Author Topic: Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays गढ़वा  (Read 33233 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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             Ektara:  One String Musical Instrument of Garhwal Folk Dramas
 
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -140   
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

                  Chordophone Musical Instruments of Garhwali Folk Dramas

             
              Ektara: A One String Folk Musical Instrument of Garhwali Folk Dramas

                         गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों  में  एकतारा  वाद्य यंत्र

         Ektara is one of the simplest and might be one of the old string musical instruments of Garhwal.
 In Old classical Sanskrit Literature, Ektara is mentioned as Ektantri Vina. Ektara was popular in Vedic period too.
To make Ektara, dry pumpkin is used and holed at two places and then covered by leather or other materials. A wooden stick around 75 CM long and 2 Cm diameter is connected to Pumpkin bowl through holes. Pegs at both end of stick are used for tightening or loosening the string. Then a string is based from last corner of wood stick and Pumpkin. String is stuck by fingers  to produce sound. The Ektara is kept on one solder and held by a hand by other hand fingers stuck the string.
 Usually, in Garhwal, Dalya or Guru Gorakhnath sect priest use Ektara while Dalya Guru sings the preaching of Guru Gorakhnath or story of Gopichand. The following Geet was sung by Parmantha a Dalya Guru in Jaspur around 1967-168 with Ektara
ऋद्धि  को सुमिरों सिद्धि को सुमिरों सुमिरों सारदा माई।
अर  सुमिरों गुरु अविनाशी को , सुमिरों कृष्न कनाई।
सदा अमर नि रैंदी धरती माता , बजर पड़े टूट जाई।
अमर नि रैंदा चंद , सुरजि छुचा , मेघ घिरे छिप जाई।।१।।   
माता रोये जनम कूं , बहिन रोये, बहिन रोये छै मासा।
तिरिया रोये डेढ़ घड़ी कूँ , आन करे घर बासा।।२।।
कागज़ पतरी सब कुई बांचे करम नि बांचे कुई।
राज घरों को राजकुंवर , बुबा करणी जोग लिखाई।। ३ ।।
सुन रै बेटा गोपीचंद जी बात सुनो चित लाई।
कंचन कया , कंचन कामिनी मति कैसे भरमाई।।  ४।। 
अलख निरंजन अलख निरंजन, सुन रे बेटा गोपीचंद जी बात सुनो चित लाई।
अलख निरंजन , अलख निरंजन जपो रे भाई , हो भव सागर पार
 



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 21/4/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
 Ektara: the One String Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays;  Ektara: the One String Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Ektara: the One String Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia;   Ektara: the One String Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Ektara: the One String Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Ektara: the One String Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Ektara: the One String Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Ektara: the One String Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia
गढवाली लोक नाटकों में एकतारा  वाद्य यंत्र ,  टिहरी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  एकतारा  वाद्य यंत्र;उत्तरकाशी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में एकतारा  वाद्य यंत्र, हरिद्वार गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में एकतारा  वाद्य यंत्र  ;देहरादून गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में एकतारा  वाद्य यंत्र ;पौड़ी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में एकतारा  वाद्य यंत्र;चमोली गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में एकतारा  वाद्य यंत्र; रुद्रप्रयाग गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में एकतारा  वाद्य यंत्र ;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Sarangi (Indian Guitar): String Musical Instrument of Garhwal Folk Dramas
 
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -141   
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

                  Chordophone Musical Instruments of Garhwali Folk Dramas

            Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal mentioned the Sarangi as folk music instrument of Garhwal. Sarangi is an old Indian musical instrument. In the hills of Garhwal, Sarangi had not been much popular. However, the saints used to play Sarangi. There are paintings of Sarangi in wall paintings at Guru Ram Darbar Sahib Dehradun (B.P. Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal). It seems that Garhwal kings used to enjoy by enjoying Sarangi from touring classical singers. Gaddi tribe of Garhwal especially the border of Himachal uses Sarangi. There had been Sarangi players in the plains of Dehradun, Haridwar, and Bhabhar.   The bow-type musical instrument was common in Garhwal in quite old time but not now.
           Sarangi is a four-stringed musical instrument that is fitted on the main body of the frame. The wooden frame is rectangular, hollow from the inside and half of the top is covered by goatskin. Strings are tied on pegs and numbers may vary. Sarangi is played by a narrow, stretched bow with  a string of leather or metal. The string is always stretched. Usually, Sarangi is used in religious singing or chanting occasions or a specific occasion. For example, recently (31 January 2014), Sarangi maestro Kamal Sabri played Sarangi in a program of the National Institute for visually handicapped.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 22/4/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
Notes on Sarangi (Indian Guitar): String Musical Instrument of Garhwal Folk Dramas; Sarangi (Indian Guitar): String Musical Instrument of Haridwar, Garhwal Folk Dramas; Sarangi (Indian Guitar): String Musical Instrument of Dehradun, Garhwal Folk Dramas; Sarangi (Indian Guitar): String Musical Instrument of Pauri Garhwal Folk Dramas; Sarangi (Indian Guitar): String Musical Instrument of Tehri Garhwal Folk Dramas; Sarangi (Indian Guitar): String Musical Instrument of Uttarkashi Garhwal Folk Dramas; Sarangi (Indian Guitar): String Musical Instrument of Chamoli Garhwal Folk Dramas; Sarangi (Indian Guitar): String Musical Instrument of Rudraprayag Garhwal Folk Dramas;

Bhishma Kukreti

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            Dhantara: A Folk Musical Instrument of Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -142   
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

                  Chordophone Musical Instruments of Garhwali Folk Dramas

                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों men धनतारा वाद्य यंत्र

              Dhantara is the folk music instrument of the Gaddi tribe. Gaddi are grazers or pastoralists.  Gaddi is the original people of Himachal-Kangda. Gaddi tribes live near Hari ki Doon, Sukhi and Gangi villages of Uttarkashi.
Garhwalis do use Dhantara very rarely or could be said that Garhwalis of Garhwal don’t use Dhantara at all. However, Gaddi of Garhwal uses Dhantara in folk music.
Dhantara is a primitive and indigenous music instrument of Gaddi. Dhantara is like Sarangi and is chordophone musical instrument. Dhantara has smaller than Sarangi in size and has only three strings for basic notes.
The Masada singers and Ainchhali Singers use Dhantara for accompaniment. The instrument is made as Sarangi. The folk musical instrument Dhantara does not have any complicated fixing of Taraba. The bow is also made as to the bow of Sarangi. The goat intestine is used in making strings of Dhantara. Singers usually decorate Dhantara by flowers on it.

 Gaddi Natarambh Dance-Song
              गद्दी नटारम्भ नृत्य गीत  झलकी**

ता बुड्डू जो ना देणो चाचुआ , देणी  चाचुआ
सजरे चूंडे रांड भूचगा हली हो .
चा चाकर जो ना देणो चाचुआ , देणी  चाचुआ
हाक पांदे उठि गहँदे हो
ता दूर
ना देणो चाचुआ , देणी  चाचुआ
गोरु चुगांदे जो देणी हो
ता रोगी जो ना देणो चाचुआ , देणी  चाचुआ
सजरे चूंडे रांड भूचगा हली हो .
भेड़ा चुगांदे जो देणो चाचुआ , देणी  चाचुआ
खोखा भरी देला मांस हो
भेड़ा दे पहल जो देणो चाचुआ , देणी  चाचुआ
पिट्ठी जो देला चोलु हो

*** Kangada Gazetteer, Appendix-1 pages 14-15   

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 23/4/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
 Dhantara: A Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays;  Dhantara: A Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dhantara: A Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dhantara: A Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dhantara: A Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dhantara: A Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Dhantara: A Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dhantara: A Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia.
गढवाली लोक नाटकों में धनतारा वाद्य यंत्र ,  टिहरी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  धनतारा वाद्य यंत्र;उत्तरकाशी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में धनतारा वाद्य यंत्र, हरिद्वार गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में धनतारा वाद्य यंत्र   ;देहरादून गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में धनतारा वाद्य यंत्र ;पौड़ी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में धनतारा वाद्य यंत्र;चमोली गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में ; रुद्रप्रयाग गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में धनतारा वाद्य यंत्र ;


Bhishma Kukreti

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Pimpri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -143
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

       Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument of Garhwal Folk Dramas

 There are various aero phonic musical instruments used in Garhwali Folk Dramas.

Pimpri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas
           Pimpri is very primitive instrument of human beings. Pimpri means that makes sound by blowing hollow element.
                             Onion Leave as Aero Phonic Musical Instrument

             The onion leave cur from both sides is also used in blowing that makes sound and the blower controls or changes sound by reducing or increasing pitch or blow.
                       Dry Shoot Stalk as Aero Phonic Musical Instrument
The dry hollow stalk of wheat, lentil are also used for blowing and making sounds. Usually children use dry hollow stalk as aero phonic musical instruments.
       Two small Leaves as Aero Phonic Musical Instrument
             By folding two leaves or sometimes one in between two fingers and then blowing air by mouth a special sound is created. The upping –downing of pitch and then blowing leaves held in between two fingers create a different sound. Children use this primitive type of aero phonic musical instrument for enjoyment. Many times, villagers use such instrument to call wild animals for prey. Many times the grazers use this type of perishable instrument for calling cattle.
  The primitive type of Flute as Aero Phonic Musical Instrument

  Usually, children use this way of primitive flute. The bamboo (Chhota Bans) stick has a node one side. The stem is cut near the node and a very thin piece (Patti or leave) is made by technique. Then from this side, the stick is blown by the mouth. The blow speed makes different sounds. Again children use this primitive type of flute for enjoyment. This type is called bans ki ‘Pimpri’ and is never called a flute.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 24/4/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
Pimpri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Pimpri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Pimpri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Pimpri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Pimpri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Pimpri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Pimpri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Pimpri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia


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Flute/Bansuri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -144
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

       Flute/Bansuri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument of Garhwal Folk Dramas

               The flute is an oldest musical instrument of Garhwal and a Garhwali village without a flute is beyond imagination.
          In many Garhwali folk songs, there are heroes who are flute playing experts too as Jeetu Bagdwal.
     Usually, the flute is made by a bamboo piece (pipe) ranging from 20-30 centimeters with a diameter of 1 to centimeter. The Bamboo piece is cut near the node. There are 6-7 holes on the flute at one side. The holes are always equal in size and round. One hole is meant for blowing air into the pipe and the other holes are for changing the tone by releasing the air. The distance between the first hole and the second hole is around 3 cms and the distance between other holes is 1 to 1.5 cm. The lower around 10 cm portion of the pipe is without holes The flute player released air by mouth from the node hole and controls the release of air by the finger that provides a different pitch.
 There are flutes of metal too.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 25/4/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
Flute/Bansuri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays;  Flute/Bansuri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Flute/Bansuri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Flute/Bansuri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Flute/Bansuri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Flute/Bansuri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Flute/Bansuri an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

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Shankh or Conch an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -145
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

Shankh or Conch an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument of Garhwal Folk Dramas

   Shankh or Conch is very important musical instrument in marriage, auspicious folk rituals. Shankh or conch is also blown in death ceremony at funeral procession of elderly person.
 There are different tones for marriage or auspicious rituals and funereal rituals. The conch is blown only by an expert as it is called inauspicious if the death (Ikhari (single ) Tone) tone is blown in the marriage ceremony and Dwari /Double )tone is blown in the funeral ceremony.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 26/4/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
Shankh or Conch an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Shankh or Conch an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Shankh or Conch an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia;   Shankh or Conch an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Shankh or Conch an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Shankh or Conch an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Shankh or Conch an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Shankh or Conch an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia


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Ransingha an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -146
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)
Ransingha an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas 

       There are other names of Ransingha (Ran-Singha) as Turri, Turhi,Bugudu, Narsingha,Ran- Sangh,  in different regions of India. Ransingha (Ran-Singha) has its origin in battlefield. It is believed that when deities won the battle over demons the Ransingha was played for winning celebration.Ransingha is sign of victory and is played in folk rituals and folk song programs, folk dramas etc. The player blow Ransingha by m mouth from lower end of the instrument which is narrow by holding it in the air. The music instrument is S shaped and is made by brass, copper or in old time by silver by Kingdom court. The length of S-shaped Ransingha is 108 centimeter and the diameter of its mouth is 14 cm. The brass curves might be four or five for strengthening to Ransingha. Ransingha has two parts and one part fit into other (for carrying from one place to other place) making it a folding instrument.
                   Ransingha produce s all seven Swaras or notes chromatically. 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 28/4/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
Ransingha an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Ransingha an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Ransingha an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Ransingha an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Ransingha an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Ransingha an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Ransingha an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Ransingha an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

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Karnal an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -147
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)
Karnal an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas 

Made by brass, Karnal is a straight trumpet. Karnal is lip reed musical instrument. Karnal has a broader base as saucer of   44 cm in diameter and rest of the portion is a brass conical hollow tube. The brass tube of Karnal has two or three round bulges. The blowing end has a mouthpiece consisting of the shape of a cup. The mouth end looks as if Dhatura flower.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 1/5/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
Karnal an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays;  Karnal an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Karnal an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Karnal an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Karnal an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Karnal an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Karnal an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Karnal an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

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Kahala an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -148
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)
Kahala an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas 

               Kahal or a kind of trumpet is used rarely in temple procession or rituals and was used in old age, state procession by Kings or Thokdars. Kahal is 1.5-meter long two-piece instrument. The Kahal is a straight piece of musical instrument and is like Karnal. In past, in India, Kahal was made by gold, silver, copper, and brass.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 2/5/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
Kahala an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Kahala an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Kahala an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Kahala an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Kahala an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Kahala an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Kahala an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

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Nagphani an Aero Phonic or Wind Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -149
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)
 Nagphani an Aero Phonic Folk Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas 

       Nagfani musical instrument is used very rarely and used by Tantrik or Mantrik ritual performers. Nagphani is linked to Lord Shiva. Nagphani is of hooded shape as snake with round and open mouth around 10 t0 15 cm in diameter. The musical instrument Nagphani is made by cooper and is smaller in size than other wind musical instrument.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 3/5/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
Nagphani an Aero Phonic or Wind Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays;  Nagphani an Aero Phonic or Wind Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Nagphani an Aero Phonic or Wind Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Nagphani an Aero Phonic or Wind Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Nagphani an Aero Phonic or Wind Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Nagphani an Aero Phonic or Wind Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Nagphani an Aero Phonic or Wind Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

 

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