Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 240213 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Police arresting Nagendra Saklani

History of Tehri King Manvendra Shah-6
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 293   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1539
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
Nagendra Saklani was born in Saklana in a Brahmin family. After basic schooling, Nagendra went to Dehradun where he passed High School. Nagendra Saklani came in contact with communist workers and he became a devoted communist worker. He played an important role in  famer movement too.
In the 1946 provincial election of British Garhwal, Nagendra Saklani went to British Garhwal and worked for Communist candidate Chandra Singh Garhwali against Congress Candidate.  He was a very good speaker and had an attractive voice to attract people’s attention. Nagendra was an energetic, non-tiring and enthusiastic worker.
   Nagendra was  with Dada Daulatram in Dang Choura for farmer agitation against the government . Police could not catch Nagendra along with Daulatram. Police arrested Nagendra Saklani on 24th November 1946 from Dang Choura. He was put on an iron chain. Police brought chained Nagendra   Saklani to Muni ki Reti and then to Narendra Nagar. He was insulted by police and police provided putrefied breads. Police did not provide sufficient quality of bread or food. Nagendra Threatened for hunger strike. The matter was brought before the King and the king allowed him 6 rotis per meal.  (2)
Police torture Nagendra as much that could. He was not supplied blankets and was deprived of sufficient water on a daily basis. Nagendra used to do hard physical exercises to keep his body warm. (2)
Hearing in Court against Nagendra started from 25th December 1946.
References -
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi, 26th January 1956 , letter by Nagendra Saklani 4th December 1946
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Support to Reforms Activists  in Tehri by Sanyukta Raksha Samiti

History of Tehri King Manvendra Shah-7
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 294   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1540
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  The Tehri administration broke the assurance provided to Prajamandal Members and started harassing the activists and started punishing them. Annoyed by the breaking the assurance by Tehri administration, the elites of British Garhwal inspired by editor board of Karmabhumi, held a meeting. The said Meeting led by Colonel Pitrisharan Raturi was held from 5-6th January 1947 in Kotdwra. The Congress committee, Tehri Prajamandal Rasjriya Sena (INA members) attended the meeting. The speakers put light on various suppressions by Tehri Kingdom.
The meeting passed a resolution and put following demands (for Tehri Administration) (2) –
1-Tehri Kingdom should release political activist immediately from jail.
2-Tehri Government should clear about Paripurna Nand Painyuli
3-Tehri Government should abide the accord with Prajamandal and should remove all hurdles of the activities of Prajamandal.
The Tehri court would be informed if the court did not follow above points, Prajamandal will start peaceful movement in  the Kingdom.
 In Meeting, it was also decided to create a Suman Smriti Trust (Memorable Trust) and should collect at least Rs. Ten thousand.
The following Committee was founded for dealing with the Tehri administration-
President – Colonel Pitrisharan Raturi
Members- Master Ramswarup of Prajamandal
Bhakta Darshan (Karmabhumi editor)
 From the side of Sanyukta Raksha Samiti, Bhakta Darshan, Pitrisharan Raturi Master Ramswarup, Prem Lal Vaidya reached Tehri on 12th January 1947 and met the Chief Justice of High court, session Judge and additional District Magistrate there. The committee members appealed all those authorities for immediate release of political activists and to offer the comforts to them in jail.  The committee members also met the Chief Minister and other authorities.
   The authorities clearly informed that out sider lawyers were not authorised to fight the case of Tehri Citizens.  The Committee handed over the job of fighting the cases of activists to local lawyers – Virendra Saklani and Devi Prasad Ghildiyal.
  Bothe above lawyers met the activist in jail on 13th January 1947 and found that the activists were getting lesser facilities than C grade of the country.
 Court Punishment to the activists-
 The court announced the jail and  capital punishment to  Painyuli, Dada Daulatram, Nagendra Saklani, Teekaram Shastri, Mehtab Singh and Autar Singh (1ll together 31 ) .
References -
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi, 8th January 1947,
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Hunger Strike by Political Prisoners

History of Tehri King Manvendra Shah-8
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 295   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1541
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
   Tehri administration did not recognize the volatile situation and continued oppressive methods for suppressing the political activists in jail and outside jail. 
Tehri administration cancelled the registration of lawyer those sympathizing to the Prajamandal as Pitambar Bahuguna (2)
 Government banned activities of Prajamandal as procession, promotion, publicity, morning prayers (Prabhat feri) in community. There were instructions to Padhan, Thokdar and government officials not to support Prajamandal activists.(3).
  In jail, authorities provided dirty blankets and used dresses to the prisoners. The food was junk food for prisoners. There were no facilities for political activists in jail to write letters for their relatives or friends. There were no medicines in jail hospitals for the prisoners(3).
  Hunger Strike by Dada Daulatram and Nagendra Saklani –
Nagendra Saklani, Dada Daulatram and other prisoners in their jail started a hunger strike from 10th February demanding reform actions and changes in land settlement procedures  .
 Various political parties and organizations passed resolutions in support of the Political activists of Tehri jail.
 On 21st    February 1947,  the Prince ordered freeing 27 political activists (6)
 Famine- There was a famine in Kirti Nagar region.  Government did not arrange sufficient supply of grains in that region (1).
A man-eater became active in Lasya, Badiyargarh, Nailcahmi, Bhardar, Kadakot  Pattis  where that man-eater killed 13 people. Government did not take any action to kill that man eater.
References -
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi, 26 January 1956,
3-  ---ibid-
4- --ibid
5- -- ibid
6- Bhakta Darshan , Suman Srmriti Grantha p 258 59
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Maintenance of Public Order Act  of Tehri State

History of Tehri King Manvendra Shah-9
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 296   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1542
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 By April 1947, it was clear that India would be free from British rule. However, the king and his well-wishers had an opinion that in changed situation, Tehri would sustain its sovereignty.
On 28th April 1947, Tehri Kingdom announced a regulation called Maintenance of Public Order Act.
By Maintenance of Public Order Act 1947, the Kingdom passed following regulations –
The servants of the Tehri State or Tiri Court could arrest the person who was suspected as a traitor or could break the peace.  The government servant could stop the movement of suspected traitors.
By the above act, the government banned public meetings, grouping of five or more people, political camping, strikes by government servants, shopkeepers etc. .  Government banned putting flags and badges. The punishments were the capital punishment and or prison for the accused. Government banned photos, paintings of national leaders, tricolour flags, and tricolour badges.
 References -
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 106
2- Tehri Garhwal State Maintenance of Public Order Act,  p 1
3- Tehri Garhwal State Maintenance of Public Order Act,  p2-3
4-Tehri Garhwal State Maintenance of Public Order Act,  p 5
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Conference of Prajamandal

History of Tehri King Manvendra Shah-10
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 297   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1543
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 There was a very good effect of Prajamandal on the people by the government releasing the political activists, The Prajamandal called its annual conference in Tehri on 26 -27May 1947. Government announced article 144 in Tehri. Even then hundreds of people gathered to attend the conference. Desi Rajya Secretary Jay Narayan Vyas, Mohan Lal Saksena, M.L.A, Dr. Kushla Nand Gairola M.L.A. and Banarasi das M.L.A attended the conference and delivered effective –attractive speeches.  The conference passed a resolution for the accountable administration in the Tehri Kingdom. . The conference elected Paripurna Nand Painyuli as its president of Prajamandal and Dada Daulatram as its secretary.
 Master Ramswarup forecasted that Tehri will be under Delhi rule (free India)  and not under Tehri King.  (2) 
 References -
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 106
2- Maintenance of Public Order act p 7         
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Bhishma Kukreti

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India got Freedom  and Merging of Tehri into Republic of India

History of Tehri King Manvendra Shah-11
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 298   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1544
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Britain Prime Minister announced in British parliament on 20 February that Britain would free India and would hand over the rule to Indians by June 1948.  However, British parliament cleared that It could not hand over the rules of princely states to one party. Indian leadership especially Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel and K Menon persuaded the sate Kings to merge their states into sovereign India. Barring Junagarh, Hyderabad and Kashmir all the 562 princely states signed on the merger accord.  Tehri  did not merge into Indian republic.
   Celebration of 15th August in Tehri-
  The Tehri People celebrated 15th august I with great rejoices n Tehri city too. 
Arrest of Paripurna Nand Painyuli- Paripurna Nand Painyuli
Tehri Administration arrested Paripurna Nand Painyuli on 15th August 1947 as till then Tehri King did not sign on merger paper.  The news became a fire in the city. Police arrested members of Prajamandal.  The people were much annoyed with the King.  Later on, the government took big penalties from the arrested activists and freed them. (2)
                   Azad Panchayat in many places in Tehri Kingdom
 Azad Panchayat in Saklana Tehri Garhwal-
The movement for merging Tehri into free India started from Sakalana Region.  Due to anti citizen actions  by the officials and state laws  , most of the Saklana people became rebellions.  The Muwafidar/Jagirdar/Chieftain of Saklana ended relation with Tehri King and declared Saklana as free region. Azad Panchayat was founded in Saklana.  Azad Panchayat pushed government servants out of the region. Azad Panchayat took the ruling into its hand. (3)
Azad Panchayat in Badiyargarh-  The news of Azad Panchayat  Saklana taking rules in hand  spread all over Tehri within no time.  People founded Azad Panchayat in Badiyargarh and government officials had to flee from the region. (3) . The freedom activists forcibly, took the arms from the defence force.
 Azad Panchayat in Kirti Nagar-
 The freedom activists  founded Azad Panchayat in Kirtinagar too. The rebelling activists grabbed tehsil and took the guns from police force and threw guns into Alaknanda River.  Communists party snet nagendra Saklani and Trepan Singh to Kirti Nagar and they reached Kirti Nagar on 9th January 1948.
 Nagendra Saklani blew laud speaker and started delivering speech. People gathered near Nagendra Saklani in Kirti Nagar.  The  deputy collector ran away from  Kirti Naga (3)r.
 On 11th January, SDO, Police Superintendent with force reached   to Kirti Nagar by Car of the king.  The activists tried to catch the officials.  Nagendra Saklani and others were at Tehsil.  The activists set fire the tehsil.  The soldiers  ran awaty towards Jungle and  Nagendra Saklani and Maulu Singh  followed them SDO  fired guns on Nagendra and Killed Nagendra and Maulu Singh 
People were in rage and women captured the soldiers with the help of sickles. People arrested Police force and kept the dead bodies of Nagendra Saklani and Maulu Singh open that gunfire signs were visible.   (3)
   It was decided that the dead bodies would be taken to the capital.   The next day, the procession with of dead bodies started at 10 Am. for Tehri. The procession reached by evening to Devprayag. The people were standing on both sides of the road to see procession and pay tribute to martyr.  On 13th may the procession started from Devprayag to Chandravadani and reached at Cahndravadani in evening.  (1). The people with procession rested in Chandravadani.
 On 14th the procession reached near their and the y rested there in night.
   On 15th Procession started with band of Dhol etc. The shopkeepers were providing food etc to the people.  The Azad Panchayat   Tehri members captured jail and freed prisoners and captured the authorities and put them n cell. (1)
The procession reached to Royal cremation place at the confluence of Bhagirathi and Bhilangana Rivers.  Chandra  Singh Garhwali put the fife on pyres. The mother of Nagendra Saklani was present. His brother reached next day. (1)
    Narendra Shah Coming to Tehri and returning Back-
Narendra Shah Narendra Nagar from Tehri on 14th January. Manvendra Singh was sent to Delhi by Narendra Shah. (1 p 115) .
 On 15th January, three was news that Narendra Shah was reaching to Their from Narendra Nagar with military force.  Therefore, Azad Panchayat locked the Narendra Nagar –Tehri bridge on Bhagirathi and put their members.   Narendra Shah had to return from there to Narendra Nagar.
  Capturing the palace-
The  activists captured the palace on 15th January evening. There was a meeting of the activists. Nathusingh Sajwan was appointed Chief of the Army staff.  Dada Daulatram kept 40-50  activists  outside the treasury to protect the treasury.
 Interference by Indian Governemnt –
 When there was meeting by the azad panchayt activists going on on 15th in Tehri, the police force of 100jawans led by police superintend reached to tehri .They had to broke lock of activist on the bridge. When they reached to Their, they told to Chandra Singh Garhwali and Daulatram that the police had come to take charge of Tehri. Police Superintendent took charge from   Chandra  Singh Garhwali and Daulatram on paper.  The enws was sent to nearby villages that the Indian government that is PS would have a meeting from the government side  next day.
Bhakta Darshan, Mahvir Tyagi, Narndra Shashtri also reached to Tehri on 16thJanury . . There was public meeting on 16th and was announced that Indian government took charge of Tehri.
Police superintendent announced –
1-United Province government was releasing all political prisoners.
2-The police were taking charge of all government assets and sending telegram to Delhi.
3-United government was pardoning al government penalties.
The police found Rs. 38thousands and jewellery in the treasury.
 The Tehri king Manvendra Shah and ex -King Narendra Shah did not act against United Province actions.
 Interim Government
Due to persuasion of Purna Nand Painyuli and accord with Manvendra Shah , the interim Government was established.  The Desi rajay department tof Indian Government also agreed  for  Interim Government till India takes action for Tehri..  The activists of Prajamandal were busy in making peace and tackling the action of anti Prajamandal or pro King . . The interim Governemnt wanted to take action for benefiting the people but The Kingdom officials created hurdles.
 The members of Interim Governemnt as Sundar lal Bahuguna, Trepan singh , Khushahl singh , Anand Warup Raturi  were very much enthusiastic fo taking works of benefiting the people.
   King Manvendra Shah on tour- King Manvendra Shah  started o tour of Tehri  from 3rd June 1948but he did not get enthusiastic response from the people and he cancelled his tour.
Budget by the Tehri Interim Government –
  There was election for Tehri assembly and 24 members of Prajamandal, 5 members of Praja Hitaishi and two independents were elected for the assembly. The nationalists as Painyuli also started to promote the theory of independent Tehri unit (1)
   The interim Government passed the following budget and allocated the following amount for different works for 1949-50-
Income in Rs.
Forest – 40, 00000
Miscellaneous Income – 32, 93526
Total – 71, 93526
Expenditure –
Education – 682000
Health – 280000
Local Self Government – 165000Public Works- 1885000
Defence law and order – 53000
Administration – 3646671
Total -6713671
Balance saving – 479855
Indian Government Merging Tehri into Republic
    By end of 1948, Indian Government took decision to merge Tehri into Indian Republic.  On 1st August the Kingdom was merged with Republic of India. The announcement was done in Narendra Nagar Assembly house . Interim Government members, Manvendra Shah and U.P. CM Govind Ballabh Pant  were present in assembly for the occasion.
 References -
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 108 – 123
2- Cambridge History of India, Vol.6, p 195-97
3- Karmabhumi, 26th January 1956
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