Author Topic: Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays गढ़वा  (Read 18102 times)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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In this topic the readers will find various factors and features of

 Garhwali Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays played in Pauri Garhwal, Tehri Garhwal, Chamoli Garhwal, Rudraprayag Garhwal, Dehradun Garhwal and Haridwar Garhwal

Bhishma Kukreti would take the subject of
 
Specific Characteristics and  features of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Places for Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Dialogues in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Stage structure for playing Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Raptures and Sentiments in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Acting or performances in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Jewel and Jewellery in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Dress and Make Up in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Animals in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Dance  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Analysis of Poetry in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Figure of speeches in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays
Symbols and Images in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays

M S Mehta

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            Defining Folk Dramas/plays in Context Garhwali, Himalayan Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part -1

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

               Garhwal is the region comprising Dehradun, Uttarkashi, Tehri Garhwal, Rudraprayag, Chamoli Garhwal and Pauri Garhwal, Haridwar districts of Uttarakhand state of North India. The Garhwalis speak Garhwali language. The Garhwalis are scattered all over the world. Garhwal had very long and old history. Therefore there is long history of folk literature in Garhwali language.
                   Each region has its own folk dramas and has specific characteristics of folk dramas too. Garhwali language or Garhwali people have tradition of playing folk dramas from the time human societies came in Garhwal.
 Let us examine folk drama definitions.
                Bharat Muni the creator of Bharat Natya Shastram defines dram as visual poetry. He did not define folk drama separately. From Bharat Muni angle folk drama is visual poetry performed in folk actions.
      According to ancient Sanskrit drama specialist Acharya Abhinavgupt Pad Natya or drama is derived from Nat where the performers leave their own characteristics and acquire the characteristics of dram characters thus making it different ‘Rup or Form’.
              Bharat Muni insisted on creation of rapture in drama performance. Bharat definitely talked about urban drams and not folk dramas/plays.
 The Greek definition of drama is that a drama is a literary form involving parts written for actors to perform. 
  It is true that there is no definite definition of folk drama as such. Frederic Litto (1968) wrote that there does not exist a definite definition for folk drama/play.
            The radical thinker Steve Tillis defines folk drama as “Folk drama is theatrical performance within a frame work of ‘make-believe’ action shared by performers and audience, that is not fixed by authority but based on living tradition and displays lesser of greater variations in its repetition of this tradition; its performance enacted over time and space with practice of design, movement, speech and /or music ,engenders and /or enhances of communal identity among those who participate in its delivery and reception.”
 Since folk dramas/plays have tens of variants it is difficult to define folk drama/play.
 From this author angle, the Garhwali folk dramas/traditional plays are from rural Garhwal and when the common men or women leave their own characters and play performances for any act based on  either by their own created story or follow the traditional rules (specially in rituals and folk dances); and played in Garhwali language.
  In this write up the author will discusses various variants about folk plays/traditional drams of Garhwali language.
 This author will analyze the Garhwali folk dramas /traditional plays from the angle of Bharat’s Natya Shastra.


Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 26/9/2013
                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
Xx
Notes on Characteristics  and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Pauri Garhwal; Characteristics and definition Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Chamoli Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Rudraprayag Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Tehri Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Tehri Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Uttarkashi Garhwal; Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Dehradun Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Haridwar Garhwal; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Garhwal, Uttarakhand ; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Himalayan region; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from North Indian region; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from SAARC countries region; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from South Asian region; Characteristics and definition of Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas from Oriental region;

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            Role, Relevancy, significance of Garhwali Folk Drama/Traditional Play 

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part -2

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

                The social culture in Garhwal region has old history even before Stone Age and before Mahabharata.  Therefore it is no need for explaining that there is old legacy for folk play or traditional drama.
                Though, most of the time, the importance of Garhwali folk drama/traditional play has same importance that is relevant to all other regions too. 
 The traditional plays, community performances, folk dramas are a type of folk medium too.

           The Garhwali folk play /traditional drams fulfill the following objectives-
                         1Folk Plays /Traditional Dramas Conveyer or carriers of Culture

                  The folk dance or folk rituals and many other community drama performed by professional caste as Badi, Hudkya, Auji etc are the conveyer, transmitter, conductor of community culture. The folk dramas or community plays are one of the medium of preserving community culture. 

                             Folk Plays /Traditional Dramas as Folk Medium

                The traditional plays, community performances, folk dramas work as effective folk medium too. The traditional plays, community performances, folk dramas supply to stake holders ‘pictures of the world’.

                             Folk Plays /Traditional Dramas as Medium of Teaching

     Many traditional plays, community performances, folk dramas are sources of teaching to next generation or ignorant ones.
                              Folk Plays /Traditional Dramas for Self Learning Medium

                  The traditional plays, community performances, folk dramas are also foundation for self learning too.

                              Folk Plays /Traditional Dramas as Source of freeing from Tiredness 

                 The traditional plays, community performances, folk dramas play the role as healers, as the medium of liberating tiredness. Traditional drams also reduce the restlessness of a person or group.

                      Folk Plays /Traditional Dramas as Entertaining Medium 

             The traditional plays, community performances, folk dramas are the source of entertainment. The dramas/plays are medium of passing pleasure some time.

                      Folk Plays /Traditional Dramas for Bliss
 
            The creator of Natya Shashtra Bharat says that the drama should create rapture.  In many traditional plays, community performances, folk dramas the performers and audience try to get bliss.




Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 26/9/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…3

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India 
Xx
Notes on Role, Relevancy, Importance of Garhwali Folk Drama/Folk Play; Role, Relevancy, Importance of Garhwali Folk Drama/Folk Play of Garhwal; Role, Relevancy, Importance of Garhwali Folk Drama/Folk Play of Uttarakhand;  Role, Relevancy, Importance of Garhwali Folk Drama/Folk Play of Central Himalaya; Role, Relevancy, Importance of Garhwali Folk Drama/Folk Play of North India; Role, Relevancy, Importance of Garhwali Folk Drama/Folk Play of SAARC Countries ; Role, Relevancy, Importance of Garhwali Folk Drama/Folk Play of South Asia                 

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Classification or types of Garhwali Folk plays/Traditional Dramas


Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part -3

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

           Due to tens of folk plays, it is difficult to reach a classification of folk plays/traditional dramas that satisfies every folk literature experts.
            There are many bases for classifying the types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas.
             Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas could be divided though poetic structure
1-Poetic Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
2-Non Poetic Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
3- Prose-Poetic Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
 Learned folk literature scholar Dr. Data Ram Purohit classified the types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas as follows –
1-Pandav Lila Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
2-Bagdwali Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
3-Jat yatrayen or pilgrim tour Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
4-Mask Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas at specific occasions
5-Swang and games
6-Chivlary Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas by professional class
7-Radhakhandi Ras Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
8-Rituals Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
However, the above classification is incomplete

 Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas could also be divided as folk songs –dances divided by Rajasthan folk literature expert Devi Lal Samar
1-For self pleasure Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
2-Ritualistic or religious Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
3-Work oriented Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
4-Social Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
5-Entertaining Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas

  Classification /types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas by Bhishma Kukreti


   In the opinion of this author, Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas could be divided through following ways-
1-Religious Rituals, folk drams in festivals and special occasions including folk song-dance oriented Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
2-Non religious Folk Songs –dances oriented Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas
3- Non religious and non folk song-dance Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas performed by professional performers as Badi/Hudkya
4-Non religious, non folk dance-song oriented Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas performed by society members alone or in groups.
5-Specific Garhwali Folk Game oriented folk plays/traditional dramas
6-Misclenious Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas those do not come under above divisions

In the following chapters this author will discuss various types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas.





Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 29/9/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…4

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
Xx
Notes on Classification or types of Garhwali Folk plays/Traditional Dramas; Classification or types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas from Chamoli Garhwal; Classification or types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas from Rudraprayag Garhwal; Classification or types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas from Pauri Garhwal ; Classification or types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas from Tehri Garhwal; Classification or types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas from Uttarkashi Garhwal; Classification or types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas from Dehradun Garhwal; Classification or types of Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas from Haridwar Garhwal;

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                  Brief History of Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part -4

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

                        Prehistoric Music and Folk Drama in Himalaya

                  Human beings reached to Himalaya when man did not learn speaking. However, the human being started creating Drama in that preliminary age too. Those Dramas might be clapping, music by leave pipes or through many other means. 
           Watching other person pain or happiness would have also created Dramas among human beings.
         The signs or symbols for attracting opposite * might have created many Dramas in human societies. To calm down the children would have taught many Dramas to human beings.
  The first music of human beings was human being’s own voice. This voice might have created many Dramatic situation, today, beyond our imagination. Who knows that till date we are continuing creating those Dramas?
                    First Music of Human being as Drama medium

             The first Dramatic music of human beings was array sounds, coughing, whistling, yawning, humming etc.  The cry for pain and pleasure would have also been the Drama creating medium for early human beings.
Clapping. Clapping stones were initial musical instruments for human beings or medium of Dramas for human beings.
A 35000 years old flute made by vulture bone or bear bone flute etc found in archeological sites suggest that human beings developed Dramas in each stage of his development.
Dance is inherent in   human beings and dance would be first stage of Drama in the human life.

                          Stone Age and Human Dramas

           At Stone Age, the human being might have learnt and started teaching new generation to carry many cultural Dramas too. 
 The human beings invented stone flutes in Stone for creating Dramas.
Bow and arrow are other musical instruments of Stone Age that suggest development of Dramas in human civilization.
Animal horns were used for creating music by human beings in Stone Age.
Human beings also invented simplest version of deafner  in Stone Age.
The curved animal bones were used for making music in Stone Age.
             The human beings might have learnt various music creations from stone and wood instruments. The human beings might have played many unimaginable Dramas for domesticating the animals.      The fire would have been medium of playing Dramas for human beings not only at initial stage of using fire by human but still today fire is used in many folk Dramas all over world.
        Creating drawing on walls from Stone Age or before this Age was also base of initial Dramas. The wall drawings at Tal in Uttarakhand are proof that Dramas was there in Uttarakhand at Stone Age.
               Stone Age is also Age of hunting development and when there would be hunting development it is certain that Dramas would have developed or new types of Dramas would have merged among human societies.
                              Dramas/Plays in Mesolithic Age

  The human beings started to believe on new world after death in Mesolithic Age.  The people started keeping flint stones, meat, red or Geru color materials with dead bodies in burials in caves (Gufa me Samadh( . Imagination of Pitra or dead soul might have created many folk Dramas among human beings including human beings in Uttarakhand.
 The appliances in ruins forms of Mesolithic Age at Bahdarabad near Haridwar, Uttarakhand suggest that human beings started playing religious Dramas or ritualistic Dramas. 

 Agriculture Development in Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age


 When zootechy started there would have been always chances of new Dramas in the human history.
                   There are hundred percent chances that at the beginning of agriculture, human beings used to play indigenous old or new Dramas.
  In Neolithic Age, human beings started believing on deities etc and new types of Dramas would have certainly developed. 
 Ornamentation brought new types of Dramas in the life of human beings in Neolithic Age including humans in Uttarakhand.
                         The organized ways of war or battle and emerging of rich and poor classes definitely would have brought changes in old pattern of Dramas and new Dramas would have merged in human life.

 The emergence of fertility cult and phallic cult is another example for emerging of new types of Dramas in the life of human beings.

## Dramas in prehistoric time to be continued in part --5

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 30/9/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…5

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk Drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7=Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
Xx
Notes on History of Folk Dramas/Traditional Plays in Prehistoric Age in Uttarakhand; History of Folk Dramas/Traditional Plays in Stone Age in Uttarakhand; History of Folk Dramas/Traditional Plays in Mesolithic Age in Uttarakhand; History of Folk Dramas/Traditional Plays in Neolithic  Age in Uttarakhand;

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                   Brief History of Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas -2

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part -5

                                        Bhishma Kukreti
 

                          Brief about Prehistoric Dance by Human beings

          Dance, Music, poetic or prose dialogues, body language are parts of dramas or plays. Dance might be in simplest form started with human being come into this world.
 The earliest dance evidences are found from 8000-3000 BC. Gayle Kassing states that Prehistoric dance was very basic by using everyday movement. The themes of dance of prehistoric human beings were related to life challenges and these challenges were clearly visible even in Vedas. The dance themes of politics, social structures, and religions were interwoven.
The main themes of dance of primitive human beings were -
1-Fertility Theme- fertility of human beings, animals and plants
2-Life span – birth, marriage initiation or winning over woman, death or funeral
3-Winning war, battle, preparing hunt, gaining skill, death in any war or hunt etc
4-Healing dance or medical care dances
5-Suppernatural or religious or spiritual dances including imagination of god or ghost

              History of Dramas in Copper, Bronze and Iron Ages

           The Metal Age brought many changes in human culture.  Human societies stated building /creating commercial centers, houses and started creating cities. The Age also saw interactions among various societies and regions.  These developments brought many changes in dance, musical instruments, music, new knowledge and all these developmental changes also brought development in drama.  Commerce always brings a drama in selling negotiations and ultimately that drama is still used in drams played for pleasure.
               As far as culture of metal Age in Uttarakhand is concerned there are evidences that there was culture in all three Metal Ages.  Mahabharata describes or provide signs that there were many aspects of Dramas in Uttarakhand Copper, Bronze and Iron Ages.
              Kol Culture and religious Drama

            Majumdar and Pusalkar (Vedic Age) describe that Kol culture of India including before Indus culture is responsible for creating various superstition as ‘Dag (envious Eye), Dhag or Ghat, The drama rituals ‘Nakjhad’ was also created by Kol of Uttarakhand (Dr. Dabral). Dr Dabral states that worshipping rivers, rivulets, tress or plants; black magic etc are the creation of Kol culture (before Idus civilization) . later on, Vedas and Ayurveda took many  these superstitions as curing aspects.
  Kol and Dravid  also created vulture, bull,s mouse, dog , lion and many animals as deities and later Vedic culture made these animals as carrer of various deities. Disease and mental unrest cures by worshipping deities and chanting songs were started by Kol, Dravid cultures in India and Uttarakhand. Worshipping the dead soul (Hantya) where the dead soul acts as if the dead person is alive was started in Kol-Dravid . The Hnatya, Pitriprakop,, Bhut, Pret, Dakini, Chudail, Ghat, Dag , Doch, Jhada, tada culture (ritual dramas ) were started by Kols of Uttarakhand before 3000 years back.
  Bhumiya or village deity is also started by Kol, Dravid people.
  The animal sacrifice before deities where many dramas are still played was started by Kol, Dravid cultures.
 Kirat culture gave Rudra, Ghantakarn deity and that shows that there were tens of fok dramas in that age before 3000 years back.
 Khasa brought various dances, religious dramas to Uttarakhand.  The acts at various festivals and events were there.
  Kol, Dravid, Kirat and Khasa developed agriculture and social culture in Uttarakhand and definitely at that period, those cultures brought new dramas in prose and poetic forms. Agriculture brings always newer types of drams with the culture.

.
             





Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 1/10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…6

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7=Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach

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Informal Stage/Theatre Settings in Garhwali folk Plays/Traditional Dramas/Theaters 

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part -10

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

    Where the drama is played that becomes Stage for Drama!
 
         As far as stage for Garhwali folk plays /traditional plays/conventional theatres is concerned, there is not tendency of creating formal stage (Natya Manch) in Garhwali folk plays /traditional plays/conventional theatres. Where ever the play is played that place becomes stage for folk drama.   
                Usually, there were/are following informal stage for Garhwali folk plays /traditional plays/conventional theatres.
        Courtyard of Village Chief as Stage for Garhwali folk plays /traditional plays/conventional theatres

         In immediate past, there was accustom that professional drama/dance/song performing caste artists Badi used to play folk dramas in Chait month after every twelve year called Lang. Usually, plays  for whole Chait month by Badi used to played in village chief courtyard.
    There was /is custom to sing songs, dance and play folk drams in every Chait month by villagers and these dramas were /are played on the courtyard of village chief. This month is also called Geetun maina or month for songs.     

    Grazing Field as Stage for Garhwali folk plays /traditional plays/conventional theatres
   
  When the cattle teamsters used to play drams in Jungle or grazing field that place used to become stage.

 Individual home or courtyards as Stage for Garhwali folk plays /traditional plays/conventional theatres
            When there would be religious rituals the place where rituals are performed that place become stage for folk dramas.
  Resting place as Stage for Garhwali folk plays /traditional plays/conventional theatres
 In any type of travelling (for example Dhakar), the villagers used to play dramas or people used to sing and dance at resting places. That place becomes as for Stage for playing folk dramas.

                          Religious tour and stage for folk dramas
 There are many Jatras /religious tour performed in Garhwal by villagers. Various types of religious dramas are played in tour. Wherever the religious or sometimes secular drama is performed the place becomes stage for such folk plays or theaters.

        Fairs/folk games and Festival places as Stage for Garhwali folk plays /traditional plays/conventional theatres
 There are fairs /folk games and festivals in Garhwal where various religious or secular dramas are performed. Those places become automatically the stage for folk dramas.

            Various social Events for Garhwali folk plays /traditional plays/conventional theatres
                People play or perform dramas in various social events. Places of those events become the stages for folk dramas.

 Therefore, it is true that Garhwali folk plays/ traditional dramas or theatres are not having definite set of planning for stage but stages are set as per time, class and place. Wherever the folk dramas are played that become stage for traditional theatre. Or it may be said that informal stage setting is found in Garhwali folk plays/traditional dramas/customary theatres.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 3/10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7=Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani , Kotdwara
Xx
Notes on Stage/Theatre Settings in Garhwali folk Plays/Traditional Dramas/Theaters; Stage/Theatre Settings in Garhwali folk Plays/Traditional Dramas/Theaters in Garhwal; Stage/Theatre Settings in Garhwali folk Plays/Traditional Dramas/Theaters in Uttarakhand; Stage/Theatre Settings in Garhwali folk Plays/Traditional Dramas/Theaters in Himalaya; Stage/Theatre Settings in Garhwali folk Plays/Traditional Dramas/Theaters in North India; Stage/Theatre Settings in Garhwali folk Plays/Traditional Dramas/Theaters in Indian Subcontinents; Stage/Theatre Settings in Garhwali folk Plays/Traditional Dramas/Theaters in SAARC Countries; Stage/Theatre Settings in Garhwali folk Plays/Traditional Dramas/Theaters in South Asia; Stage/Theatre Settings in Garhwali folk Plays/Traditional Dramas/Theaters in Oriental region ;   

Bhishma Kukreti

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Emotions in Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas /Community Theaters 

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part -11

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

                Bharat Muni states in Natyashastra that ‘Naatyam Bhavanukertinam’ or drama depends totally on emotions.
                Creation of emotions in the mind of audience is the sole objective of any formal, informal plays. Every emotion moves towards bliss or extreme pleasure creation. However, in any drama or play there are two pleasure gainers –the performers and audience. Therefore it is essential that there should be proper balance between performers and audience for gaining pleasure by emotions in the drama.
        Kukreti states in ‘Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra’ (2013) that he is firm believer that the Garhwali folk drama creators understand the importance of creating emotions by their performances and the aspects of pleasure in the mind of audience.
  The Garhwali folk play creators create emotions by following major means-
1-Body movements as – jumping, flexion, extension, rotation, circumduction, dorsiflextion, plantar flexion, dance running, hand movement, finger movement etc.
2-Facial Expression
3-Language changes or uses
4-Using Proverbs, saying, etc
5-Folk songs or folklores
6-Taking base from memorable event, memorable human being, animals or other memorable aspects
7-Dailogues
8-Let audience understand the drama objectives
9-Involving audience

  Though, the folk performers are/were unaware about classic theories of emotions set by Bharat Muni. The folk people were aware that pleasure  (they may say mood etc) creation is the job of any drama.


Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 4/10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7=Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
Xx
Notes on Emotions in Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas /Community Theatres; Emotions in Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas /Community Theatres from  Garhwal; ; Emotions in Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas /Community Theatres from Uttarakhand; ; Emotions in Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas /Community Theatres from Himalayas ; ; Emotions in Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas /Community Theatres from North India; ; Emotions in Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas /Community Theatres from Indian Subcontinent; ; Emotions in Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas /Community Theatres from South Asia; ; Emotions in Garhwali Folk Plays/Traditional Dramas /Community Theatres from Oriental region;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater /Traditional Plays[/b]

                               गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों में रति भाव
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -12

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

                            According to Bharat Natyshashtra, the pleasure sentiment in formal play is conveyed by a slight smile, delicacy of face, harmonious speech, delicate action of bows, oblique looks. 
              Usually, in the folk song-dance of Badi-Badan are of love raptures and Badi –Badan show pleasure sentiments beautifully.
          I remember a folk drama played by my village (Jaspur, Dhangu) women in the Nach gan-Maina (Song-dance month) at night. I would like to name this folk play as “Chhuma Bau’. The folk play was based on a true story that a bachelor school teacher from far area and a widow fell in love with each other. Later on teacher refused to marry her and the widow was infamous in the territory due to her non social order love for a teacher. The widow ran from her family and became wife of farmer. She left farmer and married another person.
    The area women created a folk song describing love between teacher and widow. The women who created this folk drama kept the dialogues in prose form too.  A couple of love dialogues between teacher and widow are as under-
 अध्यापक (खुस करने की मुद्रा में ) - हे बांद  ! आज त तू बड़ी बिगरैलि लगणि छे
 नायिका (शरमाकर, शरीर को बेल समान टेढ़ा , हिलाकर  ) - ह ! ह ! किलै झूठ बुलणा छंवां ?
अध्यापक (उत्साह , ढाढस, मधुर, प्रेम युक्त आवाज में ) - सच्च ! तेरी सौं ! आज त तु औंसी रातै  जून दिख्याणि छे
         Teacher (to pamper his lover)-Hey! Today, you are looking the beautiful most.
      Widow the lover (acting as cripple plant, in embarrassing mood, pleasure mood) - Why are you telling a lie?
         Teacher – I sway you, I am telling the truth. You are looking as moon in New Moon night.
     
        The above play ‘Chhuma Bau’ was performed before bright lantern   light.  The women actors performed the play with full enthusiasm and showed pleasure sentiment marvelously. It was just a pleasure to see the eye movements of woman performing widow.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 5/10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
Xx
Notes on Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Tehri Garhwal; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Chamoli Garhwal; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Pauri Garhwal ; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Dhangu, Garhwal ; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Gangasalan, Garhwal ; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Garhwal, Himalayan region ; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Garhwal  North India ; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Garhwal, South Asia ; Pleasure Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theatre/Traditional Plays of Garhwal, Oriental region ;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Laughter Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theaters 

                               गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों में हास /हौंस  भाव
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -13

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

                Bharat Muni defines laughter sentiment in drama that laughter sentiment is stimulated by caricaturing the actions of others, by various smiles, laughter, excessive laughter and the like.
 The laughter emotion or sentiment in Garhwali folk dramas might come by –
1-The Folk drama character argues ideas.
2-The folk drama performer uses wits, clever language for mocking
3-The folk drama Character uses satire or criticism   
4-There are misgivings, mistiming, misgivings, misunderstandings etc in folk drama
5-There is loss of identity due to accident or fate in folk drama. Or the characters become puppet of fate.
6-There is slapstick comedy in folk drama
 Usually, in prose folk drama performed by Badi a folk drama community of Garhwal have/had laughter sentiments than other sentiments. This is also correct for other Garhwali community prose plays.
According to quantum of laughter, Bhishma Kukreti (2013) divided r the Garhwali folk plays (especially) prose folk drama)  into following categories
1-Smit/Mul Mul hauns or very small smile
2-Surak surak hansan or unhurried smile
3-Hansan or average smile
4- sadharan hansan or medium  laughter
5- Khit Khit hansna or laud laughter
6-Lauder laughter
           Examples of Laughter sentiment in Garhwali Prose Folk Drama
   Our village Badi perfumed this folk drama in the month of Chair perhaps in 1965-66. That year was the year of Lang in Jaspur, Dhangu village of Pauri Garhwal. In Lang year in Chait month Badi with their family members stay in the village and perform drams in night.
            बाद्युं एक हंसण लाण वाळ  स्वांग

गाँव वाळ अयेड़ी खिलणो बौण अयां छन।  ग्राम प्रधान अर गाँव वाळुन   घ्वीड़ देखिन।
ग्राम प्रधान जोर से धै लगान्दु ," घ्याळ ना करिन ! घ्याळ ना करिन ! घ्याळन घ्वीडुंन भाजि जाण "
गां  वाळुन भी धै लगाइ , " घ्याळ ना करिन ! घ्याळ ना करिन ! घ्याळन घ्वीडुंन भाजि जाण "
घ्वीड़ गां  वाळु घ्याळ सूणि भाज जांदन।
बाद्युं ये स्वांग देखिक दिखंदेर (दर्शक ) जोर जोर से हंसण मिसे जांदन।

  The drama started by Badi as the villagers are in forest for hunting deer. The village chief saw deer herd. The village chief shouted   to his village fellows,” Don’t Shout! Don’t Shout! By shout the herd of hare would run away”.  All the hunting fellows shouted more loudly, ,” Don’t Shout! Don’t Shout! By shout the herd of deer  would run away”. The hare herd ram away.
The audience laughed loudly.

### Read more examples of Laughter sentiments in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theatres in part -14
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 7/10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
Xx
Notes on Laughter Sentiments in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theatres; Laughter Sentiments in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theatres from Garhwal; Laughter Sentiments in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theatres from Uttarakhand; Laughter Sentiments in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theatres from central Himalaya; Laughter Sentiments in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theatres from North India; Laughter Sentiments in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theatres from Rural India; Laughter Sentiments in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theatres from SAARC countries; Laughter Sentiments in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theatres from South Asia ; Laughter Sentiments in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theatres from Oriental continent;

 

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