Author Topic: History of Plant Science , History of Botany , Botanical Researches In India  (Read 6687 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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In This Topic Bhishma Kukreti will write Historical recorded Research works on Botany, Plant Science  in India from stone age till date . Bhishma Kukreti will deal the historical aspects of Botany and its branches as -
History aspects of Taxonomy
History of Economic Botany /Plants
Physiology
Plants used in medicines or Medical Plants Historical records
Agriculture and Botany
Botanical or Plant genetics
Embryology
Plant Anatomy
Plant diseases -Historical details
Algea
Phycology



Bhishma Kukreti

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 Reasons for writing History of BOTANY in India

HISTORY of BOTANY in India -1
By: Bhishma Kukreti  (Medical Tourism History Researcher)
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 After passing first year B.Sc. from Meerut University, we three students Myself , , D,S. Bisht  and S.S. Suri from Shri Guru Ram  Rai College Dehradun decided  for passing  B.Sc. (honours) degree from Meerut University. We filled the form and got permission by visiting the University office at Meerut. We were first batch for deciding getting Honours degree in Botany.
  We got information that the syllabus for Botany honours was History of Botany in India. The history of Botany syllabus comprised mainly Ayurveda researches etc. We there found here and there the book on History of Botany in India but failed to find such book.
I found a book on Ayurveda and studied some materials from Arya Samaj Liberary Dehradun and some materials from Khusiram Library (mainly Botanical names of drugs and respective Samhita). Nothing was available in SGRR College library.  Later on I found that nothing was available (History of Botany) in India too.   I could get B.Sc. (Honours) degree and by my colleagues failed due to not getting required literature.
 Later on, when I was writing History of Medical Tourism in Uttarakhand I was again searching History of Botany as History of plant science has relationship with medical history too. I did not get much literature .I requested Dr R. D. Gaur (ex HD Botany Garhwal University and famous for ‘Flora of Garhwal) for offering the help. He asked for referring a book compiled by foreign writer but starting History of Botany from 14th or sixteenth century.
   For filling the vacuum, I decided for writing history of Botany and hope I shall do justice with students, researchers and with Botany.
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Knowledge of Plant Science by early Human Beings or before  Foraging eras

HISTORY of BOTANY in India chapter -2

By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism History Researcher)
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Cynthia Stokes Brown (1) rightly states that before agriculture was invented, the early humans were hunter and foragers. They gathered food from natural environment. Earlier species of Homo genus - Homo sapience had knowledge of plant science for food, shelters, medicines, transportation tools and other tools. Hunting and plant or plant parts remained a way of life for 7lakhs years to 2 lakhs years ago
     Lakhs of Experiments and lakhs of Death before agriculture came in Existence
   It is better to  make  presumption for knowing the plant knowledge  gathered by early humans.
        Dependence of Animal Instinct
Initially till human got proper experiences and language for communication, the humans might have relied on natural instincts .Early Homo sapiens or earlier species of Homo genus might have identified plants as normal vegetarian animals do today. This identifying instinct might have been in nature or god gifted.  There might be animal instinct in early human beings identifying poisonous or non-poisonous plants by smell, sight or other means. The humans might have done thousands of experiences for knowing about uses of plants and uses of parts of plants. Sight might have helped for knowing the size and uses but tasting food would be at later stages. In experimenting tasting or touching different plants might have killed thousands of human beings.
  Slowly humans got knowledge of plants their uses, plant parts useful for food, shelters, medicines, transport or career etc.
  By instinct or experimenting, humans might have used pla parts for resting etc too

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References
Cynthia Stokes Brown ,

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bjkukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India , June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in India will be continued in next chapter
Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Knowledge of Plant science in Foraging Era , History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia;









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Botany Knowledge by Palaeolithic Men in Indian Subcontinent

HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent, Chapter -3

By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism History Researcher)
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  Historians call Palaeolithic era as Old Stone Age aging from   3.3 million to 11650 cal. BP. The humans started living in groups.
 The Old Stone Men used stone tools and avoided forests. The Palaeolithic men of India are also called Quartize Men
  In India, following sites re said to be Palaeolithic Sites (1) –
Madurai, Tanjore,Kadur, Nyamti, Taliya, Gunture, Godavari, Cuddapah and Bellary districts of South India . The Palaeolithic remains are  found in Andhra, Telangana, Gujarat, Rewa and Bundelkhand (UP), Jharkhand, Karnataka  Bengal, Bihar Orissa  too (2).
  Eating Habits of Palaeolithic Men in India
  Indian Palaeolithic Men ate used stone tools as axes, spears, digging tools, circular stones, hurling choppers, knives, scrappers, hammers etc. (2) .
  Human beings had knowledge of plants those were useful for food and shelter and human had knowledge of wood , branches, leaves, roots , twigs and their various uses for  food, shelter, medicinal uses , poisons, sleeping medium , career medium , rituals, ceremonies etc. Indian Palaeolithic Men also used hard wood for tools as clubs sharp edged spheres (2)
  The paintings were discovered from Singanpur, Raigarh Madhya Pradesh suggest that Those Men uses Bamboo brushes for drawing paintings. The red pigments snuggest those Men were having knowledge of plant physiology (making paint from plant organs) . Palaolitic Men of Indi knew fire uses and were Negrito Race .
 It is right to state that basic Botany started with close association with applied Botany in Palaeolithic Period. (3).  Hunting men had knowledge of Botany and Animal science for their survival and protecting next generation. By that time language was coined for conveying knowledge to others (orally). Botany started first from classification of plants and naming them and classification of plant parts in connection with their uses.

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References
1-Mahajan , V.D. 1998, Ancient India , S Chand & Company Delhi, pp 36
2- Mahajan , V.D. 1998, Ancient India , S Chand & Company Delhi, pp 37
3- Bir Bahdur et all (edited) ,2015, Plant Biology and Biotechnology : vol.1 Plant diversity , Springer New Delhi page 3
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bjkukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Myanmar; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Afghanistan; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Bangladesh; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Bhutan;  Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Nepal; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Baluchistan; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Sri Lanka ; Botany knowledge in Palaeolithic  Period ,History of Botany of Maldives. 










Bhishma Kukreti

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Knowledge of Indian Palaeolithic men for Plants and Plant Science

Botany Knowledge by Palaeolithic Men in Indian Subcontinent -2
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent, Chapter -4

By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism History Researcher)

 The historian claim that Palaeolithic Era in Indian subcontinent was from 250000 to 10000 BC. (1)
  The Indian Palaeolithic Men started making smaller stone tools as those left hunting big animals as elephants and started killing speedy but smaller animals as rabbits, deer, turtles boars. The Indian Palaeolithic men were nomadic but used to build shelter near rock and definitely roofs were of plants and started gathering honey, fruits, leaves, roots etc.
   The Palaeolithic Indians started gathering and storing honey, fruits, roots, twigs etc.and started making hut roofs by plant/tree parts. That means those men started having knowledge about the strength of twigs of different trees/plants/grass. They used to build hut roof  by  roof for shelter or for wind breaking, that means they got knowledge of strength and weakness of many plants and their organs/parts . 
The botanical and zoological knowledge helped human beings in advancement of many tools and hut making fashion or living in society. The Palaeolithic Men knew the properties of plant parts, fruits,  roots which they could store them accordingly. Honey knowledge show that Palaeolithic men were  knowing the properties of various flowers too.
The invention of grinding tools in this Era suggest that Palaeolithic Men knew the properties of seeds, roots, plant parts  etc. very well.
Robin Dennell states that the plants shrubs of families Euphorbiaceae and Chenopodiaceae ,  and evergreen grasses (in Afghanistan) , and grasses of warm climates were common in India in Palaeolithic Era. (3)
 Definitely, the Indian Palaeolithic men also used herbs for medical uses. J.J Pursell rightly states about Palaeolithic period across the world “The first medicinal drugs were in the form of herbs, plants, roots, flowers, leaves, and fungi. The archaeologists have uncovered evidence including symbolic depictions and fossilized sediments of  plants depicted which suggest that medicinal herbs were used in Palaeolithic Era, some 60000 years ago”(2).
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References –
1-Singh Upendra, 2008, A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From stone Age to 2th Century Pearson Longman page  67-68
2-Pursell J.J., 2015, The Herbal Apothecary: 100 medicinal herbs and how to use them, Timber Press page 20
3-Dennell, Robin , 2009 , The Palaeolithic Settlement of Asia , Cambridge University  Press , Page 56, 57
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bjkukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter


Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic Era, History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Botany knowledge by Humans in Palaeolithic  Era, History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia;















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History of Botany in Neolithic Age in Indian Subcontinent -1
(Characteristics of Neolithic Age of Indian Subcontinent)
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent -6

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. (Botany) (Medical Tourism History Researcher)
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  Neolithic age means the new Stone Age or Agriculture Revolution Period in Indian Subcontinent.
No doubt, Neolithic age started around 10000 BC but it started in India around 7000 BC.
Indus Valley civilization is part or flourishing result of Neolithic age.
        Geographical Sites of Neo Lithic Age in India
 The following sites are important sites of Neolithic Period in India –
Mehargarh in Pakistan
Gufcral (Kashmir Region)
Burzahom  (Kashmir Region)
Chirand in Bihar
Mahgaro in Uttar Pradesh
Chopani Mando in Uttar Pradesh
Char Hills in North East region
Gharo Hills in North East region
Naga Hills in North East region
Kodekal and Piyampalli in Tamil Nadu
Palavoy in Andhra Pradesh
Maski and Brahmgiri in Karnataka
  From Food gatherer to food producers –The people became farmers in this period. The exchange of goods also became common practice in Neolithic Age in India. Food production brought prosperity and people also found time for creating potteries, baskets, carpentry and other creative works too.
The domestication of plants and animals became a culture in Neolithic Period.
The main characteristics of Neolithic age in India were-
Human beings living in communities
Farming practices
Food and other materials trade or exchanges of goods started
People started living near  water sources as river or lake or pond banks.
The tools also changes in this period for farming and other house hold uses .The houses were built by bamboo, roofs were made by grasses or leaves and were of rectangular shape. The walls were being built by stones or by bricks too.
The Neolithic people believed in life after death hence, they buried food and other materials with dead bodies.
 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bjkukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Neolithic Age in India and History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;















Bhishma Kukreti

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Plant Domestication, Introduction-cultivation and Plant Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India

(History of Botany in Neolithic Age in India -2)
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent -7

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honors in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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 There are two types of cultivars in Neolithic age (1)-
1-Primary crop origin –cultivation started from wild progenitors local to regions .The social process in primary plant origin is –
A-Pristine –cultivation initiated by hunter gatherers only in contact with hunter gatherers.
  B-Inspired – cultivation started by hunter gatherers in contact with food producers.
C-Additive-cultivation started by farmers possessing other crops
2- Secondary crop origin- crop introduced not from local progenitors.(1)
The social process is as under in secondary crop origin type (1)-
A-Migration – immigrants farmers carry crops/livestock  to other regions (demic diffusion)
B- Adoption  -  crops or livestock obtained from other region through trade with minimal immigration (cultural diffusion) .

           In a significant research paper, Dorian Q Fuller (1) states that the research shows that crop cultivation may have begun in as many five regions (South India, Orissa, the middle Ganges, Saurashtra and Himalayan Foothills) of India before the introduction of exogenous crops and cultivation system. Fuller offers arguments for local ways of domestication in the above five regions of India (1).
                  Early Crops in South India
  The archeobotanical evidences show that there were following crops dominated the southern region in Neolithic India (2) –
A-Pulses
Mungbean (Vigna radiata)
Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum)
B-Grains
Signal grass millet (Brachiaria ramosa)
 Bristly Foxtail Millet (Setaria verticillata)
       Grain based agriculture in Neolithic age in Jhusi of Gnaga Plains
  Pokharia , Pal and Shrivastava offered us the evidences of following food items from Neolithic Jhusi (Allahabd , UP)  (3) those indicate that following plants either were domesticated or cultivated in North India  from 7th millennium to BC 2nd century -
Cereals
Rice (Oryza sativa )
Barely (Hordeum vulgare )
Bread Wheat( Triticum aestivum )
Drwarf Wheat (Triticum sphaerococcum )
Pulses
Lentil (Lens culnaris )
Field Pea( Pisum arvense )
Green Gram (Vigna radiata)
Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus )
Horse Gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum )
Oil yielding plants
Flex (Linum usitatissimum)
Sesame (Sesamum indicum )
Horticulture plants
Grape (Vitis venifera )
Amwala( Emblica officinalis) 
Vetch (Vicia sativa )
Job’s Tear (Coix lachrymal-jobi)
Season for agriculture, sowing cropping of edible grains etc. in Jhusi (UP) in Neolithic Age
              Pokharia et all (3) informed the sowing and cropping period in Neolithic age of Jhusi (UP). The research paper states that the rice, horse gram and green gram were grown in warm rainy season. The winter growing crops were barley, bread wheat, dwarf wheat, field peas, lentil, grass pea and linseed. Grape was winter growing fruit crop. If those cereals etc. were not the origin of UP the theory is that the area was culturally connected with the original home of winter crop right from the early Neolithic culture (3).
 


           Rice domestication cultivation in North India
 Dr Fuller states about domestication of rice in north India (1) that there are evidences of orgin cultivation of ancestral indica rice. Fuller further mentions that the full morphological sense was not completed until domesticated Japonica varieties were introduced to North India from China allowing hybridization.




 
  Domestication and introduction of Plants in Orissa in Neolithic Age
As per Fuller (1), the following crops were either domesticated or cultivated by bringing seeds /knowledge from other regions-
The rice had been dominating crops in Neolithic age in Orissa region (1). The following domesticate pulses-
Cajanus cajan
Macrotyloma uniflorum (introduced one)
Vigna radiata
Vigna mungo
Perhaps Pancicum sumatrense was also domesticated or introduced and cultivate, domesticated (1). Fuller (1) suggests that the agriculture and sedentism(transition)  were established in Orissa around mid-second millennium BC .
Domestication and introduction of Plants in Saurashtra in Neolithic Age
 Fuller informs that the evidence of early agriculture /cultivation, domestication in Suarshtra Gujrat  are from Harappa period (1).
   The following grains were domesticated /introduced and cultivated in Saurashtra pensile (1) –
Panicum sumatrense
Vigna species
Macrotyloma
Pearl millet
Sorghum
Lablab purpureus
Plant Domestication, Introduction-cultivation and Plant Knowledge in Neolithic Age in Baluchistan India (Today part of Pakistan)
 Fuller states (1) that Mehrgarh site of Neolithic age is an important site for knowing domestication of plants in India. Scientists found evidence of early  agriculture based on nonindigenous crops as glume wheat, bread wheat, barely varieties and other livestock(1)
  By thorough research studies, Moulherat et all inform that cotton was domesticated first in Mehrgarh (Baluchistan , Pakistan) (4).
 
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References
1-Fuller Dorian Q, 2011, Finding Plant Domestication in Indian Subcontinent, Current Anthropology, Vol. 52 No. S4), The Origin of Agriculture New data New idea (October 2011)Pp347-367
2- Fuller Dorian Q, 2011, Finding Plant Domestication in Indian Subcontinent, Current Anthropology, Vol. 52 No. S4), The Origin of Agriculture New data New idea (October 2011) pp348
3-Pokharia Anil,Pal J.N., Shrivastava Alka, 2009, Plant macro remains from Neolithic Jhusi in Gnaga plain: Evidence for grain based agriculture, Current Science 97(4): 564-572, August 2009
4- Moulherat C., Tenberg M., et all, 2002, Five Evidence of Cotton at Mehrgarh ,Pakistan: Analysis of mineralised fiber from a copper bead , Journal of Archaeological Science VOl.29 Issue 12 December 2002 pages 1393-1401
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Domestication Knowledge in Neolithic Age in India ,History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;
















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Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture

History Botany Neolithic India – 3
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent -8

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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 In this chapter, it will be discussed how agriculture started and the causes of starting of agriculture will also be discussed.
           For understanding the knowledge gained by human beings of Neolithic age of India about plant science and applied plant science it is essential to understand the reasons for rising agriculture and how there was rise of agriculture. .
     Harris (1989) offers acceptable model /theory about hunting-gathering verses agriculture. Harris offers four stages of rising agriculture by human beings.
Wild Plant –Food Procurement Stage - In this first stage the hunter gatherers used to burn vegetation occasionally, they gather useful plants and fruits and protect them. In this stage there was reduction in human energy and this did not change environment drastically. The wild plant food procurement marks the departure of scavenging strategies (Harlan 1995).
   Wild Plant Food Production Stage - This second stage is important stage towards agriculture. In the   wild plant food –production stage, the human beings carried out maintaining the wild plant population and carried out both planting and sowing of wild plants also weeding. Seeds from selective plants from decided or desirable characteristics were propagated at new habitats.  Some seeds were stored after harvesting for future uses.
 Cultivation with systematic tillage- In this stage the land is cleared and the food producing activities of second stage were intensified. Definitely by that stage, the composition and structure of vegetation were significantly transformed.
Agriculture (fourth stage) – this stage was energy intensified stage.   
 Olsson (2001) offers the four reasons for starting of agriculture –
Environment changes
Population pressure
Cultural influences
External factors as evolution and learning.

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References
1-Harris D.R. (1989).An evolutionary continuum of people –plant interaction. In Harris D.R. and C.C. Hillman (Eds) Foraging and Farming :The evolution of Plant Exploitation London. pp 11-26 Unwin Hyman 
2-Harlan J.R. 1995, The Living Fields: Our Agriculture Heritage Cambridge University Press.
Olsson Ola  (2001) The Rise of Agriculture  Working paper in economic 57 of Department of Economic, Goteborg University (September 2001)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bjkukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Conceptualizing theory of rise of Agriculture ,History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;















Bhishma Kukreti

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Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period

History Botany Neolithic India – 4
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent -9
By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honors in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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   Since, writing culture was not there in Neolithic age anywhere in the world, it is not possible to know the exact story of plant domestication. However, we can imagine that the Mesolithic or earlier age human beings had following knowledge about plant science and applied plant science.
1-Knowledge of difference between plant and animal food (calories and labour) – As already discussed in Mesolithic age chapter that human beings had knowledge of calorie differences between animal food and plant food and too the difference  between animal food gathering and plants food in context  labour requirement for animal food gathering and using plants for food and medical uses. Early human beings also got knowledge about the difference between risk factors in animal food gathering and plant food gathering or cultivated plant food.
2- Neolithic, Mesolithic and early age human beings faced the population growth problem (that is low standard of living due to population increase ) and human beings calculated /analysed by experiences that plant food was better alternate than animal food for satisfying population growth and initially plant food gathering was easier than animal food gathering. As Morand conclude by various archaeological findings that population pressure and climate stress were probably the cause of shifting to agriculture or crop or plant domestication and cultivation (1).  That means that early human beings of early stone age , mid stone age and Neolithic Age were able to judge the value of plant food beneficial in new climate.
3-Risk Calculation – The early human beings of Stone Age including Neolithic Age calculated smartly the risk factors of animal hunting verses the food obtained by plants (collecting wild plant grains) and then getting the knowledge of plant domestication. 
 Plant Embryology Knowledge –Human beings of earlier Neolithic age and even in Neolithic age acquired knowledge of plant embryology, seedling etc. and all different stages of life cycle verses in each season. Human beings already got some or full knowledge of seeds germination at different seasons or climates and had knowledge of land suitable for some desired plants for cultivation.
 Human beings had knowledge of reproduction system of selected plants and their reproduction system against seasons .
Human beings of earlier ages had knowledge of seed dispersal techniques and later on choose plant for domestication those had seeds of low intense dispersal system.
Human beings of earlier Ages and humans of Neolithic age had knowledge of food values and uses of all parts of desired plants.
Human beings of early age or Neolithic age were having knowledge of food processing of desired plants/seeds too.
Human beings had already knowledge of storing/stocking system of each plant seeds those that humans wanted to domesticate.
   Human beings of Neolithic Age and earlier age were having knowledge of food value of seeds and cooking (roasting or other ways of cooking) of seeds of various plants.
Human beings had knowledge of animals those were harmful to plants which human beings wanted to domesticate from wild situation. Neolithic Age Human beings already had the knowledge of plant protection from various animals.
Selection of plants for domestication was already attained by human beings before Plant Domestication started.
  The human beings of earlier age already gained rough knowledge of sowing methods ; water needs for germination, water needs for plant growth and soil , ripening time and season requirement for  all stages of plan growth etc. 
Human beings of Neolithic Age those domesticated plants had knowledge of tools requirements for plant germination, food processing and cooking etc. Definitely all those knowledge were being transferred through oral communication.
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References
1-Morand O.F.  (2001 ) Population, technology and growth, memco
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bjkukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Science and Applied Science Knowledge in Neolithic period , History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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                        Metal Age in India

HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent -10

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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  Metal Age followed the Neolithic Age or Stone Age. There was transition between metal age and stone as acquiring speed of Metal uses by human beings was slow and stone tools and metal tools existed simultaneously.  Even today, stone tools are in use in many regions. There are differences in uses of metals in different parts of India (1). In North India , human beings used copper replaced stone as new medium for producing ordinary materials as axes, swords, spear heads and other materials. Bronze and iron were introduced fter lapses of centuries all over world including India.
That is  clear reason that there is distinction between Copper Age and Iron Age in North India .However, in South , Iron age replaced stone Age .(1)
 It is said that Neolithic Age was from 10000- 5000 BC and copper age probably started by 4000 BC. The copper Age tools found are of 2000 BC. (1)
 Iron Age goes back to 1800 -1000 BC in India (2)
Metal uses revolutionized human civilization including agriculture and horticulture and writing  started because of metal.
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References
1-Mahajan V.D. 1998, Ancient India Page 39-40 , S Chand and Company Delhi
 2- Tewari Rakesh , 2003, The origin of Iron working in India Archaeology online

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bjkukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, June 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Metal Age and History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Metal Age and History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Metal Age and History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Metal Age and History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;



 

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