Author Topic: Different Castes Residing In Uttarakhand - उत्तराखंड मे रहने वाले विभिन्न जातिया  (Read 51141 times)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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दोस्तो,

आमतौर से उतराखंड मे kumaoni एव Garwali  लोग ही ज्यादातर निवास करते है ! उत्तराखंड के विभिन्न इलाको मे अन्य प्रकार जातिया जैसे जौनसारी, भोटिया आदि भी निवास करते है. '
 
आएये इनके बारे मे जानकारी ले .

एम एस मेहता

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Jaunsar bawar

Located 15 km from Mussoorie, Jaunsar-Bawar is an area in Chakrata in Dehradun District. Jaunsar is the area comprising the lower half of the region, and the snow-clad upper region is called Bawar. The here. An important aspect of their culture is the performance of a folk dance named Barada Nati during all festive occasions. The dancers - both boys and girls - wear colorful traditional costumes. A temple built in the Huna architectural style - at an altitude of 1,700 m - is one of the principal attractions of Jaunsar-Bawar. The village is endowed with natural beauty and here one can see the sprawling Doon Valley and the magnificent Garhwal Himalayas flanked by rivers Yamuna and Tons. The ideal time to visit this village is between May and June. The closest airport is Jolly Grant and the nearest railway station is at Dehradun.

One can visit the village called Lakhamandal for its splendid view, and the 5th century temple, apart from natural caves that are said to have been used by the Pandavas. Basic facilities exist for travellers. Warm clothes may be suggested for the winters and basic medication is recommended. Buses and taxis are available from Dehradun and Mussoorie.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Bhotiya

The Bhotiya are an ethno-linguistic group of people living in the trans-Himalayan region that divides India from Tibet. They are closely related to the Tibetans and their name, Bhotiya, derives from the word Bod (བོད་), which is the Classical Tibetan name for Tibet. Those living in Uttarakhand are generally referred to as Bhotiya, although they are sometimes also referred to as Bhutia; Bhutia more commonly means the related people of Sikkim.

The Indian government uses the word Bhotiya to refer to those who have traditionally resided in the upper Himalayan valleys of the Kumaon and Garhwal of Uttarakhand Himalayas. These include the Shaukas of Kumaon and Tolchhas and Marchhas of Garhwal.

The Bhotiya speak languages belonging to the Tibeto-Burman family, although their dialects are mutually unintelligible to the Tibetans and Garwhalis. Owing to social process of Sanskritization, many of them have intermarried with the Hindus over the years. Most of the Bhotiya practice a combination of Tibetan Buddhism, Bön and Hinduism, although Hinduism is prevalent among the earlier semi-Indian groups, while Buddhism is prevalent among the recent immigrant groups of purer Tibetan origin, such as the Jadh.

Hindu gods such as the weather God Gabla, Runiya and Suniya, are worshiped to protect their animals from disease. Sidhuwa and Bidhuwa are worshiped as well to find lost animals.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Jadh

Jadh आमतौर से चमोली जिले मे रहते है

Inhabiting in the Uttarkashi region of Uttarakhand, most Jadh can be found in the villages of Nelang and Jadhang between Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, who were both situated at an elevation of 3,400m in the Bhagirathi valley. These towns are only as near as thirty miles from the Tibetan border, and a small number have relocated to Harsil. Their language resembles closely to Tibetan.

Originally traders, the Jadh lead a semi-nomadic lifestyle and maintained social ties with the neighbouring Kinnauries, Jaunsaries and Tibetans. Until the closure of the Tibetan border in 1962, the Jadh barter-traded with the Tibetans across the high Himalayan paths, notably along traditional routes such as the Thang-La and Tang-Choke-La, which is situated at an elevation of 5,050 m and 5,400 m respectively. Basic items such as cotton, grains, metal, oil seeds and sugar are traded in various Tibetan markets across the border. In exchange, they received salt, wool and borax, which is sold by Tibetan traders in the towns of Uttarkashi and Bushahr. With the re-opening of the border in the 1990's, trading activities have resumed to a lesser extent.

Today, the Jadh graze their sheep and goats in the Upper Jahnvi Valley during the warm summer months, when the alpine vegetation is in full bloom. Upon the coming of autumn, they move down to the lower hills, reaching the temperate forests bordering Rishikesh by October. As of today, each Jadh family could own as many as 200 to 400 animals, principally yak herds. The number of livestock owned by them is a measure of their wealth and economic condition.

The Jadh used to migrate from these high altitude villages in winter in the past with their entire families. In modern days, some families and a few shopkeepers have decided to stay back in Dunda, which is not far removed from their native homeland, while the rest of them move to the forests around Rishikesh. Upon the coming of spring, the Jadh will return to their homeland.

Most Jadh women wear their hair in a turban or a plait, owing to its cold weather. They wear a costume which resembles a cross between the Tibetan and Garwhali styles. The men, on the other hand, will wear the nomadic Tibetan clothing.

The Jadh are followers of Tibetan Buddhism and to a lesser extent, Bön, although minimal Hindu influence can be seen. Adhering to the caste system loosely, the Jadh classify themselves as Rajput. Buddhist Lamas are employed to conduct religious ceremonies and medical treatment

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Marcha

The Marcha live in the Mana and Niti valleys on the cold and dry tracts of Upper Chamoli, which is also known as the Painkhanda tract. Though they speak a Garhwali language, their facial features suggest some intermarriage with the Indians. Because they originally migrated from Tibet, the Marcha follow Hinduism. Unlike the other Bhotiya groups, they worship in Hindu temples, and rely on the Hindu Brahmins to conduct religious ceremonies. Doctors, known as Vaidyas, are employed to treat patients.

Traditionally, most Marcha were nomadic shepherds and herders. Typically the men work as shepherds rearing sheep and goats, while the women stay in the villages tending the fields. Crops grown in these high mountain areas include rajma (beans), aloo (potatoes), mutter (peas) as well as several different varieties of grains. These animals graze on the rich alpine pastures in the summer, and move to lower altitudes in the winter. The herders sell wool, meat, and milk to earn a living.

The Marcha long maintained links with the Tibetans by barter trading through the Mana and Niti passes, which are at an elevation of 5,800m. The Indo-Tibetan border was closed in 1962. Before it closed, large numbers of caravans of mules, yaks, and the hardiest men would travel into Tibet laden with Indian goods when the snow melted. In trading centers, they bartered their goods for local Tibetan merchandise (e.g., wool and salt), to be resold in local markets in India. The merchants would return to Indian just before the start of the winter season in October. Since the Indo-Tibetan border was closed in 1962, the Marcha have taken to a semi-agrarian and semi-nomadic lifestyle. 

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Rangkas

The isolated Rangkas tribe, whose population host a meagre 600, is found in the outskirts of the Mahakali valley. According to ethnologue, the Rangkas are ethnically related or are of the Johar

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Shauka -  सौक मुन्सारी एव पिथोगढ़ इलाके मे आमतौर से रहते है

Shaukas, further consist of several sub-groups, residing in two different river valleys. Joharis live along the Goriganga river valley in Munsiyari Tehsil of Pithoragarh district, while the Rungs live along the Mahakali river valley in Dharchula teshil and Darchula district of Nepal

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Byansi/Byangkhupa

The Byansis (called 'Byangkhupa' in 'Rung') are a subgroup of an ethnic group called Rung/Shaukas living along the upper valleys of Mahakali and its tributary Dhauliganga, high up in the Himalayas where Uttarakhand of India, Ali district of western Tibet and Darchula of Nepal meet. Byans (or 'Byangkho'in 'Rung') consists of seven villages (Kuti, Rongkang, Nabi, Gunji, Napalchyo, Garbyang, Budi) on the Indian side and two villages (Chhangru and Tinkar) on the Nepal side.

Their religion is a mixture of Bön, Hinduism, Buddhism and animism. Each clan, of which there are many in each village, has its own clan god(s). Ancestral worship ('simi thuma') is a very important part of Byansi religion.

Their language falls under Tibeto-Burman group. Three distinct dialects are spoken in Byans region -- Byangkhu lo, Kutpa lo and Tinkar lo

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Darmiya/Darmani

The Darmanis live in the Darma valley of Dhauliganga, a tributary of Mahakali river. Along with the Byangkhupas and Bangbanis, they form the three subgroups of Rung. They speak 'Darma lo', which is markedly different from 'Byankho lo' or 'Banga lo', and is considered by many to be the original Rung language. Main villages include Sela, Chal, Soan, Seepu, Bon, Dugtu, Daatu, Nangling, Marchha, Bongling, Gow, Dakar, Filam, Tidang, Baling, Durr.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Johar

The Shauka living in the Johar valley of Goriganga river in Munsyari Tehsil of the Pithoragarh district are also known as Johari or Johari Shauka. They are one of the few Bhotiya tribes that shows a rich cultural heritage and adhere to the caste system. Shaukas are the followers of Hinduism, and rely on the Hindu Brahmins to conduct religious ceremonies. Their main deity is Goddess Nanda Devi in Martoli and Milam.

The legend of Rajuli - Malusahi relates to Rajuli, daughter of Sunpati Shauka (A local lord/king of Johar) and Malusahi, son of the Katyuri King of Bageshwar. The famous explorers Pundit Nain Singh Rawat (C.I.E.) and Rai Bahadur Kisan Singh Rawat belongs to the Johar valley

 

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