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Kaviltha, Birth place of Kalidas-कविल्ठा महाकवि कालीदास का जन्म स्थान

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Bhishma Kukreti:
Birthplace of Kalidasa- Garhwal
Garhwal the Birthplace of Kalidas
Birthplace of Kalidas is Uttarakhand,Himalay
                          Garhwal in Literature of Kalidasa Part-4
                               Bhishma Kukreti   
                                  Garhwal in Vikramorvishyam
     The memories of childhood are expressed through various means of creativity by poets.  Poet or dramatist may choose the story line which suits to memorize the geographical and other social aspects of the childhood or past experiences. Kalidasa was a migrated Garhwali settled in Ujjaini and was professional poet and dramatist whose learning  depended on . Drama and poetry creation . Since, the poetic dramatist could not bear th pain of separation from his motherland he found to create poetry based on the stories happened in Garhwal. By this, Kalidasa could satisfy his pain of separation from his motherland . The pain of separation was so high that his such poems are marvelous in all parameters because the great poet Kalidas was involved  with high degree of emotion. Without high emotion with the subject, plot place of plot , the poet cant create such marvelous pieces of poetries as Kalidas did create. That is why the readers or critics don’t enjoy poems of Malvikagnimitr and Ritusamhar as they enjoy other poetries because in these cited books the subject, plot and places are different than Garhwal.
   Let the readers analyse Vikramourvshiyam in context the description of Garhwal in this drama
       Story is taken from Mahabharata and is about love between celestial beauty Urvashi and Pururava. The plot has many up and downs or twists/tensions and the story moves around the Mandakini valley , Gaandhmadan shrines of Garhwal. The readers shoul make a note that Kalidasa mentioned Kailas shrine but here Kailash is part of hills of Gandhmadan shrine.
   Kalidasa also mentioned Sktaparvat at the bank of Mandakini (VS 4 pp 213). The poet also mentioned hills as Surbhikandar, and according to B S Upadhyaya these  are the hills of rudr Himalaya of Garhwal.
                 Flora etc
There is mention of a plant Indragop (beerbahuti)(VS 4-pp213)  in Viikramourvashiyam.
   The detailed description of  geographical aspects  in Vikramourvashiyam is proof that  Kalidas was born in Garhwal because until a person does not have first hand knowledge about geography of a place he cant create such realistic but with lot of metaphoric poems for describing geography of that  area.of the plot

Copyright # Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010

Bhishma Kukreti:
Birthplace of Kalidasa- Garhwal
Garhwal the Birthplace of Kalidas
Birthplace of Kalidas is Uttarakhand,Himalay
                          Garhwal in Literature of Kalidasa Part-5
                               Bhishma Kukreti   
                             Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam or Shakuntala
     Kalidas took the story of drama abhiganshakuntalam from Mahabharata and this story belongs to Garhwal area and nearby area. Sakuntala drama, indicates fully that Kalidasa was born in Garhwal area, spent his early life in hills of Himalaya and in search of job he migrated to Ujjaini. The literature of Kalidasa also indicate that he had authentic knowledge of geography of Himalayan region and nearby regions of plains. The way Kalidasa describes Himalaya there is no doubt left that Kalidasa spent/traveled Himalayan regions and he had first hand knowledge of geography, social demography, political aspects, flora fauna of mid Himalayan regions (Garhwal, Kumaun and western Nepal adjacent to Kumaun). No doubt before Kalidas, there is description of Garhwal and mid Himalayan regions in Mahabharat and Purans but those descriptions are emotionless while, the way Kalidasa  provided emotions in narrating Garhwali geography and political-cultural commentary ,  it clearly proves that Kalidas  was born in Garhwal region (Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Shalvani issue 23, 24, 25, 26 of 2010)
                   The story of Shakuntala drama is the love story king Dusyant and Shakuntala who was dauhter of great sage Vishvamitra and famous celestial beauty Menka. Sage Kanva brought Shakuntala in his ashram Kanvashram at the bank of river Malini. The name of son of Shakuntala and Dusyant was Bharat. India is named Bharat from Jambudweep after Bharat ruled India.
            Geographical aspects of Garhwal in Shakuntala
            The incidents  of first act happen in Kanvashram at the bank of Malini .the place was situated at the bottom of mountain and the flowing area of Malini was up and down. The incidents of acts upto fourth happen in Kanvashram.. The poet describes the seasons of Bhabr area (where Kanvashram was situated) elaborately in act 2 pp 83 of Shakuntala.
  There is full description of flora and fauna of Garhwal in Shakntala as flora like-greenery near the Malini bank, Kush, Beerbahuti, mango, devdar, Chut, Sahkar, Saptvarna, Shirish, Kurbak,Ber, Nichul, Jambu, Kdamb, Raktkadamb, Bent, Aparajita, Imb,musta and in fauna , Kalidas described many wild and domestic animals (Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 3 pp310 to 336)
                  Lifestyle of inhabitants of Garhwal in Shakuntala
There is description of a small village Shakravatar, auspicious place shachitirtha, many Ashrams , the population of each ashram  of Garhwal and the description is strong indicative to recognize the places from present context of geography of Garhwal (Dabral, ibid)
        Kalidas describes Kinnar and Kirat as the inhibitants of Garhwal and the pupil/masters staying in tens of Ashram (Dabral -same)
   There is good detailing about dressing, make up and different life styles of poor and rich people
  The elites speak Sanskrit and common men speak Prakrit languages.
                   There is description of four stages for  a as human being brhmchry ashram, grist, vanprashth and sanyas ashram .
 The readers easily find the religious belief of Sakuntala era or Kalidasa era.
  There was education system for male and female child in the society
  The behavior of hill inhabitant was honest and simple.
  The description of Garhwal in Shakutala drama is one of the various reasons which, prove that Kalidasa was born in Garhwal and migrated to Ujjaini.     

Copyright # Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010

Bhishma Kukreti:
Where was Kalidas Born?
Birthplace of Kalidasa- Garhwal
Garhwal the Birthplace of Kalidas
Birthplace of Kalidas is Uttarakhand,Himalay
                          Garhwal in Literature of Kalidasa Part-6
                               Bhishma Kukreti   
      The famous Garhwali poet Sadanand Jakhmola who translated Meghdoot into Garhwali verses proves that Kalidas was born in Kaviltha (The place of a Poet) in a eliye Brahmin family and he spent his early life in Garhwal  . Kalidasa indulged a relation with a scheduled caste girl and due to social fear Kalidasa had to leave Garhwal. In search of better settlement of job, Kalidas went to  Vindhypradesh, Vidisha, Vidarbha and Ujjaini. However, Kalidasa could not forget his beloved, motherland and this aspect of pain of separation fron lover and motherland is visible in Meghdoot. Sadanand Jakhmola states that without first hand experiencing the pain of separation from beloved lover and adored motherland a poet can not describe the pain and geography so marvelously, so finely, so emotionally as Kalidas could do in Meghdoot.(Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, part 3, pp335Veer Gatha Press Dugadda, Garhwal, India)
                                     Garhwal of Meghdoot
  The story is of a Yaksha getting cursed and separated from his beloved and he sends Megh (cloud) to send message to his lover. The Yaksha tell to Megh what hewill see there . Megh has to reach Kankhal (near Haridwar). From Kankhal, Megh has to travel to the top of Himalaya from where Ganges comes out and flows on the descending hills. In the eleven shlokas of Purb  Meghdut , Kalidas describes the geographical aspects off Gangasrotra or mandakini , Kailas (purv MD 56.57)and Alkapuri. In  Mahabharata , Alkapuri is in the reagion of Badrikashram. Alkananda river is always called Ganges and the source of Alaknanda is Alkapuri near Badrikedar
Kailash of Meghdoot: Kalidas describes Kailsh mountain as part of Gandhmadan shrines and is white as ivory (Meghdoot purv 62). As even Garhwali of modern time , Kalidas used Bhagirathi separately and  Ganga separately (Alaknanda) in Meghdut (md 67)
Mandakini : Kalidas uses Mandakini separately as well as Ganges ( Md purv 67,purv 54,)
Ganges: the source of Ganges is snowy hill situated in Alkapuri (MD purv 56-57)
 In meghdoot the poet describes the inhabitants, (MD purv 11,60, uttar8, 25)seasonal changes (MD purv 56,57,58)flora and fauna of Garhwal  (MD uttar2 , 13,15, 18).. Kalidas describes about Ashrams in detail in Meghdut too (Mdpurv 59). While describing the life style, the poet describes dresses, entertainment, auspicious act, religious beliefs of Garhwal too
 If the base of finding the birthplace of great poet Kalidas is what he writes in his literature then without any doubt Garhwal is the birthplace of Kalidas.

Bhishma Kukreti:
Birthplce of Kalidasa is Garhwal -part -7

 Proving  that Nepal is birthplace of Kalidasa is Wrong
(Review of  synopsis Nepal Birthplace of Kalidas by Pundit Muralidhar Bhitarai )

Review by Bhishma Kukreti
Kalidas had been the subject of discussion not only for his delightful poems  and dramas but the modern scholars are busy in finding the birthplace of one of the greatest poets of world literature -Kalidas. Some scholars used logic and a few did use logic in proving the birthplace of great poet.
  Pundit Muralidhat Bhattarai  tried to prove Nepal as the birthplace of Kalidas by logical and emotional means as well in his book Nepal Birthplace of Kalidas published by him and printed by Manohar Printer, Varansi and popularized by University of California through web.
  Initially Murali informed that three was no word Nepal before 12 the century AD and first time Harsha poet mentioned the word Nepal in his Nishad Charitam.
 Learned scholar Muralidhar provided brief storyline of
1-Kumarsambhav : The plot is about a demon and the birth of Kumar the son of lord Shiva and Parvati and his  killing the demon. Kalidas borrowed the story from Skandhpuran.
2- Raghuvansam: Kalidas took the plot  from Ramayan and is about the ideal kings of Suryvansi .
3-Vikrmorvashiy : The story is about the love between celestial  nymph Urvashi and the king Purarba and the poet took plot from Mahabharat
4-Malvikagnimitram: the musical poetic drama is about the love between Malavika and Anemogram .
5- Meghdutam: The epic is about pathos of love in separation . The story is sending messages through clouds by Kuver to his beloved wife who is separated from him.
6- Ritusambhara : Kalidas describes seasons of nature beautifully.
 Then Bhattarai provides the prove of time period of Kalidas.
Nepal Birthplace of Kalidas:
1-Muralidhar Bhattarai  mentioned the shloka of Suktimuktavali by Rajshekhar who mentioned that there have been many Kalidas and Murlidhar stressed that he is not concerned about other Kalidasas other than who created Abhigyan Shakuntala, Kumarsambhavam, Meghdut, Ritusambra that these books are testimony that Kalidas was born in Nepal.,
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti:
The argument of Rajshekhar are emotional ones and not based on ;Nyaya’ or logical means. Just providing a couple of clues is no means to prove that Kalidas was born in Nepal
2- Similarity between Nepal and Ujjain: It is a known fact that Kalidas was Shaivya or devotee of lord Shiva and he mentioned lord Shiva many times in his creative. On this basis many scholars bent upon that Kalidas was born in Ujjain . Muralidhar provided similarities between the temple of Pashpatinath of Katmandu and Mahakala of Ujjain. As the tool of proving that Kalidas was from Nepal. Then Bhattarai mentioned about Bhairvgadh, Kalbharav in both regions . The author claimed that since, Nepal was cut off from other countries authors confused Nepal as Ujjaini. Muralidhar means all the bases of proving Ujjain fits with Nepal as the birthplace of Kalidas.From a story Bhattarai tried very much that the king of Ujjaini and Nepal was same at the time of Kalidas.
  Comments of  Bhishma Kukreti
First of all the temple Pashupatinath was established in fifth century and first priest was a Nambudiparad Brahmin as Kedardham was established at the same time.
Secondly, shivishm had been the main religious sect of old and new inhabitants of Garhwal, Kumaun (India) and Nepal . As far as Shaivism point of view is concerned for showing similarity of Ujjaini and Nepal , the same similarities are with Garhwal and Kumaun regions of Uttarakhand, India. Even there is famous temple Bharongarh in Langur shrine of Paurigarhwal. The name of Langur shrine has relation with one name from hundreds of names of lord Shiva .
      Learned scholar Muralidhar should know that there is close relation with Shivya temple in mountain Abu, Kedardham and Pashpatinath as legendary story says that the buttock of Shiva is in Abu Rajasthan  a. his back is in Kedardham Garhwal and head is in Pashupati  Katmandu temple.
                Pashpati or Pashpatinath is one name of lord Shiva which, means the master of animals.
Therefore, conclusion by showing similarities between Ujjaini and Nepal is illogical argument because there are same similarities of Ujjani with Garhwal and Kumaun Uttarakhand India
3- Amazingly , Muralidhar Bhatarai tells that Malini river is Madu river (western Nepal)connected to Bharat the great son of Shakuntala and Dushyant .
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti:
When a scholar becomes eccentric (in Nepali, Kumauni and Garhwali languages , eccentric means Ekdagry ) he forgets other realities as Murladhar Bhattarai is bent upon proving Nepal as birthplace of Kalidasa without touching geographical realities of other regions.
Muralidhaar states that Madu of Nepal is Malini river. While in Pauri Garhwal of Uttarakhand there is Malini river and Kanvashram too.  Kalidas states that the river Malini flows from mountains towards Kankhal and same is the case today too. Therefore, the place Kankhal and Malini river are prove that Kalidas was Garhwali (if Malini and Kankhal are one of bases  for proving the birthplace of Kalidasa)

4- Surprisingly, Muralidhar states that Alka described by Kalidas is Argha in western Nepal .
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti:
  Proving Alkapuri of Kalidas as Argha of Nepal is ridiculous argument of Bhattarai because the Alka of Kalidasa is same of Mahabharata which is in the region of Gandhmadan near or withing Badrikashram of Garhwal,Uttarakhand, India

5- Muralidhar states that  Kalidas was born in Nepal near Kali river (dividing river between Kumaun and western Kumaun). Here, Bhattarai tells the tail that father of Kalidas who used to at the bank of Kali river and used to pray for a son. Since, the son of that Brahmin was born because of blessing of Kali, the father names his son as Kalidas

 Comments of  Bhishma Kukreti
     At one stance the scholar Muralidhar says that Kalidas was Shaivya and just to prove his point illogically Bhattarai says his father was devotee of Kali and river is perceived as Devi (Shkt sect)
    The rears shoul know that in Garhwal Mandakini river is called  Kali Ganga (black or non transparent Ganga)and Alaknanda is called Dhauli (white, clear Ganga). Since, Kalidas describes Mandakini with emotions and the legendary story by Murlidhar indicates that Kalidas was born near Mandakini or Kali Ganga bank and was Garhwali
6- Muralidhar narrates the story of Kalidasa studying in Mithila and refrence of Kali temple there and then marying with genius Vidavati . Here the scholar tells the readers about how Kalidas got inspiration to create Kumarsambhav.
Comments of Kukreti
This statement of Muralidhar that , Kalidas being Kali devotee   is contradicting as earlier Bhattarai tried to  prove that Kalidasa was Shaivya and not Shakt when he stated similarity between Ujjaini and Naipal
7- Kumarsambhav and Himalaya:
Muralidhar provides the example of the following stanza that the migrated poet had tremendous love and honor for Himalaya the poet’s  motherland where he spent his childhood:
Astuttrsyam dishi devatma Himalayo nam nagadhiraj
Purv paro toynidhirgahya stithh  pithily mandndo
Since, thre is Himalaya word,  the researcher Bhatarai claims that Kalidas belonged to Nepal.
Comments of Kukreti
Most of the epics and drama of Kalidas are Himalayan related stories. By this logic, Kaldas is born in Himalaya is correct but Himalaya is huge from  Kashmir to Arunachal. While, Muralidhr limiting Himalaya to Nepal. This is no way to prove that Kalidasa was born in Nepal
7A-Muralidhar took cue from Adhiraj word (which means king of kings) too to connect western Nepal as the birthplace of Kalidas because the present king of Nepal uses the title Adhiraj
 Comments of Kukreti
 Muralidhar forgot that Adhiraj is a common adjective which means king of kings and every Indian Hindu king including Cambodian/Thai or Afghanistan kings used to apply this adjective before hindu kingdoms went under Islamic rules. However, kingdom of Garhwal was never ben under Islamic rule and every Garhwali king used to Adhiraj , Maharaj. This argument that Nepal king uses adjective Adhiraj is totally childish argument to prove that Kalidas was born in Nepal
7 B-Muralidhar states that the Mandand (measuring standard) word is for the height of Gauri Shankar (Everest).
Kalidas described Kirats in details in Kumarsambhav (1/10.1/12, 1/14, 5 4 and 5/7) and Muralidhat stressed much that the detailing of Kirat tribes cant be just imagination of a poet but required first hand experience of the pot with habits and habitats of Kirats tribes. Since, there is a district Kirat province in Nepal , the researcher connects that Kalidas was from  Nepal..
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
Mahabharata and historian’s books are proof that Kirats are also original inhabitants of Garhwal ( Dabral, Uttarakhanf ka Itihas part 3 310-339pp). By this logic of Bhattarai Kalidas is related to Garhwal
7 C- In the above stanza , Kalidas used a word ‘atailpura pradeep’ which means lighting  without oil lamp Muralidhar Bhattarai claims it is equal to Ujeli Kath found in Nepal. And proved that Kalidas was from Nepal.
Comments of Kukreti
The meaning of word Ujeli Kath of Nepali language is same in Garhwali and Kumauni Languages (Uttarakhand India) which means the wood which makes light
    If Kalidasa means that the herbs were providing lights then there are many herbs in Garhwal and Kumaun which shins in night as Burrya khaud or Burrya grass. This means shining herbs are not limited to Nepal only ,
However, in my opinion, when Kalidas used lighting lamp without oil , he means a wood providing light and working s a lamp without oil.
In older age , the Garhwalis and Kumaonis (Uttarakhand, India) used Dival Chill ( over resin pine stick ) for lighting. This pine stick burns slowly , provides good light, Logically, soldiers of Raghu or Dilip used pine stick for light. L
When pine stick burns it is definitely is lamp without oil. So Lamp without oil of Kalidasa is not limited to Nepal but is applicable in Garhwal, Kumaun (Uttarakhand, India) too or could be said all places where pine is found
8- Kalidas praised Himalaya in Kumarsambhav as
Diva karat  raxati  yo guhasulinam divabhitbhivandhkaram
Chudrepinunam sharanam prappne mamtvmuncheh shirsham sativa
Muralidhar connects this praise of Himalaya by Kalidas with Nepal as the native place of Kalidas
Comments of Kukreti
  Here, Kalidasa praised Himalaya and Himalaya ranges from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh.
9- Muraldhar Bhattarai provides the example of a stanza of Kumarsambhav ‘tirskarinyo jald bhavanti’ (means the cloud served the purpose of a screen for the doors of the Himalayan dwellers Kirats). Muralidhar claims that until the poet had first hand experience being in Himalaya he cant create such marvelous piece of metaphoric poem. Then Murali provides note of a folk song about cloud and desperately tries that Kalidas belongs .to Nepal.
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
 Cloud is the base of water and there will be folk songs in every locality about cloud even in desert area and the folk song about cloud alone cant be the base for proving the birth place of Kalidasa. Secondly, every mountain area , cloud is seen every time and it seems they are not far from the human touch. Therefore there will be folk tales, folk songs, proverbs , legends, folk lore related to cloud in every hilly area languages. There are tens of folk lore, stories proverbs in Garhwali and Kumaoni (Uttarakhand, India) languages related to  cloud and fog..
10- Muralidhar states that Kalidas loved Shrish flower (Albizia lebbeck)
very much as mentioned in Kumarsambhav . Then Bhattarai states that this flower is related to Niwari tribe and area. Therefore, Kalidas was from Nepal.
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
  Muralidhar stresses on description of Shrish flower by Kalidasa as if Shrish (Albizia lebbeck) is exclusively found in western Nepal. Readers must know that Shrish is found abundantly in Garhwal and Kumaun (Uttarakhand, India ). In old time, this plant had medicinal significance in Garhwal and Kumaun.
11-Kalidas used word  Gauri guru for Himalay in Shakuntalam and Muralidhar states that there is Gauri Shankar summit in Nepal.
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
Kalidas used Gauri Gru shrines as part of Gandhmadan series of mountains, which is in Badrinath area (Vanparv and Tirthparv of Mahabharat) of Garhwal (Uttarakhand, India ). Though, today, Kailsh is not in Garhwal but Kalidasa took it as the part of Gandhmadan shrines. So, the Gauri Shankar shrine of Nepal is not  Gauri Guru of Kalidasa.
12- There are words Ume for mother  and Parana (breakfast.) in Kumarsambhav and Raghuvansam. Bhattarai informs that since same meanings/words are in Megari and Niwari languages, hence Kalidas belongs to western Nepal.
Comments of Kukreti
Roasted green wheat grain is called Umi in Garhwali and Kumaoni (Uttarakhand, India ) [Uttarakhand region is in west of western Nepal] languages, Umi is taken as breakfast in day time. Therefore, the statement about Uma/Ume does not have any significance in proving that Kalidasa was Nepali born
13- Parvati kept fast for getting  Shiva and from that day she is named as Uma. Since, Nepali women keep fast on that day , therefore, Murali claims that Kalidas was a Nepali.
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
 Indian hindu women keep fast on this day and this aspect is not exclusively related to Nepal only.
14- All Sanshkrit writers of old age wrote Mahakoshi or Kaushika for the river Koshi but Kalidas mentioned Koshi in 6th canto of Kumarsambhav and  Muralidhar proved that by this logic Kaldas was Nepal born.
 Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
Kalidas used many rivers /cities/hills of Jambudweep (old India including Nepal ) and by that logic that since, Kalidas mentioned Mayakovski , Kalidas is Nepal born , we may say that Kalidas was born everywhere in India or even in Cambodia. The scholar has to find that area which, Kalidas used much with emotion in his literature
15- Kalidas writes in Kumarsambhav (6-83):
Astotuh stuymansy bandhsyanyayvandinh
Sutasambandh bidhina bhav vishvguruguro
Murali concludes that India was called the guru of all and Kalidas is praying/instructing that his motherland Nepal should be instructor of instructor ‘guroguru’.
Comments of Kukreti
Every human being desires that her/his motherland becomes instructor of instructors. This desire of Kalidas has nothing to do with  Kalidasa was born in western Nepal. In his early paragraph, Muralidhar proved that Nepal was part of Mithila kingdom which means Nepal was part of Bharat and now Muralidhar wants to prove that Nepal was separate nation than Bharat and Kalidasa prays that Nepal becomes guru of Bharat. There is no logic behind this statement of Bhattarai
16- The story of Kumarsambhav is the story of Kartikey the son of lord Shiva and Kalidas used Kumar for Kartikey .In Nepal, Kumar is used for Kartikey which, is not so in other parts of India. By this , Muralidhar bent upon that Kalidas was Nepal born
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
Muralidhar is correct that due to many sea changes in political, social, religious tems in India and Indians left calling Kartikey as Kumar. Even the devotees of Kartikey are more in South India and they call Kartikey as Murughan. Therefore this argument does not have any weight for proving that Kalidas was born in western Nepal
17- Kalidas stated Kumarajanm in Kumarsambhav and Newari tribe celebrates with joy and show the ‘Kumarjanm’. Muralidhar took clue and tried to prove that Kalidas was from western Nepal.
Comments of Kukreti
If scholars accept this argument since, Newari tribes (though, here, Muralidhar did not write western Nepalis because Newaris are found near Kathmandu and not in western Nepal ) celebrate birth day of Kartikey then the birthplace of Kalidas must be in South India as   devote of Kartikey are more in South India
18- Kalidas wrote :
Divam yadi prarthyes vritha shramh
Pituh pradeshah stav devbhumiyh
Murlidhar states that since, Kalidas loves and respects his motherland he narrates about Nepal with pride and affection.
Comments of Kukreti
The shloka reveals the fundamentals of  Hindu philosophy and provides a clue that Kalidasa definitely described his motherland in his literature
19- In Raghuvansam Kalidas used same word for eating and drinking and muralidhar stresses that since Kalidas was Nepali native he habitually used this grammatical aspect of Nepal as the nature of Nepali language is that for eating and drinking (khana and peena ) khanu/khana is used
Comments of Kukreti
Though, linguistic scholars will raise the questions but in my opinion, the argument is relevant. However, there is requirements of more supportive arguments.
20- Bhutan:
Kalidas mentioned bhutisthan/bhut etc in Raghuvansham and Kumarsambhav. Bhitarai took this word as Bhutan the province of old Nepal. And connect this aspect to proving that Kalidas was Nepal born who was well versed with the geography of Nepal.
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
This is irrelevant argument because ‘bhuth’ means devotee, subordinates and human beings. And the nomenclature of Bhutan has nothing to do with ‘bhuth’
   The Garhwalis and Kumaonis call Tibetans as Bhotiya and the Tibet is on the boundaries of Kumaun and Garhwal too. Therefore, this argument does not have exclusivity as Murlidhar describes.
21-Bengalis claimed that Kalidas was Bengal born but Kalidas joyfully described the up rooting of Bengal king by Raghu (Raghuvansham 4-36)
Comments of Kukreti
This is correct that Kalidas describes Bengal only in two shlokas of Raghuvans 4-36/37
22-Muralidhar tells us that when Raghu returned from conquering Kumkum princes  he took rest in his native place.
Muralidhar provide examples of stanzas 4/57and 4/74 of Raghuvansam wherein the poet says the soldiers took rest the shining herbs (ujelikath in Nepali) or lamp without oil. By this logic, Kalidas is Nepali.Muralidhar says that ‘ujelikath’ is found only in Kumaun and Nepal only
Comments of Kukreti
Muralidhar confused the readers that lamp without oil is found in Kumaun and Nepal. In Garhwal , there are many plant species which shines specially in valley of flowers and nearby areas. Burya  khaud is very common grass in Garhwal which shine.
22- Muralidhar stating the instance of Swamber (choosing husband ) of Vidarbha princess of Raghuvansam (6/7,6/78, 6/83)where king of Kaushal including Nepal Raghu was chosen the husband by Vidarbha. Here Kalidas used word ‘churngauram’. According to Muralidhar , this is red auspicious powder widely used in marriage ceremony specially in Nepal . Hence, Kalidas is Nepal native.
The word is churngauram made by two words chrn and gauram. Churn means powder and gauram means white, While Muralidhar states it red powder. Even if it is red powder either sindur.lal pithai or geru,all are auspicious for all Hindus including Nepali Hindus
23-Muralidhar further provides the example of stanzas of Meghdootam (5/2-3)wherein the poet describes pain of separation of Yakhsha and description of auspiciousness of clouding in Ashadh  month in the epic and connection of these stanzas with the celebration of  Ashadh month in Nepal. The scholar also reminds that the birth date of Kalidas comes on first of Ashadh
Ashadh moth ha significance in Garhwal and Kumaun (Uttarakhand, India). The people had knowledge that pain of sepation is unbearable in this moth. That is the reason Garhwalis-Kumaunis sent new brides to myka (mother’s place) that she can not suffer pain of separation her myka in Ashadh. There is a celebration on the last  day of Ashadh in Garhwal ‘Rutlya tyohar’ or festival of bread and on this day people make stuffed roti/bread
24- Alka :
Muralidhar provides examples of praising Alka by Kalidas (which is birth place of Kalids)  in stanzas 320,326,of Meghdoot and then Bhattarai tells that Argha of Nepal is the native village of Kalidas that that is the reason Kalidas praises so much of Alka
Comments of Kukreti
Kalidas described Alka/Alkapuri near the source of Mandakini or near Gandhmadan hills . Mandakini flows in Garhwal meets Alknanda at Rudrprayag and this area is Rudra Himalaya of Garhwal  (Bhagwat Sharan Upadhyaya, Kalidas ka Bharat, pp,11-12). While Muralidhar confused readers that Alka is Argha.
25 Home Vela:
In fourth act of Shakuntalam Kalidas used compound word ‘ homvela’ which, means the time of oblation and Muraldhar says that it is peculiarity of Nepali language for use ‘home’ separately and bela separately. That is why Kalidas belongs to Nepal.
 This argument is supportive argument and not the base of proof
26-Malini river
Shakuntala was brought up in sage Kanva’s Ashram at the bank of river Malini. Kalidas described the ashram and river Malini in Muralidhar providing the clue that Madu river of Nepal is Malini river of Nepal.. Muralidhar quoted word “udhbhatini bhumih” by Kalidas and he says that Malini must flow  on hilly area
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
 Malini and Kanvashram of Kalidas are a geographical facts of Garhwal as Mandakini river or Kankhal are a geographical fact. There is no need of proof for rivers Mailini and Mandakini of Kalidasa originate from  Garhwal region and flow there.
27- Muralidhar also quoted words Himkut word of  Shakuntalam  and a few other places to connect Kalidas with Nepal and Trivispata as Tibbet
Comments of Kukreti
Note worthy historians Dabral and Upadhyaya (Rferences as above) provided ample of proof that Hemkut of Kalidasa is in Garhwal
28-Muralidhar quoted Kanvasharm of Shakuntlam as Kaduashram of Nepal
There is no need of proof that Kanvashram of Kalidasa is in Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India as Kanvashram is a geographical fact of Garhwal region
29-Ritusanhar of Kalidas
In the above long poem Ritusanhar, Kalidas described Hemant and Shishir seasons separately and also the life of hill men . Muralidhar concluded that by this description by Kalidas it is clear that  Kalidas belongs to Nepal because the person who had well accountancy can only create such poems about Hemant and Shshir. Kalidas describes about floras as Shali paddy reaping, Tushar and Lodhra flower bloom and Muralidhar bluntly says that these floras are found only in Nepal and no where in the world.
 Muralidhar also provides exclusive habitats of hilly people described by Kalidas as ’nirudhvatayan  (closing window). Muralidhar proves that this description of cold season by Kalidas was native of western Nepal.
 The flowers, grains or flora cited by Muralidhar is not exclusivity of western Nepal but these plant are also found in Garhwal and Kumaun of Uttarakhand of India.
           As far as seasons are concerned these are  same steep climatic changes in Garhwal, Kumaun of India as there are  steep seasonal changes in western Nepal or Nepal.
30- The poetical drama -Vikrmourvashiy
Kalidas describes Chyavanashram a meeting place for Pururaba, his beloved wife Urvashi and their son. Muralidhar claims that Chavan sage belongs to Nepal and is one point to proof that Kalidas belonged to western Nepal
In the same drama, Kalidas mentioned Kirat king and by that logic Muralidhar states that Kalidas belonged to Nepal because Kirat tribes were inhabitants of Nepal. For more weighting his belief Muralidhar says that since only Nepalis use Kirati word and Kalidas mentions  Raja-Kirati in the above drama. Hence Kalidas was native of Nepal.
There is proof that many ayurvedic scholars had their lobotomies (Ashram) in  Garhwal and Kumaun of India . Definitely Chyavan sage  roamed  in Himalayan regions including Nepal for his medical inventions and discoveries.
 As already revered that Kirats had been one of the oldest inhabitants of Garhwal and Kumaun too
31- Malavikagnimitram drama by Kalidas
Though, many scholars do not agree that this drama is written by Kalidas due to its style does not match with his other notable works. However, in this drama the description of Vasantotsav and the prayers of Parvati-Shiva for leaning dance and music in the drama and custom of praying of Shiv-Parvati for music and dance by Newari community of Nepal is sufficient for proving that Kalidas was Nepal born
Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
Here too, a Badi caste is there in Garhwal and Kumaun  which is totally Shiv Devotee and it is said that Badis were born from Shiji’s mail (Dirt of Shiva body). Their profession had been dancing, singing and staging drama for centuries. These Badi people don’t plough field or even don’t touch plough appliances. They either used to dance, sing, stage dramas before upper cast for earning , make bamboo combs or do hunting.
                   Conclusive Comments of Bhishma Kukreti
1- The writer’s aim was not to find out what is there Nepali related subject in the literature of Kalidasa but was bet to prove that Kalidasa was born in Nepal
2- Due to predecided aim , many reasons are illogical in this write up of Muralidhar
3- It is known fact that Garhwal, Kumaun and western Nepal have same geographical conditions and cultural  historian Muaralidhar should have found the exclusive  condition of western Nepal which, would be undisputed proof
4- The writer ignored knowingly the past and present geographical facts of Garhwal India which are described by Kalidas in his literature as Mandakini, Ganges, Bhagirathi, Kankhal etc
5- The scholar Murali did not use the findings of other ariters who are called expert of Kalidas as Ruban, Poterson, Kalla, Bhawat Sharan, Dabral, Mirasi Dr S P Bhardwaj etc
6- The write up of Muralidhar Bhattarai definitely provide supportive materials for proving  that Kalidas was born some where in mid Himalayan region (Garhwal, Kumaun and western Nepal )
Conclusively, could be said that Muralidhar Bhattarai failed to prove that Kalidas was born and brought up in Nepal
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010,

Bhishma Kukreti:
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 61   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-3   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -1

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal who did sound research on works of Kalidasa)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                   Life of Kalidasa
      Kalidasa was a great Sanskrit playwright and poet of Classical Age.  There is no precise knowledge about timing of Kalidasa but it is certain that Kalidasa created his literature between 4th and 6th century.  There is also speculation about birth place of Kalidasa.
  Kalidasa created following immutable literary works

                                            Plays by Kalidasa

Malavikagnimitram- The play is about the King Agnimitra fell in love with picture of exiled servant Malavika.

Abhigyanshakuntalam- The dram is based on the story of Mahabharata about the love between King Dushyanta and Shakuntala and denying by Dushyanta. Bharat was their son.

Vikramorvasiyam- The play is about the love story between King Pururavas and celestial nymph Urvasi. 

                                       Epics by Kalidasa
 Kalidasa wrote two epics.
Raghuvansham- Raghuvansham is about story of King Raghu dynasty

Kumarsambhava- The story pertains the wedding of Parvati –Shiva and about their son Kartikey.

                       Khandkavya (Long Poetries) by Kalidasa

 Kalidasa wrote two Khandkavya too.
Meghadoot- The story is about a Yaksha sending message to his lover through cloud.
Ritusamhara – The poet describes six seasons and the experiences of two lovers in each season.
  The style of Kalidasa is remarkable.

                     Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

             After Mahabharata, the detailed descriptions about Uttarakhand are found in Kalidasa literature.

             Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Raghuvansham by Kalidasa

                In first part 9sarg0 of Raghuvansham, the Raghuvansh King Dilip reached to his family priest Vashistha‘s Ashram for getting blessing for son birth. The Ashram is at Gaurigaru (Parvati’s father place). The mountain place is at the bank of Ganga. Dilip looks after grazing Nandini. There are cedar trees.
            Kalidasa describes Ashram of Vashistha in the last 48 Shlokas of first ‘Sarg’ of Raghuvansham Kalidasa describes Ashram of Vashistha in first 71 Shlokas of second Sarg of Raghuvansham.     
              Raghu King campaigns to attack on kings of Gaurigaru Mountain after winning Kamboj kings (Cambodian chieftains) in fourth Sarg of Raghuvansham. There is description of struggle of Raghu army against the armies of Mountain chieftains in this chapter of Raghuvansham.  The Mountain soldiers fight/resist with Raghu’s soldiers by slipping stones and by other arms.
  Neither Mountain chieftains win nor Raghu. Both understood each other’s power and weakness. The Mountain chieftains offered gifts to Raghu at his returning back from Himalaya (Uttarakhand) [Raghuvansham, 4/71-79]. 

***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -2

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 2/06/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -62
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…4 
Brief notes on Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Uttarkashi Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Rudraprayag Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Dehradun Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Pauri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Chamoli Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Pithoragarh Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Bageshwar Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Champawat Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Nainital Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Almora Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham.   


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