Author Topic: . Pollution is often categorized into point source and nonpoint source pollution  (Read 2638 times)

upadhaya manu

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    Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that cause harm to human health, other living organisms, and the environment.[1] Pollution can be in the form of chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants can be naturally occurring substances or energies, but are considered contaminants when in excess of natural levels. Pollution is often categorized into point source and nonpoint source pollution.
 
Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution controls the undesirable waste products from human consumption, industrial production, agricultural activities, mining, transportation and other sources will accumulate or disperse and degrade the natural environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control.

Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance.

Carbon dioxide, while vital for photosynthesis, is sometimes referred to as pollution, because raised levels of the gas in the atmosphere are affecting the Earth's climate. Disruption of the environment can also highlight the connection between areas of pollution that would normally be classified separately, such as those of water and air. Recent studies have investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight but critical increases in the acidity of ocean waters, and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems.

Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.

Worldwide air pollution is responsible for large numbers of deaths [1] and cases of respiratory disease.[2] While major stationary sources are often identified with air pollution, the greatest source of emissions is actually mobile sources, mainly automobiles.[3] Gases such as carbon dioxide, which contribute to global warming, have recently gained recognition as pollutants by climate scientists, while they also recognize that carbon dioxide is essential for plant life through photosynthesis.

There are many substances in the air which may impair the health of plants and animals (including humans), or reduce visibility. These arise both from natural processes and human activity. Substances not naturally found in the air or at greater concentrations or in different locations from usual are referred to as pollutants.

Pollutants can be classified as either primary or secondary. Primary pollutants are substances directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption or the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust.
 
Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone - one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog.

Note that some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.

Major primary pollutants produced by human activity include:

1   Sulfur oxides (SOx) especially sulfur dioxide are emitted from burning of coal 
2   Nitrogen oxides (NOx) especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature     combustion. Can be  seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities.
3    Carbon monoxide is colourless, odourless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide.
4   Carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas emitted from combustion.
5   Volatile organic compounds (VOC), such as hydrocarbon fuel vapors and solvents.
6   Particulate matter (PM), measured as smoke and dust. PM10 is the fraction of suspended particles 10 micrometers in diameter and smaller that will enter the nasal cavity. PM2.5 has a maximum particle size of 2.5 µm and will enter the bronchies and lungs.
7   Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper.
8   Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use.
9   Ammonia (NH3) emitted from agricultural processes.
10   Odors, such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes
11   Radioactive pollutants produced by nuclear explosions and war explosives, and natural processes such as radon.

Secondary pollutants include:
Particulate matter formed from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog, such as nitrogen dioxide.
Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs.
Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) similarly formed from NOx and VOCs.
Minor air pollutants include:
·   A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the Clean Air Act and in Europe under the Air Framework Directive.
·   A variety of persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to particulate matter.

Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities
Pollutants in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical chemistry or sensory changes. Many of the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Alteration of water's physical chemistry include acidity, electrical conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is the fertilisation of surface water by nutrients that were previously scarce. Even many of the municipal water supplies in developed countries can present health risks. Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases,[1][2] and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.[
·   Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalide and other chemicals
·   Bacteria, often is from sewage or livestock operations
·   Food processing waste, including pathogens
·   Tree and brush debris from logging operations
·   VOCs (volatile organic compounds), such as industrial solvents, from improper storage
·   Detergents
·   Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products
Some inorganic water pollutants include:
·   Heavy metals including acid mine drainage
·   Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants)
·   Pre-production industrial raw resin pellets, an industrial pollutant
·   Chemical waste as industrial by products
·   Fertilizers, in runoff from agriculture including nitrates and phosphates
·   Silt in surface runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites
Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. Contaminated drinking water used in the preparation of food can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease accounts for an estimated 4.1% of the total DAILY global burden of disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year. It was estimated that 88% of that burden is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene and is mostly concentrated on children in developing countries.[1]
Waterborne disease can be caused by protozoa, viruses, bacteria, and intestinal parasites.
Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the activity or happiness of human or animal life. A common form of noise pollution is from transportation, principally motor vehicles.[1] The word "noise" comes from the Latin word nausea meaning "seasickness", or from a derivative (perhaps Latin noxia) of Latin noceō = "I do harm", referring originally to nuisance noise.[2]
The source of most noise worldwide is transportation systems, principally motor vehicle noise, but also including aircraft noise and rail noise.[3][1] Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.
Other sources are office equipment, factory machinery, construction work, appliances, power tools, lighting hum and audio entertainment systems.
Noise from recreational vehicles has become a problem.[citation needed] ATVs, also known as quads, have increased in popularity and are joining the two wheeled dirt motorcycles for off-road riding. The noise produced by these vehicles is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.[citation needed]
Noise health effects are both health and behavioral in nature. The unwanted sound is called noise pollution. This unwanted sound can damage physiological and psychological health. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, and other harmful effects.[4][5] Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times panic attacks.[5][6]
The Kyoto Protocol[13] is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty on global warming. It also reaffirms sections of the UNFCCC. Countries which ratify this protocol commit to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases.[13] A total of 141 countries have ratified the agreement. Notable exceptions include the United States and Australia, who have signed but not ratified the agreement. The stated reason for the United States not ratifying is the exemption of large emitters of greenhouse gases who are also developing countries, like China and India.[14]
An UN environmental conference held in Bali 3 - 14 December 2007 with the participation from 180 countries aims to replace the Kyoto Protocol, which will end in 2012. During the first day of the conference USA, Saudi Arabia and Canada were presented with the "Fossil-of-the-day-award", a symbolic bag of coal for their negative impact on the global climate. The bags included the flags of the respective countries.


   

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Manu ji very good information.

Today pollution is one othe major issues which needs to be controlled.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Early blooms in Uttarakhand worry scientists
« Reply #2 on: February 04, 2009, 10:14:01 AM »

Early blooms in Uttarakhand worry scientists

THE Rhododendron flowers were in full bloom in Uttarakhand in December. Nothing unusual about that except the timing was wrong. Uttarakhand has a large diversity of rhododendron trees and shrubs that usually bloom between February and May. But forest patches in Chamba, Mussorie, Uttarkashi and Almora districts brightened with the pink and red rhododendron or burnas flowers two months earlier.

Residents of Uttarakhand first noticed changes in flowering patterns three years ago. In 2006, early flowering was seen on a few rhododendron trees in Almora district. In November 2007 residents of Pinder Valley in Garhwal noticed the flowers. This season the phenomenon has been noticed in almost all districts.
 
Even the litchis, peaches and apricot trees are bursting with blossoms in Ramnagar and Kumaon. “This premature flowering clearly indicates increasing atmospheric temperature,” said P P Dhyani, ecologist and scientist with the G B Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development in Almora. He said the increase in temperature between November and January has also resulted in wheat crops growing spikes before time. Early budding has been seen on kafal or balsamodendron, mango and apple trees and the indigenous fruit plant vibrnum or ghenu.

Dhyani said research is needed to ascertain how early flowering affects seed productivity. Senior scientist at the Institute, R K Maikhuri, agreed. “Most locally valued species have poor seed bank, and they will be threatened if seed production declines,” the scientist said.

 
http://www.downtoearth.org.in/full6.asp?foldername=20090215&filename=news&sec_id=4&sid=10

Anil Arya / अनिल आर्य

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जोशियाड़ा बैराज से ही रोज निकल रहा 25 ट्रक कचरा
उद्गम से ही प्रदूषित हो रही गंगा-यमुना
उत्तरकाशी। पॉलीथिन कचरा निस्तारण की चाकचौबंद व्यवस्था न होने से गंगा और यमुना अपने उद्गम से ही कचरा ढोकर लाने को विवश हैं। यात्रा सीजन में अकेले मनेरी भाली परियोजना के जोशियाड़ा बैराज से ही गोताखोर रोजाना 20 से 25 ट्रक कचरा निकाल रहे हैं। तीर्थधामों से पॉलीथिन कचरा जमा कर काठगोदाम रिसाइक्लिंग प्लांट में भेजने की प्रदेश के पर्यटन विभाग की योजना फ्लाप नजर आ रही है।
गंगोत्री धाम में कुछ कचरा भैरोंझाप नाले में डंप करने के अलावा अधिकांश कचरा भागीरथी में बहाया जा रहा है। बीते साल तक इस तीर्थ के प्रवेश द्वार पर जमा टनों कचरा सड़ांध मारता रहा। यमुनोत्री में पुल के स्तंभ के पास, भिंडियालीगाड, राम मंदिर और जानकीचट्टी पार्किंग स्थल पर टनों कचरे के ढेर लगे हैं। यहां के सारे रास्ते भी कचरे से अटे पड़े हैं। पॉलीबैग, रैपर, मिनरल वाटर की बोतलों के अलावा अब यात्रियों के लंगर से फेंकी जा रही प्लास्टिक कोटेड प्लेट, थर्मोकोल के गिलास आदि भी प्लास्टिक और पालीथिन कूड़ा बढ़ा रहे हैं।
गंगा भागीरथी में तो कचरे का प्रवाह इस कदर ज्यादा है कि जल विद्युत निगम को मनेरी भाली स्टेज टू परियोजना के जोशियाड़ा बैराज में फोर वे के गेटों पर फंसने वाले कचरे को साफ कराने के लिए गोताखोरों पर सालाना बीस लाख रुपये खर्च करना पड़ रहा है। कचरा ठिकाने लगाने के नाम पर नगर पालिका, नगर पंचायत और जिला पंचायत सहित सभी एजेंसियां कचरा यमुना और गंगा में बहा रही हैं।
•सफाई करने वाले गोताखोरों पर 20 लाख सालाना खर्च
•पॉलीबैग, रैपर, मिनरल वॉटर की बोतलों ने किया परेशान
•हटा रहे हैं पालीथिन कचरा
उत्तरकाशी। पर्यटन विभाग के सलाहकार विपिन कुमार का कहना है कि जानकीचट्टी यमुनोत्री में जमा 12 टन कचरा छ: माह पूर्व काठगोदाम रिसाइक्लिंग प्लांट भेजा गया है। गंगोत्री से भी पॉलीथिन कचरा हटाया जा रहा है।
निगम को हो रहा लाखों का नुकसान
उत्तरकाशी। जल विद्युत निगम के अधिशासी अभियंता ओपी सिंह का कहना है कि बैराज जलाशय से कचरा निकालने के लिए न केवल सालाना 20 लाख रुपये खर्च करने पड़ रहे हैं, बल्कि कचरे के कारण कभी फ्लशिंग की नौबत आने पर लाखों रुपये की उत्पादन हानि भी हो रही है।
http://epaper.amarujala.com/svww_index.php

 

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