Author Topic: Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays गढ़वा  (Read 33503 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Pungi or Bin or Been an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -151
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)
          Dhol Sagara musical manuscript of Garhwal describes 36 musical instruments. Dhol Sagar describes Pungi (Bin or Been) as important musical instrument.
     The Garhwali cultural authority Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal denied Pungi (Bin or Been) as folk musical instrument of Garhwal. However, Dehradun, Haridwar, Bhabhar are integrated parts of Garhwal and Pungi (Bin or Been) is definitely played in Dehradun, Haridwar, Bhabhar regions by snake charmers and many times by Kanfata saints or Tantrik. It might be said that Pungi (Bin or Been) is a religious musical instrument.
              The musical instrument Pungi (Bin or Been) consists of a mouth-blown air or wind reservoir made from gourd that channels air into two reed pipes. Pungi (Bin or Been) is originated in the land of India. The player plays Pungi (Bin or Been) without any pauses. Pungi (Bin or Been) is similar to the Chinese musical instrument Hulusi. 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/5/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
 Pungi or Bin or Been an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays;  Pungi or Bin or Been an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Pungi or Bin or Been an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Pungi or Bin or Been an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Pungi or Bin or Been an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Pungi or Bin or Been an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;   Pungi or Bin or Been an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Pungi or Bin or Been an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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Shehnai (Sinai) an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -152
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

                 Shehnai is also called Sinai in Garhwal and is used rarely among common people for playing folk dramas. Shehnai is used in auspicious occasions and was played at Royal events. . Shehnai is double reed wind instrument with a widening base at the bottom end. Shehnai had eight or nine holes. The upper seven holes are used for playing and lower two holes are for tuning.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 6/5/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
Shehnai (Sinai) an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Shehnai (Sinai) an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Shehnai (Sinai) an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Shehnai (Sinai) an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Shehnai (Sinai) an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Shehnai (Sinai) an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Shehnai (Sinai) an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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Bhankora an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument used in Religious Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -153
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

              A Garhwali cultural expert Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal states that wind musical instrument Bhankora is played by only upper caste Garhwalis. Bhankora is played in Naubat, Dhunyal, Dev Jatra types of religious ritual performances. Bhankora is made by copper and its length is about 36 inches and three inch in diameter. Bhankora creates sweet melodious sound and tone.   

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 9/5/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
Bhankora an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Bhankora an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Bhankora an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Bhankora an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Bhankora an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Bhankora an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;    Bhankora an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Bhankora an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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Mochang, Morsing or Morchang Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -154
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

  Mochang is wind percussion. Mochang   could be categorized lamellophone.  Mochang is made by iron or metal ring in the shape of horse shoe shape with two parallel forks which figure the frame and a metal tongue in middle between the forks fixed at one end and vibrates at other end. The metal tongue is bent at the free end in a plain perpendicular to the circular that the plate is struck and made to vibrate too.
               Mochang is placed in between teeth, held by one hand and is struck by other hand and lip-teeth sound. The movement of tongue, vibration of throat and sucking-blowing air create the desired sound.  Women singers and shepherds play this musical instrument.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 10/5/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
 XX
 Mochang, Morsing or Morchang Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Mochang, Morsing or Morchang Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mochang, Morsing or Morchang Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mochang, Morsing or Morchang Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mochang, Morsing or Morchang Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mochang, Morsing or Morchang Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Mochang, Morsing or Morchang Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mochang, Morsing or Morchang Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

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Mushakbaj or Bagpipe an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument used in Garhwal Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -155
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

  Bagpipe has reeds fed from constant reservoir of air in the form of a leather bag (Mashak). It is suggested that bagpipe was invented in Middle East but became more famous in Europe.
               Bagpipe is today called as folk music instrument of Garhwal and Kumaon, Bagpipe is one of the main musical instruments in marriage procession.
            Bagpipe has been introduced among common people of Garhwal and Kumaon by retired Fauji (army personnel) of British army especially Garhwal Rifle after 1814-15.Those Garhwali –Kumaoni army personnel were playing Bagpipe with army band they bought it to Uttarakhand. The local musician transformed European Highland Bagpipe as per local needs.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 19/5/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
 Mushakbaj or Bagpipe an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Mushakbaj or Bagpipe an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mushakbaj or Bagpipe an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Mushakbaj or Bagpipe an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mushakbaj or Bagpipe an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mushakbaj or Bagpipe an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mushakbaj or Bagpipe an Aero Phonic or Wind Musical Instrument   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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Harmonium a Foreign Origin Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -156
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

          French inventor Alexander Dubain patented Harmonium in 1843. The technology existed around 1780 especially in Churches. Harmonium is a keyboard instrument in which sound is produced by air being forced over a series of reeds.  The other names of Harmonium are free reed organ, pipe organ, pump organ or parlor organ.
  In end of eighteenth century or early nineteenth century , British brought Harmonium in India and became so famous that it is thought as invented in India and is also thought as if Harmonium was Indian music folk instrument.
           It seems British army brought Harmonium in Garhwal. However, Ramleela drama introduction in Garhwal made Harmonium popular in Garhwal in end of nineteenth century or early twentieth century. Harmonium is played in Ramleela or Raman folk drama in Garhwal and in marriage functions too.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 23/5/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
Harmonium a Foreign Origin Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Harmonium a Foreign Origin Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Harmonium a Foreign Origin Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Harmonium a Foreign Origin Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Harmonium a Foreign Origin Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Harmonium a Foreign Origin Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Harmonium a Foreign Origin Musical Instrument used   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Harmonium a Foreign Origin Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira a Drum Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -157
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

             Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira is similar to western musical instrument Tambourine. Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira is very rarely used in Garhwal. The Dhol Sagar mentions Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira as (folk) musical instrument.
                  Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira consists of circular frame of jackfruit wood, between 7-9 inches in width and 2-4 in depth. It is covered on one side with a drumhead made of monitor lizard skin. The other side of Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira is kept open. The frame of Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira has single slit that contains three to four small metal discs often coins those jingle when Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira is played.  Usually Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira played by the palm and fingers of right hand while left hand supports the drum.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 24/5/2014

Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
 Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira a Drum Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira a Drum Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira a Drum Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira a Drum Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira a Drum Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira a Drum Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira a Drum Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Khinjari, Kanjira, Khanjira or Ganjira a Drum Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

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 Mridang a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -158
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

           Mridang is now, less used in Garhwal. However, Mridang is quite old Devine Indian Musical Instrument and Dhol Sagar a Garhwali folk literature mentions Mridang. Most probably in old age , the priests of Badrinath and Kedarnath temples used Mridang.
           Mridang is double sided drum whose body is made by Jackfruit wood. The two mouths are covered by goatskin with leather strap around the drum circumference. These straps are put into high tension state to stretch out the circular membranes on either side of hull that allow higher pitch sound when struck.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 25/5/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
Mridang a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays;  Mridang a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mridang a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mridang a Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mridang a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mridang a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Mridang a Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Mridang a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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Damaru /Daunru: a Memranophonic Musical Instrument of Garhwali Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -159
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)
            A small two headed musical instrument Damaru is one of the oldest musical instruments of India. Damaru /Daunru is called instrument created by Lord Shiva. Damaru is also one of the oldest musical instruments used in Garhwal too.
 The Damaru drum is made by wood (Khinna wood). The drum sides are of goat leather. The leather part is struck by stick for making sound. 
 Damru is used tens of Folk Dramas in Garhwal.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 27/5/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
Damaru /Damru/Daunru: a Memranophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Damaru /Damru/Daunru: a Memranophonic Musical Instrument i  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Damaru /Damru/Daunru: a Memranophonic Musical Instrument i in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Damaru /Damru/Daunru: a Memranophonic Musical Instrument i  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Damaru /Damru/Daunru: a Memranophonic Musical Instrument i in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Damaru /Damru/Daunru: a Memranophonic Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Damaru /Damru/Daunru: a Memranophonic Musical Instrument   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Damaru /Damru/Daunru: a Memranophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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         Dhol an Important Musical Instrument of Garhwali Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -160
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

              Dhol or Drum is an important musical instrument used in Garhwali folk dramas. Dhol is used with Damau or Nagada in various religious, marriage, social, social gathering occasions. There is manuscript about the knowledge of Dhol sound called Dhol Sagar. The language of Dhol Sagar is mixed that is main is Braj mixed with a few words of Garhwali.
  Dhol was introduced to India in 15th century. Dhol is perhaps west Asian origin. Aine-e Akbari mentions first time about Dhol. That means Dhol was introduced in Garhwal around sixteenth century. Initially Dhol players were called from plains of Garhwal, Bijnor, Haridwar, and Saharanpur. Later on Dhol playing tradition was held by family profession.  The Dhol-Damau player is called Auji or Das. Auji is in fact the name of Lord Shiva. Parvati calls Shiva as Auji.
 Dhol is double sided drum. The drum is made of copper and sides are made by goat skin. Dhol is played by one side by wooden stick and other side by hand.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 29/5/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
Dhol an Important Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Dhol an Important Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dhol an Important Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Dhol an Important Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Dhol an Important Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dhol an Important Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Dhol an Important Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dhol an Important Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

 

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