Botany in Sanskrit Literature) 
Botany in Epic Age of India – 24
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –44
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By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)-
-
            Mahabharata is not about plant science nor is about medical science. Therefore, the uses of Ayurveda are least in Mahabharata. However, at many places, there is mention of medicinal plants and their importance in Mahabharata.
 Mani Neel illustrates one example of medicinal plants in Mahabharata (Karna Parva 172.9) wherein when King Sanwaran fell down on the field due to illness, his minister put the lotus extract water on king’s head and the king came to the senses.
 When Bhima had to eat poisonous Kheer (pudding) he ate it with herbal medicines (Mahabharata Karna Parva 128.25). In Anushashan Parva of Mahabharata (101.22) the narrator states that herbal medicines are of different kinds and properties-
Aushadhiyo Bahiveiryashcha bahurpashthaaiv cha .
 Muni explains  (1) about Mahabharata describing that donating the forest and hill  of medicinal plants and  fruits is far better than Yagya (Mahabharata Anushashan Parva 61.69).
There are mentions of many plants in Mahabharata (1) those were having medicinal value as Parijat etc. (Mahabharata Karna Parva 17.37).

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References
1-Neel Mani, February 2007, Pancham Veda Mahabharata me Padap Vichar, 2nd World Congress on Vedic Science page 318
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
History of Botany in Sanskrit literature, Economic Botany in Indian great epics, Indian History of Botany from great Epics and    
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

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Types of Forests in Mahabharata

Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 19
(Botany in Sanskrit Literature) 
Botany in Epic Age of India – 25
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –45
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By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)-
-
    Mahabharata discusses many subjects of pure botany and applied botany (1). According to Muni, Mahabharata named the applied botany as vrikshayurveda or Bheshajyaurveda (1). Parashar Rishi the father of Veda Vyasa worked for Vrikshayurveda (1).
  In Vana Parva of Mahabharata, the narrator detailed various subjects of forestry of its time (2)
There is discussion of following types of forests in Mahabharata (2)–
Forest Name -------- ----Parva of Mahabharata - Shloka no
Mahavana or great forest -----Vana Parva, 279.27 and Adiparva 172.2
Nishkantakavana (no spikes) ----Adi, 264.14
Kadlivana (Banana Forest) -------Adi 2.178 and Vana 264.8
Nirjana Vana (Desolate Forest) ----Adi 182.7 and Vana 264.8
Nandan vana ,----------------------- Adi 2.157, Vana 264.8
Kamyak Vana -----------------------Vana 280.41
Dwait Vana ------------------------ Adi 2..157,  Vana 268.22
Khandava Vana --------------------- Adi 2.195, Vana 264.27
There are mentions of following forests too in Mahabharata – Shalvana , Kantakiti Vana , Dev Vana , Tapovana (2)

Mahabharata also illustrates the plants by geographical differences as plants of deserts (Mahabharata Karna Parva 87.69) and low plant density in snowy regions (Mahabharata Adi Parva 150.8) .
 The above discussions in various chapters suggest that though Mahabharata is not a Botany book but a Purana (history) book. However, in many places,   Mahabharata discusses the subjects of Botany and the illustrations of Mahabharata give us the knowledge of plants and plant science by people of Mahabharata creation time and Mahabharata editing and compiling period.   
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References
1-Neel Mani, February 2007, Pancham Veda Mahabharata me Padap Vichar, 2nd World Congress on Vedic Science page 316
2- Neel Mani, February 2007, Pancham Veda Mahabharata me Padap Vichar, 2nd World Congress on Vedic Science page 319
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
History of Botany in Sanskrit literature, Economic Botany in Indian great epics, Indian History of Botany from great Epics and    
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

Bhishma Kukreti

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Buddhism and Buddhist Literature: An Introduction

Botany in Mahajanapada Era or Buddhist Literature (1425 to 323 B.C.E) – 1
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –46
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By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)-
-
   After Mahabharata era history, we have left Mahajanapada history in India (from 1425- 323) .The history references of Mahajanapada Era are either in Jain Literature or Buddhist Literature. Mahajanapada Era is also called Rise of Magadha Power. 
 At the time of Buddha birth, Hindu religion  was facing problems of division among sects and various confusions due to many faiths and caste system . Buddhism and Jainism took benefits of confusion and Theerthankars and Buddha brought new philosophies to the world.
 At the time of Buddha and Mahavira, social, religious and cultural revolutions took place in India (1)
 At the time of Buddha, there were 16 Janapadas in India and there were four major or powerful Janapadas as follows –
Magadha
Kaushal
Kaushambi
Avanti
And there were other 12 minor Janapadas (1)
There were many isms or philosophies /Vadas, superstitions in India at the time of Buddha and Mahavira and people were eager for getting real answer (2).
Siddhartha, Gautama Buddha founded Buddhism (though he never said so) (3) . There is no agreement among scholars for  exact life span of Buddha .However, according to Singhalese tradition Buddha died in 543 BC at the age of 80. However it does not match with other dates or personalities life as Asoka (3)  . So we may take that Buddha might have lived from 487 death year of Buddha and 567 as birth year of Buddha (4).
Since the author’s aim is History of Botany and not Social history, the life of Buddha is taken 567- 487 BCE.
 Buddhism was spread out of India too. That is the reasons we get Buddhist literature from neighbouring countries more than India.
In following chapters, this author will discuss botanical aspects from various Buddhist literature found in India or elsewhere.
Pl see Botanical aspects in Navneetikam (A Buddhist book) ..
 



 

 
References-
1-Vidyalankar Atrideva  Ayurveda ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Samiti , Banaras(1960)  page 91
2- Deva Namenda Acharya, (2001)  Baudhadharma  Darshana , Motilal Vandrashidas , Delhi (2001) page 1 
3-Mahajana V.D, Ancient India, S .Chand & Company Delhi (1998) page 180
4- Mahajana V.D, Ancient India, S .Chand & Company Delhi (1998) page 181
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
History of Botany in Pali/Maghadi literature, Applied Botany in India in Buddhist literature,
 HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter



Bhishma Kukreti

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Plants mentioned in earliest Buddhist literature 

Flora in Early Buddhist Literature (Pali Tipitaka) -1
Botany in Mahajanapada Era or Buddhist Literature (1425 to 323 B.C.E) – 1
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –47
-
By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)-
-
  There is Buddhist literature of different ages as early, mid and later stages. Vinaya Pitaka is (rules of Buddhist Union), Sutra Pitaka and Abhidhamma are earliest Buddhist literature.
Tipitaka is terms for three (Ti) books (Pitaka or Basket) for earliest Buddhist literature, Tipitaka consists of following three books or texts in Pali language (1)  –
Sutra Pitaka (Sermons of Buddha)
Vinaya Pitaka (Rules of Monks)
Abhidhamma Pitaka (scholastic reworking of Buddhist literature)
Tipitaka or three books s(baskets) were  composed between 550 to start of Christ era (2).
S. Dhammika offers us detailed list of plants mentioned in various early Buddhist literature in title ‘Nature and the environment in early Buddhism  ( 3) including following Jataka information -
 
Pali Common Name Plant ---------Botanical name ---------Reference
Ja= Jataka tales  (4)
Vin= Vinaya Pitaka (7)
M.=Majjhima nakaya  (6)
Th= Theragata  (8)
Ap= Apadana  (5)
Agaru  ------------- ------------Aquilaria agallocha -------Ja.VI,144:510, 530
Ankola  --------------    - Alangium lamarcii    ------------  Ja.VI 535
Acchiva    (a plant) ------Drum stick tree   ------- -           Ja.VI 535
Ajjukana –      Terminalia arjuna     ------------------------- Ja.VI 535
Anjanrukkha  -- black tree ------------------------------------- Ja .I 333
Atthikadali  - a banana type ----------------------------------- Ja.V 406
Atimuttaka  --perhaps  Hiptage madablota  (3)---- --------Ja.V, 422
Anoja -------------------Red flowered plant --- -----------Ja. I, 9
Apphota (creeper) ------------------------------------------ Ja.VI 336
Amba ---------------------Mangifera indica ----------------- Ja.II 393
Ambataka ------- Spondias mangifera -------------------Tha 466
Avaka -------------------Blyxa oryzetorum ----------Ja.III 522
Asana -------------------- Terminalia tomentosa ----- Ja.VI 535
Asi (a palm tree (3)----------------------------------------- Ja.VI 336
Asoka ------- -----------Sara asoka ------------------------- Ja VI 188
Assatha ----------- Ficus religiosa --------------------------- Ja. V 328
Ahicchataka ----------- Mushroom ----------------------------- Ja. II, 95
Abhuji (a type of tree ) -------------------------------- Ja V,95
Amalka -------------- Emblica officinalis –------------Ja. IV , 363
Alu means tuberous  roots  ------------------ Ja.IV 371
Aluka – atubor ------------------------------------ Ap. 17
Asitika (Omiya name) – Entada scandens ----------M.I .81

Balance plant list from Earlier Buddhist Literature will be concluded  in the  next chapter
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References
1-Tipitaka I Buddhist canon, Encyclopaedia Britannica
2-Barbara Crandall, (2012) Gender and Religion 2nd edition, The Dark Side of Scripture ,  Bloomsbury Academic page 56-58 
3-Dhammika, S. (2015), Nature and the environment in early Buddhism, Buddha Dhamma mandala Society, Singapore  pages 1to  206
4- Jataka with Cemetery, ed. V. Fauseboll PTS 1877 -97 
5-Ap =Apadana edited Marry E. Litty  PTS Oxford 2000
6- M= Manjhima Nikaya editor V. Trenckner , R Chalmers London 1887-1902
7- Vin =Vinaya Paitaka , edi . H. Oldernberg PTS London 1879-83
8- Th =Theragata  edi. H. Oldenberg, Pischel 2nd edi , London  PTS London 1966


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
History of Botany from Pali/Maghadi literature, Applied Botany in India in Buddhist literature, Plant Science in early Indian Buddhist Literature
 HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter



Bhishma Kukreti

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2nd List of Plants mentioned in earliest Buddhist literature

Flora in Early Buddhist Literature (Pali Tipitaka) -2
Botany in Mahajanapada Era or Buddhist Literature (1425 to 323 B.C.E) – 2
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –48
-
By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc.
{(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)-
-
S. Dhammika offers us detailed list of plants mentioned in various early Buddhist literature in title ‘Nature and the environment in early Buddhism ( 3) including following Jataka information -
 
Pali Common Name Plant ---------Botanical name ---------Reference
Ja= Jataka tales  (4)
Vin= Vinaya Pitaka (7)
M.=Majjhima nakaya  (6)
Th= Theragata  (8)
Ap= Apadana  (5)
A=Anguttara (9)
Vv= Vimanavatthu  (10)
Indavarunikarukkha -------------- Citrulus colosynthis ------- Ja, 4.8
Indasla (tree) -------------------------------------------------------Ja,IV 92
Isika ---------------------------------Celosia cristata --------------Ap 16.193
Ucchu -------------------------------- Sugarcane ---------------- Vin.III 59
Udumbara ------------------------ Ficus glomerata ------------ A IV 283
Uddala ----------------------------- Sterculia vilosa ------------ Ja, IV 301
Upparibhandaka -   a tree ----------------------------------------- Ja, VI 269
Udaropa --------------------- a tree ---------------------------------- Ja , II 345
Uppala ------------------------ Nymphea stellate ------------------ Vv, 45.5

 

1-Dhammika, S. (2015), Nature and the environment in early Buddhism, Buddha Dhamma mandala Society, Singapore pages 1to 206
4- Jataka with Cemetery, ed. V. Fauseboll PTS 1877 -97 
5-Ap =Apadana edited Marry E. Litty  PTS Oxford 2000
6- M= Manjhima Nikaya editor V. Trenckner , R Chalmers London 1887-1902
7- Vin =Vinaya Paitaka , edi . H. Oldernberg PTS London 1879-83
8- Th =Theragata  edi. H. Oldenberg, Pischel 2nd edi , London  PTS London 1966
9- A= Anguttara  Nikaya , ed. R. Moris , E Hardy PTS London 1885 -90
10 Vv = Vimanavatthu , ed. N.a jayvikarama , PTS Oxford , 1977

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2020 
History of Botany from Pali/Maghadi literature, Applied Botany in India in Buddhist literature, Plant Science in early Indian Buddhist Literature
 HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter




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Geography and Regions  descriptions in Kashyap Samhita: Indicative Factors for Medical Tourism

Indicating Factors of Medical Tourism in Kashyap Samhita -3
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Nagavansha Period (176-340 A.D.) – 10
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 128 
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Bhishma Kukreti
(Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  Historians least paid attention on History of Medical tourism in India. As such,  medical tourism is a new subject for  this industrial. Therefore, for writing history of medical tourism , historians  need to find or search the indicating factors of medical tourism in any period or literature.
 Kashyap Samhita do not mention who travels for medical aid nor we have any historical records. However, Kashyap Samhita offers us ample of factors those indicate that there was well developed medical tourism in Kashyap creating period.
 First indicating factor is emergence of Kashyap sage as father of children illness and cure .
As Kashyap first for initiating for children illness cure, definitely not only parents of ill children from far way started visiting Kashyap and his disciples but  foreign scholars would have dropped Kashyapa and other experts of Paediatric science (disciples of Kashyap)  for getting new knowledge .
 Kashyap Samhita illustrating geography
  Kashyap Samhita illustrates Geography and the characteristics of people of different places the strong indicators of travels and medical tourism.
  Kashyap Samhita mentions following countries (1)-
Kurukshaetra , Kuru, Naimisaranya, Panchal, Manichar, Kaushal, Haritpada,
Shursena, Char, Matsya Dsharna , Shishiradri, Sarswat, Sindhu, Sauver, Vipad or Vyasa, Kashmir, China, Upper China, Khas, Vwahik, Dasrek, Shat Sar, Raman etc (kalpa Bhojan Kalp 41-43 )
  There are mentions of following different castes (Class as per family tree) in Kashyap Samhita (1) –
Sut, Maghad , Ven, Pukkas Prachyak, Chandal, Mushtik etc
  -
Medicines or Food Suitability as per geographical regions 
Kashyap had knowledge of characteristics and body suitability for medicines of  few  geographical regions and that means that  Kashyap  was a travelling physician too .
  Kashyap mentions in Kashyap Samhita that sour and spice (teekshna) medicines (dravya) for the people belonging to Kashi, Pundru, Ag, Kavaga,    kach, Anupak (Konkan) Kaushal regions (1). 
 Same way, Kashyap mention sin Kashyap Samhita that soft /normal medicines were suitable for   people of  Narmada, Kalinga, Pattvasin, south   regions (1).
The above description in Kashyap Samhita was possible only when physicians were travelling, curing,  getting knowledge of new medicines and properties  of regional specialities  and exchanging all knowledge to other knowledgeable  too. The above is sure that there was tour by ill people to doctors or medical centres and medical experts visiting to various regions for curing people and getting newer medical knowledge too.
 Strong Indicators of medical tourism in Kashyap Samhita
 

References
1-Vidyalankar Atrideva,   Ayurveda ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras, (1960) pages -0, page 206
Medical Tourism Indicating factors in Kashyapa Samhita will be continued
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