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Bhishma Kukreti

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  History of Indian Languages Literature
History of Himalayan Literature
History of  Garhwali Literature
Critical  History of  Garhwali Poetry
Keyed : Poetry collection of Dandriyal about Women’s emotion and Spirituality
                   Review by Bhishma Kukreti
              Offering tribute to one of the greatest poets of world literature Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal in special issue of Hamari Chitthi, Bhishma Kukreti wrote that Dandriyal has been a  ‘ardhnareshwar’ (Half man -Half woman) while writing poetry as his emotional description about women is totally from a heart of a woman. Reading Kukreti’s comments Hindi literature critic Dr. Manjula D Dhoundiyal agreed that the poems related to women’s subject of ‘Maha Kavi’  Knhaya Lal Dandriyal  are feminist in nature and paved the way of feminst movement in Garhwali literature.  After reading the women related poems of ‘KUYEDI ‘ (The Fog), it is easily could be said that from women related poems of  Dandriyal suggest that Kanhya Lal Dandriyal ia afeminist Garhwali poet to as Maya Angelou ,Elvia Ardalani ,Margaret Atwood Anne Waldman ,Alice Walker ,Phyllis Webb , Djuna Barnes ,  Elinor Wylie , Aphra Behn, Elizabeth Bishop ,Eavan Boland ,Sophia Elisabet Brenner ,Karen Brodine ,Olga Broumas ,Lucille Clifton ,Mary Collier ,Hilda Doolittle, Emily Dickinson ,Diane Di Prima ,Carol-Ann Duffy ,Rachel Blau DuPlessis, Fehmida Riaz ,Judith Wright ,  Kishwar Naheed ,Alice Fulton ,Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Judy Grahn, Barbara Guest, Marilyn Hacker ,Allison Hedge Coke ,Lyn Hejinian , Sophie Hannah, Melin W., Susan Howe Merle Woo ,Parveen Shakir ,Sue Lenier,Anna Maria Lenngren ,Denise Levertov ,Audre Lorde ,Mina Loy May Swenson, , Mitsuye Yamada ,  Chris Mansell , Rita Mae Brown, Gwendolyn Brooks, Elizabeth Barrett Browning , Charlotte Perkins ,Gilman Diane , Wakoshi Anne *ton , M.C.Gupta, Rabindra Nath Taigore, Edna St Vincent Millay , Robin Morgan ,Marianne Moore ,Lorine Niedecker , Nellie Wong Hedvig Charlotta ,Nordenflycht ,Alicia Ostriker ,Sylvia Pankhurst ,Grace Paley ,Dorothy Parker ,Katha Pollitt ,Adrienne Rich ,Dorothy Richardson ,Ethel Rolt-Wheeler ,Christina Rossetti ,Muriel Rukeyser ,Sonia Sanchez ,Sappho ,Jo Shapcott ,Edith Sitwell ,Stevie Smith ,Gertrude Stein , , Sara Teasdale ,Marina Tsvetaeva ,Rosmarie Waldrop , Maya Angelou are famous feminst poets for their voicing the significance of women in every part of life and narrating women’s empowerment through poetries.
    There are two distinctive types of poems in Keyed (The Fog) - the women related poems and spiritual or philosophical poems. Kanhya Lal  Dandriyal has been successful in communication both types of emotions to the readers. These poems were created around sixties by Dandriyal but could publish in 1990. However, the poems are as fresh and relevant as they were in 1953 when the poet created them,
  The poems related to women are created by a man but when the readers read them , the readers feel that a woman has written those poems which , are powerful to show the struggle of females in rural or other parts of India , the sacrifices of women for the society and family, the various pains of Garhwali women in Garhwal and elsewhere. Apart from narrating women’s life, Dandriyal narrates the images of life of Garhwalis and geographical aspect specially rainy season of Garhwal.
  The poet is on his peak for describing the pain of separation . His way of narration is very simple and he communicates with his readers easily. The symbols , images, figures of speeches, proverbs, wordings of all poems are commonly used by Garhwalis .
    The spiritual poems in this volume,  are marvelous pieces of poetry for Garhwali literature. The poet uses simple language that the readers easily understand the seious subject of philosophies and that makes Dandriyal the great poet of world literature.
  This poetry collection is one of the significant collection that the poems show us the realism of fifties of Garhwal and life sketches of Garhwalis .Kuyedi is perceived as confusing and frightening situation in huma’s life. Many poems show us Garhwalis standing on the crossroads of confusion and myopic situation.
Keyed (The Fog)
By  Kanhya Lal Dandriyal
Year of publication :1990
Arunoday prakashan Delhi  91
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Satire, wit and humour in Himalayan literature
Critical history of Garhwali literature

Mero Bwada : Sharp and Witty Satirical poems by Puran Pant Pathik’
                          Bhishma Kukreti
          The poetry  lovers , literature historians, critics  remember French poets Voltaire , Rute Beuf; German poet Wilhelm Busch; Italian poet Pietro Aritino, Salvator Rosa, Giambattista Marino ;  English satirists Pope, Johnson, Donne, Dryden, Rochester;  Sassoon, Owen Blunden Graves, Frost, Cummings, Robinson, Jeffers.Japanes poet Yokoi Kinkoku ; or Thomas Shadewell, John Dryden, , Caribbean poets as Johan Wilmot, Ralph Thomson , Grace Nicholas, Louise Bennett ,  John Agard for their creation of witty, satirical poems ; Garhwalis appreciate  the satirical poems of Puran Pant ‘ Pathik’.
  The poet , Garhwali film activist, editor and critic Madan Duklan said to this author that , Mero Bwada’ ( published in 1989) has a significant role in Garhwali poetry movement as the poetries in this volume were of satiric nature . Madan says that prior to Mero Bwada , Tidka by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna and Hansada Pat Khilda phool by Lalit Keshwan were such type of collections.
    In one interview with Bhishma Kukreti, Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna said that  Garhwalis are hard workers because of the geographical  nature and  to balance the hurdles and strugl in day to day life, Garhwalis lean to bear those hardships by creating humorous and satirical proverbs, folk poems, folk songs, folk stories  and sayings. However, in modern poetries Lalit Keshwan, Kanhya lal Dandriyal , Baulya, Netra Singh Aswal , Vinod Uniyal and Puran Pant are credited to initiate required  importance to satirical poems in modern Garhwali literature.
   Mero Bwada (my father’s elder brother) is one of the acclaimed collection of satirical poems in Garhwali before ninety.
  By nature, Purn Pant is straight forward in saying the matter as he feels. This nature of sharp comments are clearly visible in his poems in Mero Bwada .
  There are thirty six poems in this volume Mero Bwada and all poems are gem of satire. The poems shows the visible commentary on social, political, cultural, administrative , religious circles of contemporary Garhwal. Shiva kumar Badola says that these poems are of mixing realism, humour and satire and that blending expertise makes Puran Pant ‘Pathik’ different than other poets before nineties. Puran Pant provoke the readers and then activate the readers to think or do something about wrong happenings everywhere.
  The form of poems is mostly prose like poems and there three satirical Ghazals too in this volume of poetries. The language is pure Garhwali and Pant tried to avoid unnecessarily mixing Hindi wordings in Garhwali poetry as Purn pant said that the poets should avoid Hindi in creating  Garhwali literature .
  Puran Pant Pathik will be remembered in Garhwali poetic field for creating realistic  satire and portraying the wrong happenings with sharp wit, humour and irony. Bhishma Kukreti says that his poems of Mero Bwada are Bhibhdatya Kavita
Mero Bwada
Year of Publication -1989
Publisher Garhwal Sahity Parishad, Kanpur
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Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Literature
History of Indian Literature
History of Himalayan Language Literature
Critical History of Garhwali Literature
Pani: A Satirical Long Poem (Khand Kavy) by Narendra Kathait
                Bhishma Kukreti
    Narendra Kathait is one of the important signatures for writing satirical Garhwali prose. The poetry collections of volumes Tup Tup and Pani prove that Kathit can create satirical verses with the same ease as prose.
     There is a proverb in rural Uttarakhand , “ pahad ka Naunyal ar Pani Pahad ka Kam ni And , Dui taul Deshund bhaji Jandan” meaning that the water of Uttarakhand and youth are not useful for Uttarakhand, both runs towards plains. Yes! This statement is  true that Ganges and Jamuna, Nayar, Hinwal rivers are there in Garhwal but Garhwalis can not use them and youth migrate in their early age in search of jobs or beter education. Water had been a major problem for Garhwalis for centuries. This is also a historical fact that our forefathers were haaving perfect knowledge of water conservation.
  Due to necessary developmental works (making motor roads etc) , the old reserviors are drying up and there is now, more and more shortage of potable water and water for irrigation in Garhwal. In such circumstances, the sensible creative can not sit idle. Narendra Kathait created fine satirical poems centering drying up of water reservoirs, dried water pipelines because of corruption in administration and political system.
   Narendra Negi took the clue from Gangavtarn and made Bhagirathi (it is said that Bhagirath brought Ganges from heaven)  the main character or hero for creating poetries of his  long poem (Khandkavy) Pani . This author call a wise thinking by Kathit  for making Bhagirath as hero of long poem Pani. Kathit created Bhagirath as a remarkable symbol as modern corrupted engineer in this long poetry.
    Kathit criticized planners, engineers, contractors, auditors, the local self governing bodies, for not taking the required care in water management in Garhwal because every body is engaged in corruption and not spending the planned money on water management in rural Garhwal.
   Beside criticizing the government agencies, contractor and political system, Kathait did  criticize the society too as they are not aware about their duties and right for correcting the system. Narendra condemns the whole society for sleeping on their past laurels and not taking stock for present and future. 
      Narendra used simple language, old symbols , proverbs, known mythological  characters , astounding imagination, day to day problems of common men in creating this long poem Pani. The wordings create humour and satire and the reader enjoys in reading the poems and at the same time Narendra Kathit becomes successful in provoking the readers too by his satire and wit.  Since, the poems are based on reality of rural Garhwal, the readers feel as the poems are their own experiences.
 Though, the poems in prose style but have amusable flow. Many dialects are  from Bangadsyun area .
  Garhwali critic Bhagwati Prasad Nautiyal states that Narendra Kathait has his own style, flow, temperament, disposition in creating Garhwali satirical poems .
Pani : Garhwali Khandkavy
By Narendra Kathit
Year of Publication 2008AD
Publisher: Abhash Yatharth C /O  Samay Saxya, Faltu Line, Dehradun
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Indian Language Literature
History of Himalayan  Literature
History of Garhwali Literature
Critical History of Garhwali Poetry
Parvati : Collection of 100 Lyrical Garhwali Poems by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna
                            Bhishma Kukreti
           Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna does not need any introduction in Garhwali literature. Bahuguna did not leave any creative field of language literature in garhwali which, he did not touch. Parvati is poetry collection createdd by Abodh in fifties and sistees and published in 1966 (second edition published in 1994 with Hindi translation of all poems )
                    Famous Garhwali language critic Dr Govind Chatak rightly said that there is enthusiasm of youth and there is pathos in the poems because there are hundred Garhwali poems in Parvati and all are with different subjects, diverse emotions and raptures.  Dr Chatak further states that in this poetry collection, Bahuguna touched many known and unknown subject related to society and the hope or aspiration of developing garhwali society.
   Writing introductory note, dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal describes the poems of Bahuguna of Parvati as showing the reality of place (Garhwal) , time and aroma of Garhwal. However, this author feels that the poems are aimed for intellectual people than common men.
  Bahuguna narrates the life of Garhwali women very effectively and shows her different role as child she is sister of younger ones, lover, mother, grand mother , a hard worker, an economist, and warrior too . Bahuguna has been successful in showing the emotions of women’ pain, love, separation from her husband , waiting for good happening for her and family members, struggle in caring for family at all stages of life, sacrifices of Garhwali women.
 Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna reaches on his height when he recites the struggle of Garhwalis in their village. The readers  relate their life with the poems and that make Bahuguna  a successful poet of Garhwali.
    In totality there are more than hundred subject in this poetry collection, which Bahuguna touched efficiently .
   From language point of view, he used all types of words aimed mostly to intellectuals and even his experiment on creating new words are aimed to intellectuals rather than common men. This author is of opinion that nothing is wrong for aiming intellectuals by Bahuguna.
  From the points of view of poetic construction, subject and total effect  , renowned garhwali literature expert Dr Hari  Datt Bhatt Shailesh states that there is mirror of Garhwal in the poems of Bahuguna.  Balvant Singh Bisht stresses that the poems of Abodh Bahuguna are sensual and sensitive.
 This poetry collection Parvati has significance in Garhwali literature because after its publications the poets of Garhwali language got inspiration and hope that there is substance in creating and publishing Garhwali literature.
Parvati
Collection of 100  lyrical Garhwali poems
(first edition in 1966 and second edition in 1994)
By : Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna
Garhwali Prakashan
B-2, B 48, Janakpuri, New Delhi 110058
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History of Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature
Pithai Pairalo  Buransh : The Poems of Himalayan Concerns
( Commentary of Dr Govind Chatak on poetry Collection Pithai Puralo Buransh by Veena Pani Joshi)
                                 Translation  : Bhishma Kukreti
  The poems of Veena Pani Joshi in Garhwali language poem collection Pithai Pairalo  Buransh are the verses of a deep thinker, super  sensitive to the society and environment, and conscious poetess. Today, wherein , many Garhwali poets are busy in creating poems of jokes and attracting audience in Kavisammelan for a while  just by wordings without depth in the subjects; Veena Pani Joshi created poems on the real issues and happenings in Garhwal, India and around the world. The poems of Veena Pani Joshi are not limited to Garhwal but they are related to humanity and international panorama. At one ploe, Veena Pani tells about conventional culture of her motherland Garhwal that is the beneficial wordings of Rishis or sages and at another side,  she narrates the pains, joys of new era too. She is conscious about the changes taking place around us specially the emergence of ugly non-humanitarian culture. She is the poetess of big panorama. The is auspiciousness , beneficial demand in her each poem as she demands from goddess Sarswati  -- chitan ko diyo banaulun/sardha ko runwan bati chadhoulu/khairi pahad ki ansdari tel jot jagaulun/daina human.
   The poems related to Garhwali women  are the verses of of mother’s affection and rebellions . The Garhwali women are busy always in hard work and are the axis of Garhwal’s economy and social struture. Veena Pani sees Leonard de Vinci’s  Mona Lisa in their hard works.  Veena Pani Joshi does not show pity on women’s condition in Garhwal but she tries to make them aware about their super potential in the society.---teen jandari thame/gagri thame/ ganjyali gari thame/tin atp pise/ pani sare/ satti kutani rai/ utth beej-beej siyeen ni rai
   Veena Pani Joshi reminds the women that there is tender Bugyal (flower beds) on the steep ascending path. Veena appreciates for never ending hard works of Garhwali women and pleas that she requires Kutali and kalam too (hoe and pen).  Whole of Garhwal and himalayn area is facing a gigantic problem. There is problem of girl’s better education but more than that is after education, women are leaving the agriculture . Speedy migration is biggest dilemma  in rural Himalaya and the poetess is worried and says---mund mathi bharu ni cha/thanda chullon kharu nee chh/ktali dathi harchi gen /gauna pata harchi gen
    The poetess has immense affection for each part of Himalaya , all flora and fauna. In her poems, there is buransh flower ( Rhododendron flower) fuenli flowers colour the land yellow; there are kingoda, hisar, kakadi, gudadi….. There are animals as sensual, gaureya, ghughtee and there are kafu, hilans, kafal in her poems.
The poetess Veena Pani Joshi is super sensitive about wrong ecological changes by the people in Himalayan region  and says if there is no water how come frogs will voice? The readers may feel if there is shradh in village the crows will never come in the village , without bride going to her sasural, kaffu bird  will never be messenger. Veena Pani Joshi shows the deep relationship between the Himalayan people  and flora/fauna of their area. This aspect of sensitivity is new to poetry.
   Veena Pani is also insightful for changing happenings around the glob specially in Himalayan society. She narrates the loosing culture ,  beneficial culture and she also shows us  the new benefits of changes but Veena weeps on wrong changes which are dangerous  not only for Himalayan people but perilous for whole of humanity too.   
  In many verses, Veena Pani Joshi shows her ambiguity and shocks for the new unheard, unseen political perplexities and social turmoil by new changes very effectively and those poems are capable for stirring the readers . Veena Pani is shocked the readers when she shows in her poems that  that the responsible authorities for Ganges Cleaning Project search for bottled mineral water near the bank of Ganges.
   It is always dangerous to write on contemporary subjects because the creative becomes the enemy of authorities and atrocious commanders of society and religions. However, Veena Pani  does not hesitate to pen down the contemporary paradoxes of politics, society and religions. Her writings show that she is super  susceptible  for the society and environment .
  There is rhythm, there is complete poetic form, sensitivity, simplicity to understand the meanings, beauty, harmony in her poems as her father late Chakradhar Bahuguna had in his poems.
Pithai Pairalo Buransh is a remarkable collection of Garhwali language poems and is very excellent sign for Himalayan concern and Himalayan languages literature  .
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History of Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature
      Brief Notes on Poetry Collections of Different Poets in One Book
          Bhishma Kukreti
      The publication of Garhwali language poetry collection of various poets in one book started from 1932 and till date, eleven such volumes of poetry collection have been published.
1- Garhwali Kavitavali : Vishwambhar Datt Chandola edited this poetry collection and published in 1932. There are poems of poets as Shashishekranand Sakalni, Sanatanand Saklani, Devendra  Datt Raturi, Girija Datt Naithani, Mathura  Datt Naithani, Sur Datt Saklani, Ambika Datt Sharma, Ratnambar Chandola, Devendra Datt Saklani, Daya nand Bahuguna and Sada Nand Kukreti in this first volume of Garhwali poetry collection of various poets.
2- Veer Garhwal (1950) : Pundit Vishal Mani Sharma edited this second collection of various Garhwali poets in one volume in the name Veer Garhwali in 1950. There are poems of Baldev Prasad Deen, Bhawani Datt Thapliyal and others .
3-  Hisar (1955): Buransh Prakashan Dehradun published this volume of Garhwali verses of various poets .
4- Bugyal (1960) : Ganesh Sharma published Bugyal from Garhwali Sahitya Mandal, Delhi in 1960.
5- Maulyar (1960) Girdhari Lal Thapliyal ‘Kankal’ edited and published Maulyar in 1960
Rant Raibar (1963) Dr Govind Chatak edited Rant Raibar
6- Chham Ghunghuru Bajla (1964) : dr shiva Nand edited and published Chham Ghughuru Bajla through Shyam Book Depot Dehradun in 1964
7- Sar (1964): Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal edited this volume of Garhwali sad poems (khuded Geet) from Shyam Book Depot in 1964.
8- Buransh (1965):  Ganesh Sharma edited this volume of four Garhwali poets - Kanhaya lal Dandriyal, Jaya Nand Khugsal ‘Baulya’, Sher Singh ‘Gadhdeshi’, and Jagdish Bahuguna ‘Kiran.
9- Shailvani (1981): Shailvani is a mile stone in the history of Garhwali, Himalayan literature. Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna edited the collection of more than hundred poets and he also wrote historical, critical details of Garhwali poetry. Himalaya Kala Sangam Delhi published this historical timeless volume in 1981.
10- Gwathni Gaun Bate (2002) : Madan Duklan edited Gathwani Gaun Bate (2002) . Girish Sundriyal is associate editor of this volume. There are poems of Narendra Singh Negi, Madan mohan Duklan, Chinmay Sayar, Beena Baijwal, Devendra Prasad Joshi, Preetam Apachhyan Veena Pani Joshi, Girish Sundriyal, Niranjan Suyal, Balbir Singh Rawat, Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’, Neeta Kukreti, Sanjay Sundriyal, Shashi Bhusan ‘Raja’, Sukhdev ‘Dard’, Hemvati Nandan bhatt, Ganesh Khugsal ‘Gani’ and Ashish Sundriyal. All the poems are of high standard . Samay Saxya, Dehradun  published this volume
10-Biji Gyayee Kavita  (2004):  Madhusudan Thapliyal edited this volume of poems of eighteen  poets.  There are poems of  Tota Ram Dhundiyal, Khyat Singh Chauhan, Om Prakash Semwal, Vishwa Prakash Baudai, Satish Balodi, Veerendra Panwar, Girish Pant,  Devesh Joshi, darshan singh Bisht ‘Rangeela’. Shiv Dayal ‘Shailej’. Sukhdev Dard, Mayaram Dhoundiyal ‘Vikal’. Leela Nand Raturi, Ramesh Chandra Santoshi, Ashok Uniyal, Gajendra Nautiyal, Mahendra Dhyani, Hemvati Nandan Bhatt . Dhad Prakashan published this volume of poem collection.
11- Gwai:  Gwai has a specific place  in Garhwali literature. The poets are related to a specific area Syunsi Baijrao. The poets are either born in that area or they were serving in that are. There are  poems of Shakuntala Inshtwal, Vishwa Prakash Baudai, Dr Rajendra Prasad Bhatt, Govind Singh Rawat, Shiv Dayal Shailaj, Bachi Ram Baudai, Sanjay Dhoundiyal, Chitra Singh Kandari, Anil Kumar Shailani, Ranveer Datt Chandan, Sushil Chandra, Ashok Uniyal ‘Agya’, in this volume of poems. Dhad -Syunsi Baijaron published this volume .
12 Dhai (1980) There following poems of eight poets in Dhai published by Garhwal Sahitya Mandal Deli

1 Lalit Keshwan
  a. Tai rokaa
  b .Daam
   c Rwatya baan
   d. Lalangi Gawadii
   e Ghunda hilyai
    f. Knakuye chowaraa senaa holaa    total   6 poems
 
2 Chander singh Rahi
   a. Jaat ar Thaat
   b Ransinghaa vajide
   c Grah maa ka laal    =                           3 poems
 
3 Parashar Gaur
   
  1 Leesaa paid
  2 Dhuudh ar booli
   3. Taanaa
 4 laalch
   5.Janidi Chai                                          5 poems
 
4 Lokesh Navani
 1. aaj bidhrohi ka swar tahi sikhi gyaa
2 boolye piidaa                                           2 poems
 
5 Netra singh Aswal
 
  1 kavita
  2 myaaraa deshai tashveer
  3 Sakshaatkaar ek Dhangu se
  4 gaubandh huhun cho
  5 cheetee ayee gau beiti                              5 poems
 
6 Dindyal Banmduni
   1 kholi dhu kuii bandh t
   2 mere aanso ki kiimat
   3 jakh raat sadani podi rai
   4 kati paani abrkh sarag biti                       4  poems
 
7 Vinod Uniyal
    1. samaajbado vitterkhand
    2 aajaadii                                                 2 poems
 
8  Yasvant Singh Rawat
   1. veeran desh                                           1 poem
 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009


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History of Indian Literature
History of Himalayan Languages Literature
History of Garhwali Literature
Garh Bhasha, Leela Ramayana :A Heritage of Garhwali Language
                                Bhishma Kukreti
    The story of  Ramayana epic attracts every society and human being because of its human values, idealism, interpersonal relationships among various communities of different or same societies, importance of individual and collective sacrifices for the betterment of family, society, nation and human beings.
     Guna Nand Dangwal ‘Pathik’ is credited to adapt Ramayana in Garhwali language for  the stage play as Ram Leela.
  We find first narration of Ramayana  story in lengthy poetic form in Mahabharata epic (Ramopakhyayan) . Later on, Valmiki  created Ramayana epic in Sanskrit.  Later on the creative of all indiad languages  as the Ramayana in different languages as “ Adi Ramayana by Sage Valmiki has been either adapted or translated into the various regional languages in India. Majority of them are not sheer exact translation instead they all have their own distinguishing characteristics.
  Famous poet Kalidas (born in  Kaviltha, Garhwal and worked in the kingdom Ujjain) created Raghuvansham epic on the basis of Adikavi Valmiki’s Ramayana. There have been versions of adapted Ramayana in Cambodia, Thai, Annam, Tibetan languages
Ramcharitmanas created  by  Goswami Tulsidas in the 16th century in Awadhi  is the Ramayana version popular in North India.
In Urdu, it is named as  Pothi Ramayana created in  17th century.
 Ramavatara Charita  is th Kashniri version written in 19th century.
 The Punjabi  Ramavatara  version is written in 17th century by Guru Gobind Singh.
A Gujarati version of Tulisdas Ramayana was created  in 17th century by poet Premanand.
The Marathi version of Ramyan is Bhavartha Ramayana written by Eknath in the 16th century. There are  references of Ramayana being translated into old Marathi during the 12th or 13th century.
The Assamese language version is Katha Ramayana or Kotha Ramayana in 15th century  written by Madhava Kandali.
The Bengali version Krittivas Ramayan was written by poet Krittivas in 15th century.
The Oriya Balramadasa Ramayana was adapted by great poet Balarama Das in the 16th century.
Buddha Reddy. Created the Telugu Ramayan is known as Sri Ranganatha Ramayana  while in  Karnataka, it is Kannada versions of the Ramayan – the Kumudendu Ramayana (Jain version) in 13th century and the Kumara-Valmiki Torave Ramayana in 16th century. There is another one titled Ramachandra Charita Purana  created  by Nagachandra during the 13th century.
The most popular version of Ramayana in Tamil is Kamba Ramayana written by poet Kamban in the 12th century.
 In 16th century, Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan  wrote the Malayalam Adhyatma Ramayanam Kilipattu 
The Nepali  versions,  one  is called  Siddhi Ramayana   created by Mahakavi skidlids Mahaju Amatye and in Khas language bhanubhkt wrote as Bhanubhkt ku Ramayana
   The Jain and Buddhist  scholars created Ramayana  for their religious purposes.
      The  learned scholars translated . Ramayana into their languages as English, Russian, Spanish, German, French, Chinese, Japanese and m many other languages .
      The  importance of Garhwali Ramayana is of many folds. The biggest advantage of Gadh Bbhasha  Leela Ramayana  by  Guna Nand Pathik is that Garhwalis can play Ram Leela in their own languages rather than depending Radhesyam Vachk’s Ram Leela in Hindi. Second important aspect of Gadh Bhasha  Leela Ramayana is its fulfilling the gap of Sanskrit classics being translated or adapted in Garhwali language.
            The story in poetic formed Gadh Bhasha Leela Ramayana starts from  the famous prayer by Ravana  and ends with the prayer of  lord Rama. In between thre are scenes of each major haapenings of Ramayana story. .The story telling style is in poetic Parsi theatre style for stage playing Ramayana and loudness is prominently visible  rather than intellectuality.  The narration by ‘Pathik’ is very simple and dialects are used that every Garhwali of any area including Yamnotri, Jaunlsar, Neet or Mana or Dusant can understand the verses. The tone is either in Caupaya or Garhwali folk songs.
  The language and tunes make this volume a heritage for Garhwali language apart from being adapted Ramayana.
Gadh Bhasha  Leela Ramayana
By Guna Nand  Pathik
 Year of publication :1983
Garh Sahity Sanskrit Vikash Parishad
186, B, Nehru Colony , Dehradun 248001
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti. Mumbai,India, 2010








































































Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature
Ud Ghuguhtee Ud : Rivulets Creating Ganges
(Review of Garhwali , Kumaoni Poetry Collection edited by Gajendra Batohi and Mahendra Dhyani )
                                            Bhishma Kukreti
   The languages are dying and the reasons may be many. After British took over the rule of Kumaun and Garhwal, regions ,  the dying process for Kumauni and Garhwali languages also started. The speedy migration, the ignoring attitude of the state authorties and no economical benefits from the two major languages of Uttarakhand , there is progressive loss of speakers of the both the languages . The learned scholars of Uttarakhand are afraid that Kumaoni and Garhwali languages may be in endangered conditions after seventy five years. Therefore, there are people who are busy to find out strategies and tactics for protecting these more than two thousand years old  languages of India.
  One of the best suited strategies is the unity among Kumaoni and Garhwali creative for safeguarding the interest of two one of the oldest languages of India that is  Kumaoni and Garhwali languages . There are magazines and newspapers , which publish the Garhwali and Kumaoni literature together and by that there is a creation of unity among the Garhwali and Kumaoni creative . For more than a decade, Famous Hindi research scholar and Kumaoni poet Dr Gajendra Batohi of Avichal Prakashan has been successfully pursuing the cause of uniting Kumaoni and Garhwali creative by publishing the poems of Garhwali and Kumaoni languages in one volume. Bringing the poems or literature of Kumaoni and Garhwali languages together also help the readers, creative and common men to understand each other ‘s reality of  different regions too.
 Ud Ghughtee Ud (2005) a poetry collection of various poets of Garhwali and Kumaoni languages is another such volume after publication of Danda Kantha Swar  (2202) by Dr Gajendra Batohi
  The book as Ud Ghughuti  Ud serves many too purposes as the marvelous book Two Ravens Press reveals together the sensuality , reality, history of layers, close attention to impression or event by two different languages poets ---Maoilios Caimbeul and his neighboring language poet Mark O. Goodwin . The famous critic and admirer of such practices   Kevin MacNeil writes about the book ‘Two sides of the pass, two languages, two poetic sensibilities – and one uniquely appealing poetry collection. Bridging the symbolic pass are Gaeldom’s most under-appreciated bard, the outstanding Maoilios Caimbeul, and his near-neighbor, the keen-eyed relative newcomer, Mark O. Goodwin. Between them they give choral voice to a rich and many-sided world. Their masterfully composed scenery will feel like a place of homecoming to native and stranger alike.'
 The editor of Garhwali poetry section selected the poems of Udbhav Bhatt , Om P Semwal, Dr Khyat Singh Chauhan,  Chandi Prasad Bangwal, Chinmay Sayar , Tota Ram Dhoundiyal, Darshan Singh Bisht, Dinesh Juyal, harish Juyal, Deepak Rawat, dharma nad Uniyal, Dr Nand Kishor Dhoundiyal Dr Narendra Gauniyal, Navin Dimri, Prithwee Singh Kedarkhandi, banwari lal Sundriyal, Beena Kandari, B N Sharma Pathik, madan singh Dhayeda, Dr manorama Dhoundiyal, Manoj Kharkwal, Mahaveer Ranwalta , Maheddra Dhyani, Mrityunjay Pokhariyal, rakesh Chandra Nautiyal, Dr Rajeshwar Uniyal, Vish Prakash Baudai, Veena Pani Joshi, Veerendra Panwar,  satya nand Badoni, Dr Surendra Semalti, Harish Chandra Bahuguna and Hemwati Nandan  Bhatt
   Gajendra batohi selected the Kumaoni poems of M.D Andola,  Dr Kirti Ballabh Lohani, Dr Gajendra Batohi, Ganesh Pandey, Dr Ganesh Mani Tripathi, Govind Singh Asiwal, Ghanand Pandey, Char Singh Chauhan, Dr Chandra Shekhar Pathak, Jagdish Joshi, Jamohan Jeena, Jeevan Chandra Joshi, Dr D S Baura, Damodar Joshi, Devki Mehra, Navin Joshi, Purushottam Sharma, bansidhar Pathak, Bahadur Bora, Mathura Datt Math pal, Mohan Kumaoni, Mohan Joshi, Dr Yogendra Joshi. Vinita Joshi,  Vishnu Shashtri, Shyam Singh Kutaula, Dr sher singh Bisht, satish Rawat, Hayat singh Rawat, Hari Singh Ghapola,
    The  subjects of this volume poetries are also of varied nature . The main subjects in this volume are prayer of goddess Sarswati, the old culture and diminishing old culture, the wrongs of new culture in rural Uttarakhand, satire on many wrong happenings, criticism for corruptions at every level in daily life, aspirations from the creation of Uttarakhand state and non fulfillments of promises by politicians and authorities, deterioration in geographical environment -the man made mistakes  , migration and its effects on rural life, non delivering education system, alcoholism and many common interest of rural Uttarakhand . There are many poems related to idealistic situation or message offering to readers.
     

From style point of view, there are various types of style in this poetry collection
. There are poems of conventional styled poems, lyrics, non lyrical and  experimental poem too .
  The efforts of Dr Batohi is worthy for many sense that he is trying hard to bridge the two regional creative of Uttarakhand and this task is good for the future unity to fight the battle of protection of Kumaoni and Garhwali languages,
Ud Ghughuti Ud
Editors: Dr Gajendra Batohi and Mahendra Dhyani
Avichal Prakashan
3/11 Hydal colony, Bijnor (UP )
Year of publication 2005
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010







Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwali Poetry Collection-4
                               Uktat : Complete  Satirist Poems of  Harish Juyal
                                                                     Bhishma Kukreti
   According to the  author , there are three types of  Garhwali Satirist poetries:
Satire with   Realism  or Dandariyalism
Intellectual oriented  or Bahugunaism
Clown some satirist poetries, Thattaism or Kavi Sammelini poetry
          The satire poems , which are weaved on intellectual thinking and words are searched by intellect and not by heart come under Bahugunaism (Abodh bandhu Bahuguna) . Here the poet becomes intellectual means and lacks conventional Garhwali-soul.. The satirist Garhwali poetries of  Lalit Keswan, Vinod Uniyal, Puran Pant ‘Pathik’, Prem lal Bhatt ,  Girish Sundariyal, Netra Singh Aswal, Jaipal Singh  come under Bahugunaism , Intellectualism is more powerful than conventional realism in such poems.
                From early seventies, when the custom of kavi Sammelan started  in Delhi and now Kavi Samellan have become popular in Garhwal, there have emerged mushroom of satirist poets in Garhwali who the author put them in Clownsome poets or Thattabaj or Kavi Sammelani poets. They create poetries for amusing the audience  and could be said their poetries is alcoholic drinks for the audience. These poets pay more attention on the laughter than satire, irony and real wit. However, they are much required to create attraction among common men for Garhwali poetries. Such poetries may not be ‘Kaljayi’ or can not sustain for more than a couple of years but are essential evil for Garhwali language . Chhilvat comes under this category. Some poems of Jaipal Singh alias ‘chhipadu dada’ also come under this category.
        Satire with realism and wherein Garhwali images, symbols. reality and words are woven naturally come under the category of “Satire with Realism” and Kanhaya Lal Dandariyal is the initiator of such types of poetries in Garhwali language. Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’has extended this line of Kanhaya Lal Dandariyal and he broadened the line of Kanhaya lal that though Harish says that his poems are influenced by Dandariyal , we may see that Juyal gained exclusivity and individuality by his poetic craftsmanship and his poetic world becomes entirely different than Dandariyal but axis remains of Dandariyalism  style. Ram Prakash Arya ‘Bagchhat’ also come under this category and unfortunately his death at young age is really a curse for Garhwali satire poetry .The unpublished poetries of Ram Prakash are the best example of Dalit literature and have  humor, irony, wit, sarcasm and his attack on the castes orientation  persisted in Garhwal or in India.
       Uktat (anxiety) is the collection of sixty three poems of Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’ for which he received a prestigious most award of Garhwali literature ‘Aditya Ram Navani’ award in 2002. He has a peculiar advantage in weaving the poem that his grand father was ‘Jagari (who sings the historical songs or folk lore in a worship ceremony)’ and Harish has all effects of being a member of ‘Jagari’ family, though his father is ex-army man. Due to link with Jagari family, Harish knows the importance of vocabulary of poems from his childhood , knows how to create verses immediately , which attract the attention of people for enjoyment and dancing too. The effects of his link with Jagari family is clearly seen in many poems and  attracting capacity of his poems to the public .
Sense of lyric is visible in his each poem
As:    Uses of symbols, images  for activating the reader’s memory is a weapon for satirist as Francis Bacon rightly says,“ He that hath a satirical vein , as he maketh others afraid of his wit, so he had need be afraid of others’ memory”. As is a poem  of narrating optimism but Harish chooses the words, symbols in such a way that this poem does not become dry preaching poetry but you will smile.
Sarail ralu tipatt huyn
Jwanni jalan ku bagat hwalu
Sachhai: Sachai poem is again preaching poem but with lot of humor.
Parya patali ka pakyan  machha ni dyakha
Khundo badi patt ghulo goli bhaiji
Bal: Charles Churchill says,
“ When satires flies abroad on falshood ‘s wing,
Short is her life and impotant her sting;
But when to truth allied, the wound she gives
Sinks deep, and to remotest ages lives
There is paradox in our life and the poet shows us the reality or dirt in our society, which stings for ages :
Hamar beech man ju sher banyun cha
Oo byalai ku rangun syal ch bal
Achkalun: caius Cornelius Tacticus says, “ A bitter jest, when the satire comes too near the truth, leaves a sharp sting behind.“ and this poem achkalam is exclusivity of Juyal where he does not attack directly with his axe like words but he shows the reality through philosophical but words with full of wit
Vote denau khun angutha chhap
Adhikar  huyun chau achkalyun
Fundyanath: When satire changes into high anger, it becomes sharp attack as:
Bhasan butik halya banyan chhan rajneeti ka
Syara lwai ka sana chhan fondant
Kilai: Harish directly asks question about the wrong attitude of people
Khubsat, khibdat, bhibhdat, kilai
Parai khushi ma tibdat klai
Bhair biten gentleman
Bhitar biten sags at kilai
Myara gaun ka log:  Juyal exposes the failure of our new society in villages:
Hail-dhyadee, bhadwad khaunik dhupan laundan
Pujana raundan saukar tain myar gaon ka log
Thag : Thag is to show the ridicules happening in our whole society as new attitude:
Peeth pichhnai ag lagaik muchhalya munjhana ku ayan chhan
Paraya kandham banduk dhaurik triger dabana ku ayan chhan
Uth Jara: Maridith in his famous book -Idea of Comedy, explains about satire that the satirist is a contractor of ethos who cleans the dirt of the community and we may experience the duty of Harish Juyal in this poem as :
Kandali ka jhumpa dhol dyawa
Buransa ka phool limhao jara
Khani kyap: Though Swift says that satire is a mirror on which we can see everybody except her/his own shadow but Harish is different and he does not hesitate exposing  himself with other fellows too as said by Issac Watts, “ Satirists expose their own ill nature” as in this poem
Aj dagdyaon methai khani kyap wai ge
Mujhyun sarail fir fir tejab hwai ge
Ye jaman : Oxford dictionary defines the satire that satire means a discourse or conversation, usually through poetic form, contemptuous or condemning the follies of human beings and the abuses of society. We may feel the abuses of the society:
Barakh pujdara vai baman ka jog dyakho
Bhagai bhatag khand khand bihal hwaigyai
Guladangi: Irony is one of ingredients of  satire and Harish creates  irony in simplistic way :
Yojanau ko parsad bajat ki tailind khaindi khundik
Kamisan ki dabali ghumaiki pardhan guladangi kari ge
Kana garud : Telling the follies through indirect way is one of the pet style of Juyal from many his styles of narrating the subject as :
Paray kudi agyan chaind, arvi ag bujhan chaind
Bhitar bhitar  damar lagaik bhair jol lagan chaind
Pad ku Uyar: The clergymen attacks on evil and not personalities. Same way, most of the time,  without self interest,  the satirist attacks on evil without considering whose evil is this as:
Kail karan pahad ku uyar rai
Baid hankatt jair/bukhar ma lachar rai
Sakla Log: There is  contradictions in the society and is found in  individuals too. The satirist exposes various types of contradictions through his poems as :
Byali tak jain tumara jalad khanin
Aj vaikihan ma han misana chai hain?
Apnu gujar chya k kala pani ma kaiki
Gura thai bal pivar doodh pivana chau hain?
Kichad-Pichad: The job of satirist is to create anger in the mind of reader or audience for correcting the wrong happenings in the society and Harish Juyal performs well his duty as satirist and humorist for awakening the readers:
Bajar beech sabji-mandi kichad pichad
Such ka chawk, dukh ki dhandi kichad pichad
Jagri tund, dhupanu fund, bhut disco
Hadfail bichari chandi kichad pichad
Jai Ram Ji ki: The objective of a student is to have knowledge and endeavors for gaining knowledge, or a soldier should have brevity as main characteristics but if the individual or individuals as society forget their mottos and actions, the poet becomes vociferous and speaks like by using powerful metaphoric words , common images and symbols:
Woo Bandar hauri chhai jaun bwal akad se, lamka ma jaiki Rawan ka samni Jai Ram ji ki
Tadtada hweki college chali gen hero bauniki
Syani sagat par knowledge dekho jia ram ji ki
Ghanghtol: Usually, the poet is always a philosopher and a teacher too,  becomes sad by seeing the negations or contradictions in the life and  expresses her/his objervations in different style and forms. Harish Kutz is an expert showing us negations, disagreements, paradoxes of life in humrous ways by using conventional and modern images and symbols:
Farak nauna naunyun ma karan walun suno tumara nauna suk, nauni lal chachkar rai
Sadgunon ka painchha ki tu bat tain ‘kutz ‘ ni kaur, chauchhwadi man-hater ka chain teeta human dwara rai
Ved-Bidhan- When a decaying situation in the society becomes beyond recovery and recovery becomes compulsion, the satirist leave humor, irony, funny ways, mimicry and speaks the truth without mincing the words as harish says:
Geeta, puran, kuran ku chhwara, sabyun ka eksani gyan ch chhwara
Kaffu lagani kaga tain dhai, bhali buri yakh jawan ch chhwara
Gaidi Dhair: Robert Harris (1990)  explains the job of satirist in “ The Purpose and Method of Satire” , “… the specific targets in satire are often used to instruct and correct the general populace..”. Harish Juyal is not behind the saying of Robert Harris:
Ini tham chor gundon ka note sahi adim tain de le bhote
Pas huno ku mantar seekh, mixie man ni pees silvat ma ghot
Seekh: A teacher does not leave his properrties even after his death and same is applicable to Juyal. By profession, he is teacher and does not leave the habit of teaching and preaching , though, with wits and humor in his poem Seekh, where he also  uses the folk story of Garhwal with ease:
Bhair tala lagyan yakh bhitar human chhan khandwar
Talu twakan valu dida dil ku khwalan seekh
Kiali dhareen takk teri paraya banthun hatyana ki
Sat gwairun apas man tillu danI bantan seekh
Vandana : Willium Hass says In “Some Characteristics of Satire” that  the application of the satiric method is more of attitude or stance than a gener or type of literature (“ It is not bounded by form and structure but exists as an approach to the situation which can be present in any of the many literary forms” ). If Harish Juyal prays or worships a god or goddess, his prayer or worship definitely will have irony, humor, wit .
Jayati jay jay man siSwati jai kumau Garhwal ji
Kukur bi naadi bukhai gen haman jaunthe pali ji
Sel: The best satire is which irritates the audience for knowing the evil in the atmosphere and though the audience knows it but feels the pinch after poet shows the evil indirect method. Harish is expert of pinching the public by his poems:
Halwa khaiki dant pisena chhan, ghisena chhan
Adai samjhaik nauna bayena chhan t bayen dya
Gairal: There have been many satiric  scenes in various Hindi movies against big family or more children by a couple . Same way in Garhwali literature, a couple of poets tried to criticizing the more numbers of children however, but Harish ’Kutz’  goes ahead of all in creating humorous satire  against big family and supporting small family by using  inflation, exaggeration and best uses of symbols and images  .
Panchaun funkara maran lagyun , chhayun chhati fulanu
Sataun  afat kaurige syu abi lpyan myal ma
Khani peeni kya ch apdi twaima sach bwanu chhaun
Min tibasi bhat khayi ek daduli dal ma
Bikhili Dunya: When a poet becomes straight as truth teller, his poem becomes very sharp .Samuel Sullivan tells that undeserved merit is satire and we may experience what Samuel means by reading harish 
Pap k bhitar raibasu kaurik
Sachai ki delim thukani chh dunya
Aadim aadim tai ghulan lagun chha
‘Juyal’ dunya thain ghulani cha dunya
Sach ki Ankhi Motiyabind: Harish is also the master of mock encomium and since, the reader feels that the poet is sincere his narration is well understood by readers without any difficulty. Feinberg , Pfaff, Simpson  cautions that if there are miscues and errors in the mind of audience or readers, the deadpan or satire does not make any effect and audience struggles either to understand or just reject the subject even if it has lot of humor. Harish provides full of cues through conventional symbols , images, proverbs to his audience  in his satiric poems even they are with values and preaching:
Sach ki ankhi moribund jhutha ankha chhala chhan
Burai chamkani cha chamm bhalai farai jala chhan
Baila-banja ghas peendu khaiki utana human chhan
Jaunl annai danI kamai unka giccho mwala chhan
Bakkibat: Exaggeration  creates humor and satire too provided the poet is wise using right and with words of cues:
Kukar-kakhad ek bhadlind mund kucheki dagdi parali chatna chhan bakkibat
Ichchadhari chhpodyaman hamari gaun man nai nai laguli katana chhan bakkibat
Au Rai Au : In Garhwali as in other languages, the same sentence or group of words have double meaning and the tone is the only way of differentiating of real meaning . Harish did an experiment by using “Au Rai Au’ group of words very effective to create satire with hmour:
Hamari kakhdi chwarnu chhe tu au rai au!
Sular putuk dharnu chai tu au rai au!
Kana garud t tyara human chhan yar dost
Ar hadki ghughtyon ki twadni chai tu au rai au!
Jhail: It seems as if  Stanley Lane Poole read Jhail poem of Juyal and that is why Stanley  says that satire has a power of fascination that no other written thing posses and . Jhail is perfect humorous poem without any twist and complexity. Though this poem is somehow a love poem by using  different - different figures of speech, the poem became a pure humorous poem and a Garhwali will laugh loudly after listening or reading this poem
Log bwaldan ki jwan dhung ma ag hond
Takk lagaiki ayee ar parekh jai
Parmesur :The saying of Nathaniel Hawthorne applies to the poem Parmesur, “Of a bitter satirist it might be said that the person or thing on which the satire fells shriveled up as if devil had spit on it”
Khadu lagaunlu tyara nauku jab bipakhsyun ki
Nikal delu jhiran-kiran parmesur
Matlab yoch : In Matlab ya ch , Juyal tenors soothingly rebukes the frivolous  life of rural Garhwal in his present time . This poem reminds us the poems of Pope’s Rape of the Lock (1714)
Karjpat l dabe gin bhula myara sukila din
Myar banth andhyari rat udankar ni ayee matlab ya cha
Padhan Bada : Padhan Bwada is not satire in its full sense but a sad story of aged person of villages of Garhwal whose children are migrated in plains and the aged persons spending their life in loneliness. Samlaun is also same type of poem
Gura Vandana :Dr Shantarani Says that satire is the strong weapon for showing antagonism and hate  and we may experience the odium and animosity against the social  system at the fundamental or base level  but vital rank of democracy i.e.  inhabitants   of village :
Ajanau tain katan wala tyara dant todi delu
Juyal thain dhann podalu juttu hath manija
Bhaut Badhiya: The collector of Amar Kosh, Shankar Puntambekar states that “ The satire is the razor-sharp expression for the  era for criticizing the wrong happenings in the society. The satire hits very effectively where there is injustice, inequality, abuses, exploitations,  immorality, nepotism, factionalism, corruption, classicism, hoardings, red tape, unemployment, drought, flood, food scarcity, adulteration, family dynasty ism, ..”Harish hits on the above wrongs in the society through his poem “ Bhaut Badhiya”
Butpujai: First  prime Minster of India late Jawahar Lal Nehru said about the famous cartoonist Sahnkar, “ ..a true cartoonist (satirist)  is not just a maker of fun but who sees the inner significance of an event and by a few strokes impresses on others…”  Harish Juyal has also the power of showing us the inner significances of wrong happenings in our allowing superstitious (andhvishwash)  in our society in Bhutpuja poem :
Gaudi kilai latyani cha, kilya pooj kali rat
Jagardar murga kunai, hudkya da palya le hath
Desh ka hal: Dr Alka K Dange says, “ The satire without humor becomes abuse and desiccated.”. Harish knows mixing of humor in dry subject and expertly makes such subject as entertaining as joy as in Desh ka Hal:
Jaun saanki bhakk bilki desh ka
Voo dyabta banya chhan re desh ka
Aibi Goar: Harish has gifted competence for using Garhwali words which make the satire as entertaining as bad-badan’s folk song as Issar Evan says, “ The satire becomes entertaining and tasty when it has natural humor”.
Abinda anbolya youn gorun tain dekhi dekhik
Bagh bujya putug khitgani  marana chhan
 Little Peg: M S Abrams describes satire as the literary art of diminishing or derogating a subject by making it ridiculous and evoking towards it attitudes of amusement. Harish makes the reasoning of taking alcoholic drinks as ridiculous  as top most  satiric poets  of world class poetries did in their language poems:
Little peg pen pwadal bwe ka saun, tab talak ju tvai chwadalu bwe ka saum
Yanl pet ki kidi mwardan kuch ni hondu, tyara saun ju jhoot bwalalu bwai ka saun
Kushal Kamana : It is not that Harish can not create serios and inspirational  poems, his kushal kamana is the proof that Harish is master of other branches of poetry other than humor and satire
Apan banth ku gham meel sabyun thainki
Kaunpun ni ra kwee tyaru myaru bhai tab
Choosi Ja :Dr Suresh Maheshwari says that the poet gets inspiration for writing satire when there is conflicts and struggle between idealism  and reality, thoughts and implimentative actions and it is sure that Harish got inspiration to write the poem Choosi Ja by observing many conflicting struggle, obligationlessness and deceptive nature and mannerism in the society:
Jaun thain taranai vee duban lagyan chhan
Chhal paunchhi hamthain baglike bwagan choosi ja
Daundya dancer: It seems, as far as satire poem creating is concerned,  Harish Juyal runs on the line of great poet Lord Byron who said , “Fools are my theme, let satire be my songs” and Harish creates poem criticizing the youth who are forgetting the natural etiquettes of society or arts
Myalu chati deli meri ek khanate ma , ar moch dyakho Rana pratap jan bananu chhe
Kandud chhan byanda chhan tyara dhameli chhwadin cha teri dhoti pair chuwa kyonki sharmani chai
 Dhad : Dhad poem is humorous and satirist as well and with full of conventional abuses of Garhwali are used by him in Dhad and  every Garhwali reader whether he speaks Garhwali or not that Garhwali will enjoy the poem .
Jail hamaroo banthu chorik khan bhare
Vaiki patt gand mori jan bhare
Hey Ween : Clark says that satire need have no moral lesson or didctic purpose but be aggressive or critical to situations and harish is expert of creating such satiristic poem which attacks the situation or society in Hey ween
Chauchhwadi hamari chhween var pwar he veen, ram dain log bhaut jaltmaar hey veen
Jarasi jai din bitai ham ufran baithi, sya unka mukhund jhwalu pod , hey veen
Myara Mulak: Late Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal wrote a timeless poem for describing Garhwali (myaro Gadhwal, Bharat ko Bhal…). After that the satiric poets in Garhwali, habitually, write poem to describe Garhwal this way or that way but no body could provide such a witty poem as Dandriyal could offer. Juyal also wrote the poem for description of Garhwal and he showed the respect to Dandriyaal in his Myara Mulak  poem, which again shows the effect of Dandriyal on his successors in satire verses:
Dandriyal ji ki gicchi podin aunla danee, bachyun nirbhagi maryun bhagyan myara mulak
Juyal rai santula jan cchvaun cchwan ni kaur samali ki rakh apni gicch myara mulak 
Chor Chatva : Maynard Mack says about satire, “ Satire .. Asserts validity and necessity of norms , systematic values and meaning that contained by recognized codes.” Harish Juyal proves the validity of saying of Mack in his poem where he pins point on the continuous erosion of social simplicity and increasing double standard in the society and at the same time provides the solution to check the erosion too:
Birala doodh ka jagwal karna chhan, kana dai jamana chhan, gura raudi thamik bhitryun bhitaryun chinch chhulana chhan
Golan lagan ni bisari ‘juya’ bhitar bite chital rai aunsi ki rat chor chatva tyar dwar Khulna chhan
Maya Ku Fikval: This poem is different because from just reading it you will feel it is a
love poem and aimed for an extreme love of a lover with lot of humor and wit without attacking anybody:
Chauk teer klai ai tu junyali rat ma
Bhagwan jani jun  far tidwak aige
Bandarya saloot: The specialty of Harish is to attack with humor on double standard , deceitfulness and trickiness in the society . Ravindra Ryagi a Hindi satirist says, “ Satire is the best medium for  exposing the wrongs or misconducts  in the society. If there is humor in the satire, it becomes more sharper and effective” . The poem ‘bandrya saloot ‘ of Juyal is the true witness for the saying of Tyagi
Bhair satkar karna chhan bhai log bag bhitar fitkar marna chhan log bag
Rwai rwai ka  puchhana raundan hal chal, haisi hainsik morna chhan bahi log bag
Mera Dukh : If we analyze in depth the tragedy is the mother of satire and humor . Mera Dukh and Jikudi buthyanu aige poems are the examples of inner pain, hopelessness but uses of symbols (exaggeration ) and images for creating humor :
Myara  dukh ithga jathga gaina asman ka
Riti Bhandi: Eminent Hindi and Marathi satire critic Alka Dange says that according to learned knowledgeable, there are seven elements of satire “ reality, seriousness, sensibility, mature language, intellectuality, allusiveness and neutral analysis . Riti Bhandi is  one of the examples of poems created by Harish that he fulfills the literary norms of satire creation
Khud: Harish is a insightful poet and can write tragic poem too. Khud is not satiric and humorous poem but a poem of sadness for emptiness because of something lacking in an individual. The poem  Ulyara Paran, Gani, Gijar  poems  come under this category .
Samali Jai Ho: The eminent Hindi satirist Sharad Joshi  says, “ The main element of satire is that it should be attached to struggle of life or attached to an average life. If the subject and description of literature is not attached to life, there is something wrong with the satire”. Samali ja Ho is a love poem but with wit, humor, sensibility, struggle and  liveliness of life. If Sharad Joshi would have alive he would have said that he defined satire by reading the poem Samali Jai Ho by Harish Juyal
Athgarai: When the  prominent Hindi prose satirist of India , Harishankar Parsai says, “ satire shows us life , criticizes life, wrongs, lies, heresy, humbug etc” it  means his saying is also dependent on the poem Athgari of juyal wherein he attacks on the trouble of big family and non-application of family planning devices , alcoholism, taking money from money lenders, gambling, bureaucracy, inflation, discrimination in the society and so on . Chhenja poem is also best example of such type of satire, which Parsai said
Didactic Poems by Harish : Sacha bol, bird naya sal ka are not satiric nor humorous poems, which show his capability for creating different types of poems
Meru Bachpan; Meru Bachpan  is an autobiography of an average Garhwali’s childhood and wordings, symbolic approach make this poem readable and enjoyable .
                       

               What  Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’says about his works
(this is translation of Harish’s saying “ apni bat or my words’ in this collections of poetries )
  In my opinion, to communicate the tragedy, pain, imbalances and, laughter -happiness of my own heart to the hearts of others is poetry.
 Today’s human being is not living the life but he is cursedly struggling for the life .because, these days, there is anxiety , disquiet in the life of an average human being. ….I understand that every person is under the attack of anxiety, worries, unease .
    Today, there is wrongs everywhere in religious, social, economical, ethical, political circles . The illiterates are the teachers and authority for providing the knowledge to the knowledgeable. There is dirt and bad smell in the wrongs happening in the whole society and we have to close our nose to avoid such wrongs happening in the society.
  I write poems because through, I can attack fierce fully on the bad happenings, wrong approaches, malpractices, who are busy damaging the basic norms of ethics and at the same time not understanding the good changes in the society or government administrations …..
For me, the poetry creation is also a way of being exclusive from the masses  .
Another secret is that by creating poetry I feel liberated from the tension arose because of  the bad happenings here and there and everywhere .
                       Brief About Harish Juyal
  Date of Birth: 21 September, 1969
Place of birth; Malla Tasola, Badlpur, Pauri Garhwal
Education : graduate and diploma in Education administration/teaching
Literature: writes poems in Hindi and Garhwali and is famous poet in Kavi Sammelan
Awards: he received awards
1- Aditya Ram Navani Purushkar for his book ‘Uktatat’
2- Chandra Kumwar Puraskar for hindi poems
                                           Conclusion
  Harish juyal is son of soil and he did not leave anything even the remotest of garhwal in his poetries -geography, social structure, agriculture, languages, culture, rituals, arts and so on
 Juyal is perfect and eminent gazal creator in Garhwali language . His language is pure Garhwali even in Gazals
His way of creating poems are his own and that is why he is called the exclusive poet of his time
From form and style point of view, he uses all forms and styles found in contemporary Garhwali poetic field.
In a very few words he is capable of saying big story and big meaning and this capability was with only great poet of the world Kanhaya lal Andria (Kukreti says that Dandriyal is one of topmost 200 poets of world poets) . He maintains disciplines of poetry but it does not mean Juyal does not do experiments as and when required for the benefits of Garhwali and poetic field as whole
Though he uses Badalpuria Garhwali I.e Salani or Garhwali of south Garhwal but it is going nerer to Shrinagarya and tiryali, which is good sign of completing the process of Standardization of Garhwali language .
              His uses of symbols, images, figures of speech, constructions, style, autonomy, wholeness, uses of right references , conflicts and contradiction, meanings, lucidness in the poems, shock treatments to the readers all make Harish Juyal different gene among other his contemporary  Garhwali  poets.
 His poems show that Juyal is sensitive about wrong happenings, he is knowledgeable about all fields of Garhwali . He is concerned about culture, environment, benfits of beneficiary changes taking place in the world by at the same time cautious abour wrong changes too. His deep knowledge about human psychology is always visble in his each stanza and this specific knowledge makes him great poet of India
 His choosing the right words make him the attraction of kavi sammelan and he has capacity to increase the crowd in any Garhwali kavi sammelan













 





 



         

 

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of literature
History of Indian Literature
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Umal : A Collection of Poetries of Poverty, Personal Accounts and Painful Struggle
Umal :  Exclusive Volume of Poetries Describing  Poverty , Struggle of Poors
Umal:   Experiencing the hunger, struggle for a   bread piece by a poor woman
Umal : Challenging the  God for Poverty and Inhumanly discriminations in the Earth
                              Bhishma Kukreti
              Poverty is an universal truth and human conscious poets create poverty and personal account oriented poetries as Confucius, Charles Baudelaire, Charles Dickens,David Olsen, Du Fu, Ernesto Cardenal, Frank Mc Court, Frederick Douglass, George Lamming, Gustavo Gutierrez, Julia Vinograd, Jelaluddin Rumi, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Michael Harrington, Maria Eugenia Lima, Miguel Hernandez, Mirabai, Muhammad Mahdi Mahdi al-Jawahiri, Muhammad al-Maghut, Pope Pius X, Ryokan, Samuel Johnson, James Boswell's , Wislawa Szymborska, Thich Nhat Hanh, Fred Taban, Robert Service, Robert Burns, Nissim Ezkiels, created very fine poems on poverty and struggle of poor people.
             Prem Lal Bhatt is famous Hindi poet, short story writer, critic  and novelist. However, Prem Lal Bhatt published poetries in Garhwali language too. Prem lal bhatt wrote an epic Uttarayan (unique subject)  and love oriented poems in poetry collection Kutgyali. Umal is unique in Garhwali poetic world but in the world literature too. All the poems of Umal are pertaining to poverty and experiences of poor people . We may find very rarely such volume of poetry collection in the world literature. Many Garhwali poets as one of the greatest poets of world literature Kanhaya lal Dandriyal wrote poetries on experience of poverty and poor people but even he did not wrote/publish all the poems pertaining  poverty and poor man 
    Each  poem of Umal (published in 1979) is epic and provocative poem and stir the readers about doing something for eradicating poverty too .
           Yes! Poverty is a fact and when a wealthy person who never experienced non availability reads the poems of Umal ,  he will also ask the God for creating this inhuman division among human beings that is  depriving people for food available in this earth.   .
       Umal means to come out and Umal poetry collection is a experiencing hunger, deprivation , no protection from seasonal changes for the poor .
  In a poem in this volume, poet  tells us that i is not only hunger, extreme struggle for getting a piece of brad by the poor but there is aggression from rich people to poor people , there is oppression for the poor and the poor man cant do anything against the oppressions :
 Me tain urkhyalai ki gahn si
Kwee dholi ge kwee kooti ge
      It is paradox in this world that the human beings created a peculiar system that the producer can not taste his won produce because of poverty as explained by Prem Lal Bhatt:
   yakh bhainsi palik bi kabi
 Kyau minu chhau ghyu doodh mai
  ghyu t ghyu rai byaj ma
Mayedu bi nasib ni hoi
  The poet describes the daily life of a poor man through similarity or parallel that the day of a poor man is equal to sickness and night are as painful of an widow, the morning as weeping and evening as sucide. This author did not find any such poem in Garhwali language and even in Hindi explaining poverty in such emotional wording. The poet is master of wordings and figure of speeches
 The poems of Umal prove that Prem Lal Bhatt is connoisseur of creating comparison or simile .
Such bhog ki ch pakin hisar
Bhala jog wala khana chhan
Inu kandu chubhi yeen karibi ku
Min khut bi ni alge saku
Though there is everything in this earth but due to discriminating and suppressing mentality, the poor is deprived from his fundamental right to have food, shelter and clothing.
  Whenever a poor man gets anything but the poor does not have to capability to digest it or use it :
Kakhi gas giccha gai bi ch
Ghutun magar ai bi ni ch 
  The extreme poverty brings a hopelessness , a negative thinking that poors cant not think about rising from poverty and even the poor man forgets there is something luck or path for coming out of poverty:
Ky batalu bathu you jog bee
Jab bhuligyon hitnu hi mi
Myari thand ab ya kujog ki
Chup meri hadgyun ma baithi ge

There are challenges to the God from poor that instead of creting poor men , He should have created them animals that at least they (Poor) could not experiences of deprivations on every moment of life:
 Jani kyoku you bhagwan bi
Kardu majak gareeb se
Mankhi ki surat de ki bi
Pashu hi Banyu kyau rani de
 The nature and wealthier people torture, oppress, provide torment, harass equally to poor community and both do not have any kindness towards poor people :
Ju garib ch duchy vo bui
Dhan val bansi bajanu ch
Dukhdu dukhdu rai
Yakh you sanatan chaldu aye
   Likewise, there are one hundred and fifty poems in this volume, which all are pertaining  to experiences of poor people and there is no hope that any new rule of humanity will improve the situations .When a reader reads the poems of Umal,  the readers experiences the emotions as grief, awe, detachment, remorse, fatigue, indolence, depression, agitation, anxiety, stupor, dejection, eagerness, disorder, terror, trembling, choking of voice, stunning,  etc. Prem lal Bhatt expertly describes sadness in his poetries that the wealthiest readers will also feel the pinch of poverty and its emotions .
    Prem lal Bhatt uses Garhwali proverbs, saying, symbols, images as words like-- gurmulya jog, apna bhujya bukkhan, hisarai danI, pichhnai ki rothi, palyun kutta kani ayee, ansi ma bi saunlu for creating the poems and therefore these verses are very much understandable .
    The  poet used Devprayagi dialects in his poems and used Hindi Sanskrit word very frequently in the verse of this volume.
  The one hundred fifty poems of this volume state that the histrian of world poetry will always appreciate Prem lal Bhatt for creating such fine example of sad poems be relevant to struggle , pain, helplessness, hopelessness, deprived experiences, suppressed familiarity, oppressed situations of poor people.
Umal
Garhwali Poetry collection by Prem lal Bhatt
Year of publication: 1979Ad
Published by
Krishna nagar , Delhi-110051
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010