Author Topic: The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Uttarakhand  (Read 7632 times)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Uttarakhand
« on: December 11, 2011, 03:16:24 PM »

Dosto,

The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve area is situated in one of the remotest corners of India, bordering the Tibetan Planteau. Limited commerce and trade were florishing in the area till 1962 when Sino-Indo war broke out. All trans-Himalayan trade routes were closed and the people were facing economic problems. After sometimes, the Nanda Devi peak (7817 m) become one of the most popular destination for moutaineers. The local people get some benefits by being porter to these climbers. Bu that too was short-lived with the declaration of the area as national Park in 1982. Due to remoteness and no alternative source of income the people face acute economic problems and are still facing the same. In the year 1988, Nanda Devi National Park and its surrounding area was declared as Biosphere Reserve under MAB programme of UNESCO. But the fund coming ubder this programme was not enough to compensate the loss suffered by the people. (http://india.wikia.com)

The Valley of flowers Ntaional park in Garhwal Hiamalays is an alpine valley, and has been formed by retreating glaciers whose periodic advances pulverized hard rocks, resulting in a smooth U Shaped valley, which was later colonized by nemerous plants. 




The National Park is surrounded by :

1) Ghodi Parvat (6490 m) and Ratavan (6125 m) in the east

2) Khunt Khal (4430 m) in the West

3) Saptsring (5038m) in the South

and

4) Nilgiri Parvat (6589) in the North

(Info by Chandra Shekhar Chauhan)


We will share more information about the NDBR in this topic.

M S Mehta


एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Uttarakhand
« Reply #1 on: December 11, 2011, 03:17:35 PM »
Eastern Boundary
From Niti Pass (5,300m) along the international boundary via Belcha Dhura and Kiogad Pass to Unta Dhura and Gonkha Gad upto Finga and then to Bampa Dhura (6,355m) through unnamed peaks of altitude 5,749m and 5,096m. From Bampa Dhura to Burphu Dhura (6, 21 Om) and then to unnamed peak 4,600m high through Ralam Peak (4,964m).
Western Boundary
From an unnamed peak 5,553m. high at the head ofPanpati Bank (Glacier) which feeds Khir Ganga to Chaukhamba III (6,974m) via another unnamed peak 5,773m high along the ridge, from Chaukhamba III (6,974m) to Chaukhamba I (7,138m) along the ridge (which also touches the Chamoli-Uttarkashi district boundary) to Kalandani Khal (5,969m) via unknown peaks of altitude 6,721m and 6,557m.
Northern Boundary
From Kalandani Khal (5,968m) down to Arwa Tal and then along Arwa Nala to Ghastoli. From Ghastoli along Saraswati (upstreams) to Khiam and then along Pashchimi Kamet Glacier to Mukut Parwat (7,242m) on the international boundary. From Mukut Parwat along the international boundary to Niti pass (5,300m) via Ganesh Parwat (6,535m) and Tapcha Pass (6,027m).
Southern Boundary
From Ratanpani peak (4,072m) through Wan Gad a tributary of Kaligaog river along Pindari river. Through Dhakuri Dhar to Tarsali than Sodhara Madir (2,198m) to Madari peak (4,427m) to Unnamed peak (5,962m). From Namik Glacier to Potting Glacier through the Khansa Dhura, Nahar Devi across to Gori Ganga than Hansaling (5,430m) to Dhasi peak (5,460m), Rajamba peak (6,895m), to Brij Gang Pass (4,768m) along Ralam Gad a tributary of Gori Ganga than Shantapa Glacier. The reserve has several peaks such. as: Dunagiri (7,066m) Changbang (6,864m), Kalanka (6,931m), Rishipahar (6,992m), Trishul (7,120m), Rataban (6,126m), NarParbat (5,246m), Saptsring (5,038m), Bethartoli (6,352m), Mrigthuni (6,655m), Nandakhat (6,631m), Devstan (6,678m), Maiktoli (6,803m), Nanda Devi (7,817m).


(source - http://india.wikia.com)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Uttarakhand
« Reply #2 on: December 11, 2011, 03:18:21 PM »
The Area Profile: Initially in 1988 the notified area under NDBR was 2236.74 sq.km. with 624.62 sq.km. as core zone with no human interference except research and patrolling and rest as buffer zone. On 07-02-2000 Govt. of India extended the total area of NDBR from existing 2236.74 sq.km. to 5860.69 sq.km. and core area has been extended to 712.12 sq. km. by adding the Valley of Flower National park as the second core zone . The core zone, i.e. the area of NANDA DEVI NATIONAL PARK (leaving the area of Peng village) and the area of valley of Flowers National Park does not require demarcation as their boundaries are already very well defined
The Core zone: The total core area of the biosphere consisits of of 712.12 Sq. Km. and it comprises two National Parks of international repute. The First and the foremost is the Nanda Devi National Park which has a total area of 624.6 Sq. Km and the the other is the Valley of flower National Park which has a total area of 87.5 Sq. Km. It contains suitable habitat for numerous plant and animal species, including higher order predators and contain centres of endemism. The core areas of NDBR conserve the wild relatives of many economic species specially medicinal herbs and also represent important genetic reservoirs. The core zone also contains places of exceptional scientific interest. The core zones being national parks have legal protection and scientific management proceedure. The core zones of NDBR harbour high diversity of species, alpine communities, and rare-endangered, native and endemic species of both flora and fauna. The core area has 17 species of mammals such as Snow leopard (Panthera undo). Leopard (P.pardus), Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus), Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos), Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster). Blue sheep (Pseudois nayauf), Himalayan thar (Hemitragus jemlahicus), etc., many species of birds such as Monal pheasant (Lophophorous impejanus), Himalayan snow cock(Tetraogalhis himalayensis), Koklas pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha), Snow pigeon (Columba leuconota), Himalayan golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Himalayan griffon (Gyps himalayensis), Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus), etc. (Tak 1997) and 19 species of butterflies such as Common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon). Common blue apollo (Parnasshis hardwickei), Bath white (Pontia daplidice), Painted lady (Cynthia cardui), etc. In Nanda Devi National Park about 493 species of plants and from Valley of Flowers 521 species of plants have been recorded. The Buffer Zone: The buffer zone adjoins or surrounds the core zones, uses and activities are managed in ways that protect the core zone. These uses and activities include restoration, demonstration sites for enhancing value addition to the resources, limited recreation, tourism, grazing, etc. which are permitted to reduce its effect on core zone. Research and educational activities are to be encouraged. Human activities, which are natural within NDBR, which do not adversely affect the ecological diversity of the whole area is not stopped but people are guided to use the resources justifiably and sustainably. In buffer zone, manipulative macro-management practices are used. Experimental research areas are used for understanding the patterns and process in ecosystem. Modified or degraded landscapes are included as rehabilitation areas to restore the ecology in a way that it returns to sustainable productivity. In the NDBR the whole buffer zone has mainly three types of lands. Vegetation in the buffer zone comprises of temperate, subalpine and alpine types. It supports over 1,000 species of plants including fungi, lichens and bryophytes and 520 species of fauna. Over 23 forest communities and over 62 alpine communities have been recorded from the buffer zone of the reserve. Two hundred twenty four species of plants in Pindari area and 193 species in Lata-Tolma-Malari area are used by the native communities for various purposes. The buffer zone supports 29 species of mammals. Almost all endangered animals like Musk deer, Snow leopard and Black Beers are also found in the Buffer zone. In addition to this, species like Goral (Naemorhaedus goral), Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica), Yellow bellied weasel (Mustela kathiah), etc., 229 species of birds such as Indian whitebacked vulture (Gyps bengalensis), Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), Peregrine falcon (Faico peregrinus), Chukor partridge (Alectoris chukor). White crested kaleej pheasant (Lophura leuvumvlunu), Himalayan rcdbcllicd blue magpie (Cissa erythrorhyncha), Yellowbellied blue magpie (C. flavirostris), etc. and about 200 species of insects, 13 species of molluscs and 6 species of annelids are found in the Buffer zone. The Transition zone: The transition zone surrounding the buffer zone covers 546.34 km2 areas and represents high diversity of habitats, species, communities and ecosystems. 52 revenue villages inhabit this zone. The inhabitants belong to schedule tribes, schedule castes, Brahmins and Rajputs. The vegetation mainly comprises of temperate, sub-alpine and alpine types. The species composition is almost similar to buffer zone. The transition zone covering approximately 546.34 km2 area has been identified recently (May 2002). It forms the cushion for the buffer zone towards the southern boundary. The Joshmath area of the transition zone has been demarcated based on their dependence in the reserve particularly for fodder, fuel and medicinal plants, whereas the Ghat and Bedani-Auli areas in Chamoli district and parts of Bageshwar and Pithoragarh districts have been demarcated in view of the protection to wildlife and dependence of inhabitants for various purposes.The villagers are totally dependent of plant resources for fodder, fuel, livestock grazing, house building, agricultural tools, religious and various other purposes. Most area of the transition zone is poorly explored in terms of biodiversity, human dependence, rare-endangered, native, endemic and other economically important species. Development activities such as sheep farming, ecorestoration, eco-tourism, cultivation of medicinal plants, bee keeping, training programmes, etc. need to be encouraged in this zone. The land use pattern mainly comprises of forests, agricultural land, waste land, settlements, cultivable waste land, orchards, etc. The inhabitants are mainly dependent on horticultural and agricultural crops such as Apple (Mains mains). Walnut (Juglans regia), Apricot (Prunus armeniaca). Potato (Solamnn tuberosnm), Amaranth (Amaranlhus paniculatus), etc. Bee keeping, medicinal plants cultivation and sheep farming are practiced for income generation. The main thrust of landscape planing of NDBR is on this zone .The transition area is the outermost part of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. This is usually not delimited one and is a zone of cooperation where conservation knowledge and management skills are applied and uses are managed in harmony with the purpose of the Biosphere Reserve.This area is further associated with the forest areas, settlements, crop lands, managed forests and area for intensive recreation and other economic uses characteristics of the region. The adjacernt Kedarnath sanctuary (only some part) and the adjacent reserve forest compartments of Badrinath Division. Pithoragarh Division and Champawat Division are part of the transition zone of NDBR without any change in their legal status.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Uttarakhand
« Reply #3 on: December 11, 2011, 03:19:28 PM »
Flora & Fauna[size=95%]edit[/size][/b][/url][/size]The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve represents Himalayan Highlands Biogeographic Zonation (2B) of ==India== and it's core one i.e the Nanda Devi National Park is among the World Heritage Sites due to its unique biological and cultural wealth. The vegetation of the reserve comprises of temperate, sub-alpine, and alpine types. The temperate and sub-alpine zones are mainly dominated by broad leaved deciduous forests, broad-leaved evergreen forests, and coniferous forests and also includes agriculture land and settlements. Some of the forest communities of this zone are Cupressus torulosa, Cedrus deodara, Acer caesium, Acer caesium- Prunus cornuta mixed, Acer villosum- Ulmus wallichiana mixed, Aesculus indica-Acer villosum-Quercus floribunda mixed, Juglans regia- Prunus cornuta mixed, Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Abies spectabilis, Picea smithiana- Pinus wallichiana mixed Prunus cornuta, Betula utilis, Picea smithiana, Taxus . baccata subsp. ,'wallichiana- Rhododendron arboreum mixed, Taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana- Abies pindrow mixed Hippophae salicifolia, Rhododendron arboreum, Ainus nepalensis, Qercus floribunda ,Aesculas indica, llex dipyrena mixed, Q. semecarpifolia , Q. floribunda, Rhododendron arboreum mixed, Ulmus wallichiana, etc. The alpine zone comprises of scrub communities such as Rhododendron (3 spiecies), Juniperus indica, Piptaitthus nepalensis, Lomcera spp., Salix denticulata, Rosa spp., etc. various association of scrubs and 62 communities of herbaceous species. The common species of this zone are Tanacetum tomentosum, Iris kumaonensis, Nomocharis oxypetala, Leontopodium himalayanum, Geranium wallichianum, Potentilla atrosanguinea, Artemisia maritima, Saxifraga pulvinaria, S. hemisphaerica, Androsace globifera, Danthonia cachemyriana, Carex spp., Kobressia duthiei, Cortia depressa, Trachydium roylei, Fragaria spp.. Rheum spp., Ranunculus spp., Anemone spp. Primula spp., Allium spp., Polygonum spp., Aconitum spp., Saussurea spp., Senecio spp., etc. The zone harbours high value species of medicinal plants Aconitum heterophyllun, Angelica glanca, Allium humile, Podophyllum, hexandrum, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Nardostachys grandiflora.Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Arnebia benthamii, etc. and rare endangered species. About fifteen types of macro and micro habitats viz., Forests, Exposed, Shady moist. Riverine, Water courses. Rocks/boulders/walls, Rock crevices/under bounders. Marsh/wet, Alpine pastures/slopes, Moraines, Shrubberries, Way sides/roadsides. Camping sites, Epiphytic parasitic, and Cultivated have been identified (Samant 1993,1999). Over 1000 species of plants including fungi, lichens, bryophytes and about 520 species of fauna including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, insects, molluscs and annelids have been recorded from the area. Most of the species of flora and fauna are native and endemic. The reserve harbors many native, endemic, endangered and threatened floral and faunal species, which needs greater attention towards their conservation and management. Among the rare-endangered species, Allium stracheyi (Vulnerable), Dioscorea deltoidea (Vulnerable), Nardostachys grandiflora (Vulnerable), Picrorhiza kurrooa (Vulnerable), Saussoorea costus (Endangered), S. aitkinsoni, Cyananthus integer, Cypripedium cordigerum, G. elegans, C. himalaicum, Athyrium duthiei (All rare), andAcer caesium (Vulnerable), have been recorded in the Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Using new IUCN criteria these species along with others have also been categorized as Critically Rare (Aconitum balfourii, A. heterophyllum, A. violaceum, Angelica glauca, Arnebia benthamii, Dactylorhiza hatagirea,=Delphinium denudatum, Dioscorea deltoidea, Fritillaria roylei, Meconopsis aculeata, Nardostachys grandiflora, Podophyllum hexandrum, Sausswea costus, Taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana and Vulvrlunu wullichii), Endangered (Berberis aristata, B. lycluin, Heracleuin caiidicans, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Polygonatum verticillatum, Saussoorea obvallata and Swertia angustifolid), Vulnerable (Bergenia ligulata, Curculigo orchioides, Hedychium spicatum, Paeonia emodi, Rheum australe. Rhododendron anthopogon, and Thalictrum foliolosum) and Low Risk Near Threatened (Jurinella macrocephala). The endangered mammals are Snow leopard (Panthera uncia), Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus). Brown bear (Ursus arctos), Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), Bharal/Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragusjemlahicus), and Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis). Among the birds Himalayan monal pheasant (Lophophorus impejanus), Koklas pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha). Western tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus), Himalayan snow cock (Tetraogallus himalayensis), Himalayan golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Eastern steppe eagle (A. rapax), Black eagle (Icliiweliis malayensis), and Himalayan bearded vulture or Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) are endangered species. =The reserve supports a large number of crops, fruit trees and vegetables. Among the cultivated resources the major crops and fruits of the area are Fagopyrum esculentum. (Ogal) F. tataricum (Phapar), Phaseolus vulgaris (Rajma), Eleusine coracana (Manduwa), Amaranthus paniculatus (Chaulai), Solanum luberosiim (Aalu), Hordeum himalayense (Uwa), H. vulgare (Jau), Glycine max (Bhat), Triticinn aestivum (Gaboon), Lens esculenta (Masoor), Brassica campeslris (Sarson) and Panicum miliaceum (Chena) are the main crops cultivated by the local people for food. The main vegetables are Brassica alba (Rai), Spinacea oleracea (Palag), Brassica oleracea (Gobhi), Lycopersicon esculentum (Tamatar), Trigonellafoenum-graecum (Methi), Solanum melongena (Baigan), S. tuberosum (Aalu), Phaseolus vulgaris (Rajma), Cucurbita maxima (Kaddu), Lagenaria siceraria (Lauki), Fagopyrum tataricum (Phapar) and Raphaims sativus (Mooli). The common fruit plants are Pyrus communis (Naspati), P. mains (Seb), Juglans regia (Akhruwa), Prunus persica (Khirol), P. armeniaca (Khumani, Chulu), P. ceracifera (Padum) and Vitis vinifera (Angoor). Apart from these, the reserve supports a large number of species, which are wild relatives of crop plants. Among the wild relatives of crop plants, species of Rosa', Fragaria, Ribes, Prunus, Allium, Juglans, Carum, Solanum, Cicer, Rubus, Rumex, Mains and Pyrus are well represented in the reserve. Among the animal genetic resources jhupu, sheep, goat, cows, ox, buffaloes, mule, horses, poultry and bees are important. Of the total vascular plants, 242 species are used in Pindari and 193 species are used in Lata-Tolma-Malari area. In Pindari area 146 species are medicinal and 94 species are wild edibles, where as in Lata-Tolma-Malari area 153 species are medicinal and 85 species are edibles. Among the wild edible plants Corylus jacquemontii, Morchella esculenta, Hippophae salicifolia, Plewospermum angelicoides andAllium humile, are notable and among the important medicinal plants Angelica glauca, Carum carvi, 'Saussurea costus, Megacarpaea polyandra, Aconitum balfourii, A. heterphyllum, Podophylliim hexandrum, Dactylorhiza halagirea, Geranium wallichianum, Allium stracheyi, Picrorhizia kurrooa, Nardoslachys grandiflora, etc. are notable. Few of these species are cultivated by the inhabitants. (Source http://india.wikia.com/wiki/Nanda_Devi_Biosphere_Reserve)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Uttarakhand
« Reply #4 on: December 12, 2011, 05:13:38 AM »

In 1988, was formed the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. The NDBR was to be one of 14 established throughout India to preserve the country’s vast yet delicate biological and ecological diversity.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Uttarakhand
« Reply #5 on: December 12, 2011, 06:49:02 AM »
Panda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks

Brief Description
--------------------------

Nestled high in West Himalaya, India’s Valley of Flowers National Park is renowned for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and outstanding natural beauty. This richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, brown bear and blue sheep. The gentle landscape of the Valley of Flowers National Park complements the rugged mountain wilderness of Nanda Devi National Park. Together they encompass a unique transition zone between the mountain ranges of the Zanskar and Great Himalaya, praised by mountaineers and botanists for over a century and in Hindu mythology for much longer.
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (vii): The Valley of Flowers is an outstandingly beautiful high-altitude Himalayan valley that has been acknowledged as such by renowned mountaineers and botanists in literature for over a century and in Hindu mythology for much longer. Its ‘gentle’ landscape, breath-takingly beautiful meadows of alpine flowers and ease of access complement the rugged, mountain wilderness for which the inner basin of Nanda Devi National Park is renowned.

Criterion (x): The Valley of Flowers is internationally important on account of its diverse alpine flora, representative of the West Himalaya biogeographic zone. The rich diversity of species reflects the valley’s location within a transition zone between the Zaskar and Great Himalaya ranges to the north and south, respectively, and between the Eastern and Western Himalaya flora. A number of plant species are internationally threatened, several have not been recorded from elsewhere in Uttaranchal and two have not been recorded in Nanda Devi National Park. The diversity of threatened species of medicinal plants is higher than has been recorded in other Indian Himalayan protected areas. The entire Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve lies within the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA). Seven restricted-range bird species are endemic to this part of the EBA.
Long Description

The Nanda Devi National Park is one of the most spectacular wilderness areas in the Himalayas. It is dominated by the peak of Nanda Devi, which rises to over 7,800 m. No people live in the park, which has remained more or less intact because of its inaccessibility. It is the habitat of several endangered mammals, especially the snow leopard, Himalayan musk deer and bharal.

The park lies in Chamoli district, within the Garhwal Himalaya. It comprises the catchment area of the Rishi Ganga, an eastern tributary of Dhauli Ganga which flows into the Alaknanda River at Joshimath. The area is a vast glacial basin, divided by a series of parallel, north-south oriented ridges. These rise up to the encircling mountain rim along which are about a dozen peaks, the better known including Dunagiri, Changbang and Nanda Devi East.

Nanda Devi West, India's second-highest mountain, lies on a short ridge projecting into the basin and rises up from Nanda Devi East on the eastern rim. Trisul, in the south-west, also lies inside the basin. The upper Rishi Valley, often referred to as the 'Inner Sanctuary', is fed by Changbang, North Rishi and North Nanda Devi glaciers to the north and by South Nanda Devi and South Rishi glaciers to the south of the Nanda Devi massif. There is an impressive gorge cutting through the Devistan-Rishikot ridge below the confluence of the North and South Rishi rivers. The Trisuli and Ramani glaciers are features of the lower Rishi Valley or 'Outer Sanctuary', below which the Rishi Ganga enters the narrow, steep-sided lower gorge.

Forests are restricted largely to the Rishi Gorge and are dominated by fir, rhododendron and birch up to about 3,350 m. Forming a broad belt between these and the alpine meadows is birch forest, with an understorey of rhododendron. Conditions are drier within the 'Inner Sanctuary', becoming almost xeric up the main Nanda Devi glaciers. Beyond Ramani, the vegetation switches from forest to dry alpine communities, with scrub juniper becoming the dominant cover within the 'Inner Sanctuary'. Juniper gives way altitudinally to grasses, prone mosses and lichens, and on riverine soils to annual herbs and dwarf willow.

Woody vegetation extends along the sides of the main glaciers before changing gradually to squat alpines and lichens. Local populations use a total of 97 species, for medicine, as food plants, fodder, fuel, tools, house building and fibres, as well as for religious purposes.

The basin is renowned for the abundance of its ungulate populations, notably Himalayan musk deer (listed as 'lower risk' threatened species). Mainland serow and Himalayan tahr are also common. The distribution of goral does not appear to extend to within the basin, although the species does occur in the vicinity of the national park. Large carnivores are common leopard, Himalayan black bear and brown bear, the existence of which has yet to be confirmed. The only primate present is common langur, although rhesus macaque has been sighted outside the park boundaries. Some 83 species are reported from the biosphere reserve.

A total of 114 bird species belonging to 30 families was recorded during the 1993 Nanda Devi Scientific and Ecological Expedition, some 67 for the first time. Species abundant during May and June include crested black tit, yellow-bellied fantail flycatcher, orange-flanked bush robin, blue-fronted redstart, Indian tree pipit, vinaceous-breasted pipit, common rosefinch and nutcracker. Species richness was found to be highest in temperate forests, with a significant decline in richness as elevation increased.
Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Established as a national park with effect from 6 November 1982 as per Notification No. 3912/14-3-35-80 of 6 September 1982, the intention having been declared under Notification No. 2130/14-3-35-80 of 18 August 1980. Dang (1961) provides an historical account of the exploration of the Handa Devi Basin. The first recorded attempt to enter the sacred basin was by W. W. Graham in 1883, but he was unable to proceed beyond the gorge of the lower Rishi Ganga. Subsequent attempts by Dr T. G. Longstaff in 1870 and Hugh Ruttledge in 1926, 1927 and 1932 also met with failure. Finally, in 1934, Eric shipton and H. W. Tilman pioneered a route to the 'Inner Sanctuary' by forcing a passage up the gorge of the upper Rishi Ganga. Later, in 1936, Tilman and N. E. Odell made the first ascent of Handa Devi, reputedly the most outstanding mountaineering success of the pre-Second World War era. It was their accounts of this natural sanctuary that first drew attention to the spectacular mountain wilderness (Tilman, 1935; Shipton, 1936), following which the area was established as a game sanctuary on 7 January 1939 (Government Order No. 1493/XIV-28). Commonly referred to as 'Handa Devi Sanctuary', the name was changed to sanjay Gandhi National Park at the time of notification. This met with local opposition and the site was gazetted as Handa Devi National Park. The park was inscribed on the World Heritage List in December 1988. The park constitutes the core zone of a much larger area (200,000ha), extending as far north as the Dhauli Ganga, that has been proposed as a biosphere reserve (Indian National MAB Committee, n.d.).
Source: Advisory Body Evaluation

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/335

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Re: The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Uttarakhand
« Reply #6 on: December 12, 2011, 09:12:47 AM »
    photo   Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

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Re: The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Uttarakhand
« Reply #7 on: December 12, 2011, 09:16:37 AM »
 photo   Auli View of Trishul from the slopes of Auli, lookind towards the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. Trekking and mountaineering is not permitted here to preserve the environment. You can just see the slope of Nanda Devi on the extreme left. The road leads to the CliffTop Hotel and this is a view of the best portion of it! It became so bad from here on, our car blew the fluid pipe connecting the steering wheel. SUV highly mandatory...no Indigos please!
By - Anindo_Dey

 

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