Author Topic: Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays गढ़वा  (Read 27891 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum a Membranophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -161
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (लोक साहित्य शोधार्थी)

           Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum is Azerbaijan /Georgian name and is said that the said musical instrument is invented in this region. Nagara came from Arabic word that means to strike or beat.
   Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum is rounded back made by copper or bronze and a hide head. The flat surface is made by leather skin. The Rauntal is played by two wood stick. In Garhwali, the kettle drum is called Rauntali, Rauntal or Damau.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 30/5/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
 Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum a Membranophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum a Membranophonic Musical Instrument   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum a Membranophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum a Membranophonic Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum a Membranophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum a Membranophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum a Membranophonic Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Damau, Rauntali, Rauntal, Nagada, Nagara or Kettle Drum a Membranophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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Dholak a Membrophonic Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -162
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (Folk Literature Research Scholar)
   Dholak is usually used by professional class as Badi, Jagri in Garhwali folk Dramas as Jagri use Dholak in Hantya Ghadela (religious ritual).
            Dholak is two headed hand drum. Dholak has traditional cotton rope lacing, screw –turnbuckle tensioning or both combined in steel case ring for tuning or pegs inside the laces. The shell is made by cheap wood as Mango etc and membrane is made by goat leather. The drum is played by both hand either hung on shoulder, or kept on lap of player or kept on the ground.
 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 31/5/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
Dholak a Membrophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays;  Dholak a Membrophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dholak a Membrophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dholak a Membrophonic Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dholak a Membrophonic Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Dholak a Membrophonic Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Hudki a Membrane Folk Musical Instrument of Garhwali Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -163
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (Folk Literature Research Scholar)

         Hudki has an important position in Garhwali and Kumaoni Folk dramas from old age. There are mentions of Hudkya the Hudki music instrument Player in Katyuri period and Dulal Shah in History.
 The drum of Hudki is made by Khinn or Khimari wood. The frame of Hudki is rectangular. The Hudki wall is about six and quarter inch wide and diameter of drum side (goat intestine leather) is about six –seven inches. The diameter in centre of drum is about 8-9 inches. The side leather are connected to the cotton rope as in Dholak. Hudki is played by one hand (right hand) while it is hung on shoulder.
Hudki is played in religious ritual performances.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 2/6/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
Hudki a Membrane Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Hudki a Membrane Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Hudki a Membrane Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Hudki a Membrane Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Hudki a Membrane Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Hudki a Membrane Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Hudki a Membrane Folk Musical Instrument  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Hudki a Membrane Folk Musical Instrument in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Tabla a Membrane (Membranophone) Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -165 
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (Folk Literature Research Scholar)
           Tabla is said to be invented by Sufi Saint Amir Khusaru in thirteenth century. Tabla is least used by common people in Garhwal. It seems Tabla would have introduced in the period of Akbar or Jahangir. Dhol Sagar mentions about Tabla as musical instrument. The Tabla is made by hollow conic piece of teak and upper side is fitted by leather. The drum is tuned for specific tune.  Tablas are used in pair and played by hands.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/6/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
Tabla a Membrane Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Tabla a Membrane Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Tabla a Membrane Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Tabla a Membrane Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Tabla a Membrane Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Tabla a Membrane Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Tabla a Membrane Musical Instrument used   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Tabla a Membrane Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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Dafli:  Percussion, Membrophone Music Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas


Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -166 
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (Folk Literature Research Scholar)
      Daf is an Arabic or Persian name. It is said that Dafli was common in old age in Rome, Middle East, Greece and Indian sub continent.
 Dafli is very rarely used by common people of Garhwal.  Dhol Sagar describes Dafli as musical instrument of Garhwal. Dafli is used rarely in religious rituals.
 Dafli is consisted by wood or plastic frame with pairs of metal jingles (Zils).
 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 6/6/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
 Dafli:  Percussion, Membrophone Music Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Dafli:  Percussion, Membrophone Music Instrument used   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dafli:  Percussion, Membrophone Music Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dafli:  Percussion, Membrophone Music Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dafli:  Percussion, Membrophone Music Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dafli:  Percussion, Membrophone Music Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dafli:  Percussion, Membrophone Music Instrument used   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Dafli:  Percussion, Membrophone Music Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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Ghandi , Ghanti, Ghanta or Bell: A  Percussion and Idiophone Musical instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas


Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -167 
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (Folk Literature Research Scholar)

 Bell has many names as Ghanti, Ghandi, Ghandal, Ghanta in Garhwal. Bell has much shape and sizes and is used differently at different places. Bell is mostly used in religious dramas or rituals.
Bell is usually hollow, cup shaped, conical shape but when the bell is made of tin it is cylindrical shape too. Ussualy bell is made of cast metal.
Typical Bell has following parts –
Yolk
Crown
Head
Shoulder
Waist
Sound rim
Lip
Mouth
Clapper
Bead Line
Bell is quite old musical instrument of India and Garhwal.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 7/6/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
Ghandi , Ghanti, Ghanta or Bell: A  Percussion and Idiophone Musical instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas; Ghandi , Ghanti, Ghanta or Bell: A  Percussion and Idiophone Musical instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas from Pauri Garhwal, Himalaya, North India; Ghandi , Ghanti, Ghanta or Bell: A  Percussion and Idiophone Musical instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas from Chamoli Garhwal, Himalaya, North India; Ghandi , Ghanti, Ghanta or Bell: A  Percussion and Idiophone Musical instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas from Rudraprayag Garhwal, Himalaya, North India; Ghandi , Ghanti, Ghanta or Bell: A  Percussion and Idiophone Musical instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas from Tehri Garhwal, Himalaya, North India; Ghandi , Ghanti, Ghanta or Bell: A  Percussion and Idiophone Musical instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas from Uttarkashi Garhwal, Himalaya, North India; Ghandi , Ghanti, Ghanta or Bell: A  Percussion and Idiophone Musical instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas from Dehradun  Garhwal, Himalaya, North India; Ghandi , Ghanti, Ghanta or Bell: A  Percussion and Idiophone Musical instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas from Haridwar, Garhwal, Himalaya, North India;


Bhishma Kukreti

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Ghungar, Ghugroo, Ghanghru: Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas
 
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -168 
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (Folk Literature Research Scholar)

               Ghughru, Ghungaroo, Ghungar is one of many metal bells strung together. Ghungru are tied on ankle with anklet. There may be 10 small bells to 100-200 bells in many Ghungru or Ghungar.
         As far as Garhwali folk dramas are concerned, usually professional class Badi-ban used to dance with Ghungru. 

 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 8/6/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
Ghungar, Ghugroo, Ghanghru: Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Ghungar, Ghugroo, Ghanghru: Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Ghungar, Ghugroo, Ghanghru: Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Ghungar, Ghugroo, Ghanghru: Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Ghungar, Ghugroo, Ghanghru: Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Ghungar, Ghugroo, Ghanghru: Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Ghungar, Ghugroo, Ghanghru: Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Ghungar, Ghugroo, Ghanghru: Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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      Kanse ki Thali/Thakul or Bronze Plate a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Dramas

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -169 
                  गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों के वाद्य यंत्र
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (Folk Literature Research Scholar)

          In many religious ritual dramas, deep bronze plate or Kanse ki Thali is used as musical instrument in Mid- Himalaya region. The ‘Thali’ is played by two or one stick.  Most of the time, Thali is played with Damru together. The player keeps Thali on a wood container (Pathao) while playing Thali.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 9/6/2014
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas   
 XX
Kanse ki Thali/Thakul or Bronze Plate a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Kanse ki Thali/Thakul or Bronze Plate a Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Kanse ki Thali/Thakul or Bronze Plate a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Kanse ki Thali/Thakul or Bronze Plate a Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Kanse ki Thali/Thakul or Bronze Plate a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Kanse ki Thali/Thakul or Bronze Plate a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Kanse ki Thali/Thakul or Bronze Plate a Musical Instrument used  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Kanse ki Thali/Thakul or Bronze Plate a Musical Instrument used in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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Thirty Five Tal or Rag Ragini, Tal, Musical Notes or Music Scripts of Dhol-Damau Playing

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -172   
Rag Ragini, Tal, Musical Notes or Music Scripts in Garhwali Folk Songs and Folk Music part -2 

    गढ़वाली गीत संगीत (गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों ) में ताल, राग रागिनी
                             
                     Bhishma Kukreti (Folk Literature Research Scholar)

The dancers and audience enjoy the Dhol-Damau according to tunes. There are two theories of tunes for Dhol Damau. According to ‘ Ramcharan Dhol Sagar’ , as per time, class and place , there are thirty five tunes in playing Dhol-Damau/Rauntal

1- Jangan man -- for earth prayer
2-Dhup Deep aur Dhwaj--- Prayer of own deities and nation
3- Surya Kiran ---Prayer of Sun
4- Kucche ki Naubat-Morning Play
5-Saras-- Worship of arms and ammunitions
6-Parikrama-- Circumambulation of earth
7-Badhai Shabad-- Happy news, Congratulation
8-Ghai Shabad- Initiation of war/battle
9-Jadkhamb- To ascend
10-Thaman-- Stopping
11-Utrai--To descend
12-Sone ki Naubat-- Resting period
13-Saat sanjha aur Nau Doha- Travel through ocean
14-Sagun- Conference hall/conference of deities
15-Chakravyuha---worship of deities
16-Ram Rahman- meeting place or Conjunction
17- Gadh ganga - at the River bank
18-Chakor Jojan- At the time of Tug of war
19-Machkaro - At the time of son birth
20-Bhair Khol-Bhitar Kohl - At the time of initiation of walking by child
21-Shabad Grah- Preventing bad omen
22-Chaurasi Ghai- Worshipping eighty four lakhs deities
23-Chauras- To call all deities in one place
24-Sarva sidhi-- For best wishes
25-Chauk Vijeta- Starting from country yard
26-Sarvagan Vijeta-- Best wishes for wins to all
27- Painsara- Step by step
28- Upgrah Vijeta-- Continuous walking
29-Chauhato-Chhablato-- Lanka dahan
30- Takkato- Head-on
31-Bajrahato- Undesired
32-Airali- Chait Pujan
33-Bairali- Welcoming/Worshipping of Auji
34-Jalvayu- Worshipping season
35-Holi Vijeta- Win over bad omen


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 17 /6/2014 for interpretation notes   
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas 
20 Keshav Anuragi
21 Dayashankar Bhatt 
 XX
Thirty Five Tal or Rag Ragini, Tal, Musical Notes or Music Scripts of Dhol-Damau Playing  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Thirty Five Tal or Rag Ragini, Tal, Musical Notes or Music Scripts of Dhol-Damau Playing  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Thirty Five Tal or Rag Ragini, Tal, Musical Notes or Music Scripts of Dhol-Damau Playing  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Thirty Five Tal or Rag Ragini, Tal, Musical Notes or Music Scripts of Dhol-Damau Playing   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Thirty Five Tal or Rag Ragini, Tal, Musical Notes or Music Scripts of Dhol-Damau Playing  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Thirty Five Tal or Rag Ragini, Tal, Musical Notes or Music Scripts of Dhol-Damau Playing  in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Thirty Five Tal or Rag Ragini, Tal, Musical Notes or Music Scripts of Dhol-Damau Playing    in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Thirty Five Tal or Rag Ragini, Tal, Musical Notes or Music Scripts of Dhol-Damau Playing   in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

Bhishma Kukreti

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  • Music Script .Notes or Music Tunes of Badain (Congratulations बधाई) in Garhwali and Kumaoni Folk Dramas

    Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -173   
    Rag Ragini, Tal, Music Notes or Music Scripts in Garhwali Folk Songs and Folk Music part -3 

        गढ़वाली गीत संगीत (गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों ) में ताल, राग रागिनी-3
                                 
                         Bhishma Kukreti (Folk Literature Research Scholar)


                            Musical Notes, Script or Tunes of Badain (Congratulations बधाई)

                                 
                       Late Keshv Anuragi's contribution is tremendous in popularizing Garhwali Folk Music specially the Music of Avjees or Dhol and Damau
     He also wrote/created Musical Script of tunes of Dhol and Damau and other folk songs.
     Badai or Badhayee tune is prominent tune and is used by Auvjee when there is auspicious time as initiating the Tal of Puja in marriage or Bada Mangan (praising). The Badi tone is played at auspicious occasions as marriage or at Bada mangan ku Bagat.

                                            १     २    ३        ४     ५        ६          ७    ८     ९     १०     ११  १२ 
                                            झें   गु    झेंगा   sI     झेगु    झेगा    s     sI     ता   झे      ता   झे
                                            १३   १४   १५      १६    १७        १८      १९   २०    २१   २२     २३   २४
                                             गा   s    ता      sI      झग    नझेगु  झे     sI    ता    ग      झे   गा
                                              २५   २६          २७      २८      २९      ३०      ३१      ३२
                                              s     झिग़टिग झेगु   तग I   झा      s        s        s i
          Explainations :
    1- s =  half a आधा अ
    2- I - Full Stop, चार विराम
    3- Underline ____ is half concave यह संकेत नीचे से अर्ध् चन्द्राकार  है
    सूचना : इस संगीत लिपि में मेरा कोई योगदान नही है
    १-   श्री केशव अनुरागी की अप्रकाशित पुस्तक का यह भाग डा शिवा नन्द नौटियाल के गढ़वाल के नृत्य-गीत में छापें हैं

    Copyright @ Mrs Keshav Anuragi Dehradun




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 18 /6/2014 for interpretation notes   
Contact ID -bckukreti@gmail.com
Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Community Dramas; Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional to be continued in next chapter
                 References
1-Bharat Natyashastra
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folk life 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali Lok Swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
13-Manorama Sharma, Tribal Melodies of Himachal Pradesh: Gaddi Folk Music
14- Anoop Chandola, 1977, Folk Drumming in Himalaya: A Linguistic Approach to Music 
15- Jugal Kishor Petshali, 2002, Uttaranchal ke Lok Vadya
16- Jason Busniewski, Bagpiping in the Indian Himalaya
17- Ian Woodfield, 2000, Music of the Raj
18-Stefen Fiol, 2008, Constructing Regionalism: Discourses of Spirituality and Cultural Poverty in Music of Uttarakhand, North India
19- Andrew Alter, Mountainous Sound Spaces-Listening to History and Music in the Uttarakhand Himalayas 
20 Keshav Anuragi
21 Dayashankar Bhatt 
 XX
Musical Notes , Music Script or Music Tunes of Badain (Congratulations बधाई) in Folk Songs played at Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays;  Music Notes , Music Script or Music Tunes of Badain (Congratulations बधाई)  in Folk Songs played at Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Music Notes , Musical Script or Music Tunes of Badain (Congratulations बधाई) in Folk Songs played at Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Music Notes , Musical Script or Music Tunes of Badain (Congratulations बधाई)  in Folk Songs played at Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Musical Notes , Musical Script or Music Tunes of Badain (Congratulations बधाई)  in Folk Songs played at Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Music Notes , Music Script or Music Tunes of Badain (Congratulations बधाई)  in Folk Songs played at Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, North India, South Asia;  Music Notes , Music Script or Music Tunes of Badain (Congratulations बधाई)  in Folk Songs played at Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, North India, South Asia; Music Notes , Music Script or Music Tunes of Badain (Congratulations बधाई) in Folk Songs played at Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, North India, South Asia

 

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