Author Topic: Kaviltha, Birth place of Kalidas-कविल्ठा महाकवि कालीदास का जन्म स्थान  (Read 63524 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 62   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-4   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -2

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
                Kalidasa wrote about Himalaya (especially Central Himalaya) in his each drama and poetry collections.
  The plot of Kumar Sambhava by Kalidasa is borrowed from Skandpuran. The story is about God arranging marriage of Shiva with Parvati that their son could beat demon Taraka. Kumara the son of Shiva and Parvati killed Taraka demon and restored the deity kingdom.
          Kalidasa described today’s Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) in his epic Kumar Sambhav) with details.  The depiction of central Himalaya by Kalidasa is such that many Kalidasa experts as Kamla Ratnam suggest that Kalidasa (Kalidasa and the problems of women in his time, referred by Dr Nautiyal) was born in Garhwal-Kumaon region.
      In first part of Kumar Sambhava, in 14 shlokas, Kalidasa describes the natural beauty of Himalaya with grace and with lot of figure of speeches. Definitely, the description tallies with any part of Himalayas. 
        In the same chapter (part 1, 14 Shlokas) of Kumar Sambhav, Kalidasa portrays the epic faith about Himalaya, old sayings, old legends, mythology available in societies. Kalidasa explains that clouds have served the purpose of screen for doors of Himalayan-caves –dwelling Kiratas. It shows that definitely, Kalidas had depth knowledge of Himalayan clouds. In the sixth canto of Kumarsambhava, Kalidas discusses Koshi River. Describing Koshi River means the great poet knew the geography of central Himalaya with depth.   It is no surprise to historians that in ancient time the central Himalayan (especially upper central Himalayan) inhabitants used to worship Kumar or Kartikeya with enthusiasm (Pundit Murali Dhar Bhattarai, Birth Place of Kalidasa ( a Synopsis)).  Kartikeypur had been the capital of ancient Katyuri kings.

            From 15th Shloka of first chapter of Kumar Sambhava, Kalidas illustrates the beauty of Himalaya where Bhagirathi and Ganga flow. The great poet states that there are cedar-auspicious pine trees in the region. 
           In the third chapter (sarg) of Kumar Sambhava, Kalidas discusses many events happening in the Gandhmadhan mountain (near Badrinath) region of Himalaya.
        In sixth part of Kumarsambhava, Kalidasa describes Himalaya as human being. The great poet describes the medical herbs, Geru, cedar tress etc in this chapter.
   In seventh and eight chapter of Kumarsambhava, Kalidasa discusses medical plants and beauty of Madrachal, Gandhmadhan and Kailas mountains. Kailas is part of Gandhmadhan shrines in Kumarsambhava epic.

   

***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -3


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 3/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -63
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…5 
This chapter discuses historical aspect of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Dehradun, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Uttarkashi Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Pauri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Chamoli Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Rudraprayag Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Pithoragarh Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Nainital Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Almora Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Bageshwar Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Champawat Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Bageshwar  Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Dwarhat Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa.

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Aspects of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Abhigyanshakuntalam a Sanskrit Play by Kalidasa


History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 64   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-6   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -4

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
             The plot of Abhigyanshakuntalam play is taken from Mahabharata epic. The story goes to sage Vishwamitra and his short living passion for nymph Menka. Menka delivered the girl child and leaves her on the hands of birds. Sage Kanva brought Shakuntala in his ashram ‘Kanvashram’ (near present Kotdwara, Garhwal). King Dushyanta comes in Kanvashram, made love with Shakuntala, and married her. Dushyanta left Kanvashram. Shakuntala delivered a brave child Bharat. Initially Dushyanta refused Shakuntala and Bharat. Later, Dushyanta accepts both. The name of this country Bharat is after Bharat who became great king.
                The events first scene of Abhigyanshakuntalam happens in Kanvashram. Kanvashram is still on the bank of Malini River of Bhavar or Bawar. According to Abhigyanshakuntalam, Kanvashram was at the foot hills of Himalaya and in Bawar region. The present Kanvashram is same. The events of second, third, fourth happened in Kanvashram. In seventh scene, there is event happening in Hemkoot -the Kashyap Ashram near Mandakini valley.

***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -5


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -65
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…7 
Notes on History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa;
History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Kashirampur, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Limbuchaur, Kotdwara Garhwali n Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Ghamandpur, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Lalpur, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Dogadda, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Chidiyapur, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Bijnor, in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Nazibabad in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Haridwar, Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Motadhank, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Epic Meghdootam by Kalidasa

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 63   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-5   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -3

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
       
               
                       Kankhal (Haridwar) in Meghdootam by Kalidasa

   The epic Meghdootam describes the pain of separation of a Yaksha from his beloved. Yaksha send the cloud as messenger to his beloved. Yaksha states that cloud would go from Kurukshetra to Kankhal (Haridwar).
              Kalidasa describes Kankhal in Meghdootam (Purvamegha, 53-54) as - 
O Cloud! From Kurukshetra you should go to the daughter of Jahnu Ganga descended from Himalayas near Kankhal a stairway to paradise for sons of Sagar…
O Cloud, going onward from Kurukshetra, you will reach a holy place named Kankhal. Ganga flows near Kankhal. Ganga descended on Himalayas from sky and appearing like a flight of steps for Sagar …..
O Cloud, if you wish quarter elephant twisting /bending low the front part of his body with the trunk to drink water of the Heavenly Ganga in the sky, you were longing drinking in slanting manner crystal clear Ganga water flowing by Kankhal. Your shadow on Ganga near Kankhal would look like confluence of Yamuna and Ganga. The River Ganga carries all our stories along with her sacred flow. Bathe on her bosom. Like all mother Ganga washes all pains. Ganga flows for forever.

                                    Himalayas in Meghdootam by Kalidasa

                       There is importance of Ashadha month in central Himalaya. Kalidasa paid attention of first day of Ashadha in Meghdootam. 
               Kalidasa in Meghdootam describes that the Himalaya is standing tall in glory and snow. King of all kings Himalaya glitters with greatness. Kalidasa describes various shrines of central Himalaya as the birth place of Ganga (Alaknanda). From 57th to 67th chapters of Meghadootam, Kalidasa illustrates beauty and reality of Himalaya based on description of described in Mahabharata and Puran. There is description of Kailas (near Badrikashram, Gandhmdhan of Mahabharata). Kalidasa describes the prosperity of Alkapuri with unbelievable prosperity in figurative language.
   Kalidasa becomes sentimental when he describes Alka (birth place of Alaknanda River, Gandhmadhan near Badrikashram)


***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -4


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 3/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -64
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…6 
This chapter contains brief notes on finding the  history aspects about Kankhal, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Jwalapur, Haridwar in Meghdootam of Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Biharigadh, Haridwar in Meghdootam by Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Roorkee, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Mohand, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Pathri, Haridwar in Meghdootam by Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Shyampur, Haridwar in Meghdootam of Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Manglour, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Laksar, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Saptarishi Ashram, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa

Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Aspects of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Vikramorvasiyam, a Sanskrit Play by Kalidasa

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 65   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-7   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -5

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
       The play is about the love of a lunar dynasty king Pururavas loving heavenly nymph Urvasi. There are five acts in the play. There are fifteen main characters in Vikramorvasiyam drama by Kalidasa.
  The timing of the play Vikramorvasiyam is prehistoric, when Pururavas, the first king of lunar dynasty ruled on this earth.  There are five places of action in the drama:
Act I-Hemakuta Hills of Himalaya
Act II-The King’s palace in Pratishthanam (Prayag) the confluence of Ganga and Yamuna.
Act III- Palace of King
Act IV- Gandha-Madan Hills of Himalayas
Act V – King’s Palace in Pratishthanam
  The word ‘vjrinah’ is used in Abhigyanshakuntalam and Vikramorvasiyam for thunder in Garhwali language,’ bajar podan’ is used for high cloud thunder.
          Kalidasa mentions in Vikramorvasiyam, that Mandakini flowing from Gandha-Madan hills. That means Kalidasa mention Kedar Valleys. Present Mandakini River originates from Chorabari glacier near Kedarnath.
 After reading Vikramorvasiyam play, it may be guessed that today’s Chorabari glacier was Hemakuta of Vikramorvasiyam.  Today’s Mandakini valley tally with Gandha-Madan hills of Vikramorvasiyam. 



***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -6


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 6/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -66
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…8 
History Aspects of Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Chopta, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Tungnath, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Chandrashila, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Deoriyatal, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kalimath, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Marayan Koti, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Sari, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Ukhimath, Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kedarnath, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Jayalgarh, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Sonprayag, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Tilwara, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Agyastmuni, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects ofGuotkashi,  Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Paunthi, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Bhatwari, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Madhyameshwar, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa.

Bhishma Kukreti

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Mountains of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 66   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-8   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -6

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
          The scholars admit that though Kalidas was resident of Ujjayani was in all likelihood a native a native of Himalayan province. The description of Himalayan Mountains and those regions suggest that Kalidasa was native of central Himalayan region.  His descriptions are obtained chiefly from direct experience of physical geography, natural history, social behaviors of central Himalaya (Uttarakhand especially Garhwal).
            The phrases as “The ‘Towery summits of Himalaya’ decked with ‘diadems of snow’; the peaks of Kailas reflected in the waters of dark Yamuna; the rippling Ganga laving the Mountain pines and cedar show that the illustration is about Garhwal ,especially Uttarkashi, Rudraprayag and Chamoli Garhwal .

                    Himalayan Mountains in Kalidasa Literature

 Kailas of Kalidasa- the Kailas of Kalidasa literature is part of Gandh-Madan Himalayan shrine. Ganga or Alaknanda comes out of Kailas (Purva Meghdootam, 67).  Mahabharata also describes Gandh-Madan hills as part of Badrikashrama shrine. Kalidasa portrays Kailas as clean, ivory color, beautiful and spiritual (Meghdootam,32).  Alkapuri is nearby Kailas of Kalidasa.

Kridashail of Kalidasa – Kaidasa describes that there was a hill ridge in Alkapuri named Kridashail. There were various types of tress in the hill ridge- Maulisiri (Mimusops elengi), Ashoka, Kurbak and Malpighiaceae plants.
Kraunchrandhra of Kalidas- Kalidasa describes Kraunchrandhra hill in Purva Meghdootam (67).The present Neetidwar or Neeti pass for Tibet in Garhwal is said to be Kraunchrandhra (Geographical Dictionary).
 Gandhmadan Shrine- Kalidas illustrates Gandhmadan Shrine frequently in his writings in Vikramorvashiyam, Meghdootam, Raghuvansham, and Kumarsambhavam. Kalidas states that Gandhmadan Shrine starts from Bhagirathi to Badrikashram .Kalidas used Kailas Mountain as part of Gandhmadan Shrine from where Mandakini and Janhvi Rivers take birth. That means Gandhmadan Shrine is present northern belt of Uttarkashi, Rudraprayag and Chamoli districts of Garhwal that is –present Gangotri, Kedar and Badrinath valleys.

Gauriguru Parvat- Kalidasa describes Gauriguru Parvat in Raghuvansham (2/26). According to Kalidas, Ganga emerges from this Mountain. It is definitely Badrinath valley because, most of the time Kalidasa used Alaknanda River as Ganga. Chanvar cows (Yaks) reside in this mountain. Deodar trees , Bhojpatra and various species of bamboo grow there.
   
  Prabhavanchal Mountain- in Meghdootam (56), Kalidasa states that this mountain is towards Kailas from Kankhal (Haridwar). Ganga emerges from here. Deodar trees grow here. Yak live here. There are Kasturi mrig or musk deer too in this Maintain.
Sikta Parvat- Sikta Maintain is at bank of Mandakini in Vikramorvashiyam (act-4),

Sumeru- According to Kalidasa, Sumeru hill is at descending part of Gandhmadan shrine near Kailas. B.S. Upadhyaya states this shrine as Rudra Himalaya of Garhwal
Hemkoot- Kalidasa describes Hemkoot in figurative language (Vikramorvashiyam,act-4).

 


***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -7


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 7/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -67
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…9 
Chapter  has  Brief Notes on Mountains of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Niti, Chamoli pass Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Bampa, Chamoli Garhwal, Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Khirao, Chamoli Garhwal  (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Bhiundhar, Chamoli Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Rudranth, Chamoli  Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Dunagiri, Chamoli, Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Badrinath valley Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Kedarnath Valley Rudraprayag, Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Suralthota, Chamoli Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Uttarkashi Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature;

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Rivers of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 67   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-9   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -7

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

  Kalidasa mentions three great rivers of North India as-
1-Sindhu
2-Brahmputra
3-Ganga
                            Ganga and associate Rivers in Kalidasa Literature
Ganga River in Kalidasa Literature- Kalidasa states that Ganga comes from Prabhavanchal a Mountain where Deodar tress, musk deer, Yaks, are found. In some texts, Kalidasa writes that Ganga emerges from Alkapuri (Might be today’s source of Alaknanda as in real sense Alaknanda is called Dhauli Ganga (white Ganges)). Kalidasa describes that Ganga falls in plain from Kankhal (Haridwar).

Mandakini River in Kalidas Literature- Kalidasa used Mandakini as Exclusive River and as Ganga too. Mandakini is described as the River of air or heaven.
Mahakoshi River in Kalidasa Literature- Mahakoshi falls near the capital Aushdhiprashtha in Kumarasambhava.

Malini River in Kalidasa literature- In Meghdootam, Kalidasa illustrates that Malini River bank is birth place of Shakuntala. Kanvashram of age Kanva is situated at the bank of Malini River. Dushyant meets Shakuntala at Malini River bank. Bharat the son of Dushyant and Shakuntala is born in Kanvashram that is bank of Malini River. Kalidasa describes Sand dune at Mandakini River bank.
Yamuna River in Kalidasa literature- Kalidasa illustrates Yamuna as black river
Ponds and lakes of Himalaya in Kalidasa literature- Kalidasa describe various types of lakes and ponds in Himalaya in his literature. Kalidasa illustrates Mansarovar where lotuses are found.


***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -8

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 8/06/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -68
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…10 

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