Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 118973 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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            Hindu Population in Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period
          History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in pal /Shah Era -4

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -41 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -230     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -478 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
  As in India, the Hindu society was divided in various groups and subgroups in Garhwal too.
The major groups were as under –
                    Bhairbaswa
Bhairbaswa means who stays outside.
Doom
Koli
                               Bintagadhari
Bintagadhari means who did not put on Janeu (religious thred).
They were
1-Ubdesi or Northen Inhabitants (Bhotiya)
2-Khasya or those were original inhabitants of Garhwal.
                 Tagawal
Tagawal means those put on Janeu and were
1-Brahmin (mainly who were migrated from elsewhere.)

2-Rajput (mainly who were migrated from elsewhere.)

                               Doom and not Dome

                 There was a caste in Hindu of Garhwal called Doom (achhut) . However, Historians as Atkinson and plains sociologists and politicians etc called this word as Dome (blood line of Satyvadi Harishchandra). The correct word is Doom. Today, the Doom word is perhaps unconstitutional or abusive word.   In1827. Williams used Dhoom word for Doom. Now by calling Doom word anybody could be sentenced for using Jativachak shabd.
     Now, Shilplkar and Harijan or Arya word are used for scheduled caste people.  There was also caste division among Shilpkar group (untouchable group before independence) and Shilpkar were divided in four major groups and then subgroups. The upper  group used to marry the daughter of lower group but did not marry their daughters with lower group Shilpkar.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 10/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -479 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
XX
                                              Swacch Bharat ! स्वच्छ भारत !

Bhishma Kukreti

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History aspects of sub-caste in Scheduled Caste of Bijnor, Haridwar in Pal /Shah Period

          History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in pal /Shah Era -5

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -42 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -231     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -479 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)


       Scheduled Caste  in Bijnor and Haridwar before British Raj
 
Ahir
Gaderiya
Pasi
Gauriya (Snake Charmer)
Ghasiya (Grass Cutters)
Ghosi
Charmakarr (Leather workers)
Safai Karmachari (sweepers)
Macchimar (Fishermen)
Dhol Badak (Dhol Players)
Lohar
Kasar or metal smith
Badhi
Kalal or Kalar –Wine distillers
Kaikari or basket makers
Kahar (Palanquin carriers) though they were low caste but could go inside the house)
Indoor servants - low caste but allowed inside the house of upper caste
Kanjar – gypsy from anywhere
Thugs (Thugs were also in Bhabhar region and in Haridwar too)
 Hindu Bakar Kasai – goat slaughters
Dhobi (Washer men)
Bhuiyar
Dome – Disposer of Dead bodies
Manjhi, Nishad  or Boatman




The above communities were Hindu scheduled caste communities in Bijnor and Haridwar in Mughal and Rohilla Period.
        The music instrument players, instrument makers were from both religions that is Hindi and Muslims. Mostly, music instrument players and music instrument makers from Hindu religion were scheduled caste.
 In dancing communities too, most of the people were from scheduled caste communities.
                                     Gosain in Haridwar
 Gosain were having following sub groups

Giri
Puri
Parbat
Sagar
Ban
Tirtha
Bharti
Sarswati
Arnay
Ashram
Dandis
Ravanvansis (however, no record)
Naga or Akhada Gusain or fighter Gusains




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 11/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -480 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
XX
                                   Swacch Bharat ! स्वच्छ भारत !


Bhishma Kukreti

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         Musicians, Dancing Castes of Garhwal in Pal Shah Period
          History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in pal /Shah Era -6

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -43 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -232     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -480 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
 There were following castes and sub castes in Musicians and Dancing Class (Scheduled Castes) of Garhwal in Pal or Shah Dynasty of Garhwal-
Auju- They were Dhol-Damau Players and were essential part of society. Apart from Marriage and other rituals,  Auji  perform Pando Jagar in Garhwal and  other caste did not perform Pando Jagar rituals.
Bajgi – musicians
Beda- Beda were wandering Tibetan Buddhist musicians
Dhaki- Drum players and bird killers
Athpahriya – These music players used to play musical instruments (mainly Damau or Nagda ) outside of palace for eight times in a day.
Dondi- Dancers
Gadoi –Naubat Drum players for announcing a time period or Pahar
Hovyara- Turhi Players
Bhat- Bhat used to sing song in praise of Kings and Armed forces to enthuse, energize them.
Hudkiya- They were Hudki players and had major role too in society and in court. They were as Bhat.
Badi- Badi was again part and parital of Garhwal society till eighties. They were entertainers, musicians, and dancing class.
Mangler- Thsese women used to sing auspicious songs at the auspicious occasions as Marriage, Birth day etc.
Badi and many other music and Dancing class did not have agriculture land used to depend on Dadwar (grains from their masters) and hunting. They used to eat every birds and animals barring poisonous birds.





   

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 12/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -481 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
XX
                                   Swacch Bharat ! स्वच्छ भारत !
History aspects Shilpkar (untouchable) groups of Musicians, Dancing Castes of Garhwal in Pal Shah Period; History aspects Shilpkar groups of Musicians, Dancing Castes of Garhwal in Pal Shah Period in context Haridwar Garhwal History ; History aspects Shilpkar groups of Musicians, Dancing Castes of Garhwal in Pal Shah Period in context Bijnor or old Garhwal History ; History aspects Shilpkar groups of Musicians, Dancing Castes of Garhwal in Pal Shah Period in context Pauri Garhwal History ; History aspects Shilpkar groups of Musicians, Dancing Castes of Garhwal in Pal Shah Period in context Chamoli Garhwal History ; History aspects Shilpkar groups of Musicians, Dancing Castes of Garhwal in Pal Shah Period in context Rudraprayag Garhwal History ; History aspects Shilpkar groups of Musicians, Dancing Castes of Garhwal in Pal Shah Period in context Tehri Garhwal History ; History aspects Shilpkar groups of Musicians, Dancing Castes of Garhwal in Pal Shah Period in context Uttarkashi Garhwal History ; History aspects Shilpkar groups of Musicians, Dancing Castes of Garhwal in Pal Shah Period in context Dehradun Garhwal History ;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Craftsmen under Scheduled Castes in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

          History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in pal /Shah Era -7

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -44 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -233     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -481 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

 Garhwal villages depended on village craftsmen for all the works.
They were –
Lwar /lohar – Ironsmith
Tamta – metal smith
Bhadeliya- Metal Smith
Dhalothi- Metal Smith
Oad and Mistary, Raj - Building builders and workers
Badhai- Carpenters
Dhanik- Bow and Arrow makers
Mochi, Badi, Nagarchi, Pummi- Leather works workers
Rudiya- Bamboo appliances makers
There was no darji caste as such but Auji or other scheduled caste people used to sew clothing.
The people used to offer grains in exchange of works. Dadwar was a custom that in each harvesting, harvester would offer crops etc to craftsmen as per their works.
Agariya (Mines miners); Dhuni (gold dust extractors from river sand); Khairi (Catechu extractors) were also there but were not necessary parts of society as Iron smith etc were there.
                               Public works Workers 
Village watchman , village messenger, bridge maker ( Jhuliya); boatmen (Dhunar) and Tantriks as Doomjogi –Doonath; Dalyanath, Daundiya (protectors of crops from calamity through Mantra and Tantra); were  also there in a village or in a region. They used to get Dadwar too.
                Doomhali worker
Doomhali worker was a type of slave. Usually, who had huge farm land they used to buy a slave from scheduled caste family. Doomhali was given a place to build a hut. Doomhali used to plough, make field fertile etc and used to do all works of his master. Doomhali used to get Dadwar and grains as usual.





Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 13/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -482 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal

XX
History aspects - Craftsmen under Scheduled Castes in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects - Craftsmen under Scheduled Castes in Bijnor , old Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects - Craftsmen under Scheduled Castes in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects - Craftsmen under Scheduled Castes in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects - Craftsmen under Scheduled Castes in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects - Craftsmen under Scheduled Castes in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects - Craftsmen under Scheduled Castes in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects - Craftsmen under Scheduled Castes in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects - Craftsmen under Scheduled Castes in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;
                                   Swacch Bharat ! स्वच्छ भारत !


Bhishma Kukreti

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                          Koli Caste in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period
          History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in pal /Shah Era -8

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -45 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -234     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -482 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

               Koli caste was supposed to be lower than touchable caste but upper than Harijan or Shilpkar. The Shilpkar could take food cooked by Kolis but Kolis did not take food cooked by Shilpkar. Same way Koli used to take food cooked by Bith (upper caste Khas, Rajput and Brahmins) but Bith did not take food cooked by Kolis.
 It is said that Kolis were born by Rajput male and Harijan or Koli female. Today, Kolis say that they are Chandravanshi.
 Kolis were weaver sect of Garhwal society. They used to weave dress materials by hemp fiber. It was a must a or two Koli families within four five or two villages.Theere were subgroups among Kolis as Pabila (the hemp fiber weavers), Gaykariya Koli (son of Rajput male and Koli female). Gaykariya Koli were upper cast Kolis.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 14/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -483 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal

XX
Koli Caste in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period in Garhwal; History aspects Koli Caste in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects Koli Caste in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects Koli Caste in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects Koli Caste in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects Koli Caste in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects Koli Caste in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History aspects Koli Caste in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;
                                   Swacch Bharat ! स्वच्छ भारत !

Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Aspects of Restrictions/ Deprivations for Shilpkar in the Society in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

         History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in pal /Shah Era -9

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -46 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -235     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -483 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

   As happened all over India, the Upper caste Hindus deprived Shilpkars or Dooms from many human rights. There were many inhuman restrictions for Shilpkars in Garhwal too.
 The Shilpkars could not build their houses or huts adjacent to Bith (upper caste). The place where Upper Castes Inhabitant was called ‘Bithana’ and the residence of Shilpkar was called ‘Dumana’. ‘Dumana’ had to be far away and lower place than ‘Bithana’.
 When there was Athwad (sacrificing buffalo) or when cow-bulls used to die, Shilpkars used to take those animals as food. Shilpkar had separate water source. Upper Caste people never took water through ‘Dumana’ (where Shilpkar resided). Therefore, Dumana could not be in between water source of Bith and ‘Dumana’.
         There was no marriage between Bith and ‘Doom (Shilpkar). Doom or Shilpkar were not allowed using Dola-Palki, Horses, silver and gold jewelry in their marriage ceremony. Upper caste used Shilpkar for disposing dead animals. Shilpkar used carry Dola Palki of upper caste in marriages and other ceremonies.   


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 15/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -484 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal

XX
History Aspects of Restrictions/ Deprivations for Shilpkar in the Society in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Restrictions/ Deprivations for Shilpkar in the Society in Haridwar, Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Restrictions/ Deprivations for Shilpkar in the Society in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Restrictions/ Deprivations for Shilpkar in the Society in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Restrictions/ Deprivations for Shilpkar in the Society in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Restrictions/ Deprivations for Shilpkar in the Society in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Restrictions/ Deprivations for Shilpkar in the Society in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Restrictions/ Deprivations for Shilpkar in the Society in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Restrictions/ Deprivations for Shilpkar in the Society in Bijor around Pal /Shah Period;
                                    Swacch Bharat ! स्वच्छ भारत !

Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Aspects of Social Position of Harijan, Shilpkar in Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period
         History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in pal /Shah Era -10

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -47 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -236     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -484 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

         The position of Harijan Shilpkar in Garhwal was totally different than the plains as Haridwar and Bijnor. The main reason of difference was geographical adversity of Garhwal. For example, it was necessary that human being is safe in cold season. Therefore, Shilpkar family had a room. Harijan could puff on Chilam of Bith (upper caste). Bith could take oil, milk, ghee, mutton, liquor, Gud, sugar , grains from Doom or Harijan. At the time of Lang ritual performance, Gram Pradhan used to take Badi (a dancing and drama making community) on his soldiers. Even in Marriage or Pandon Ritual, Bith used to take Dhol Badak on their soldiers happily. When there is auspicious ritual, Pithai was offered to Dhol at first instance.
 There was relation as uncle, aunt, grandfather, niece, nephew etc among all the communities of society in Garhwal.
          Bith used to offer food to Harijan in feast. When as Thakur (master) dies the Harijan used to go for funeral and shave his head. Bith also go for funeral of Harijan but did not shave the head.
      Harijan or craftsmen were essential part of every village. In a way Harijan were properties of the village. A village can’t settle call a craftsman especially Dhol Badak from other village in his village. If there is court case on a craftsman of a village against craftsman of other village, it was in real sense court case of a village on other village.  If the iron smith is penalized it wa s duty of villagers to pay that penalty.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 16/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -485 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx
Notes on History Aspects of Social Position of Harijan Shilpkar in Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History Aspects of Social Position of Harijan Shilpkar in Garhwali society of Bijnorl around in Pal/Shah Period; History Aspects of Social Position of Harijan Shilpkar in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History Aspects of Social Position of Harijan Shilpkar in Pauri Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History Aspects of Social Position of Harijan Shilpkar in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History Aspects of Social Position of Harijan Shilpkar in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History Aspects of Social Position of Harijan Shilpkar in Tehri Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History Aspects of Social Position of Harijan Shilpkar in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History Aspects of Social Position of Harijan Shilpkar in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period;



                                  Swacch Bharat ! स्वच्छ भारत !

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Aspects of Bhotantik /Bhotiya, Marchha in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period
         History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in pal /Shah Era -11

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -48 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -237     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -485 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

          The Morchha, Jad , Nitwal, Tolchha, Johari caste people were of Tibetan blood and Bhotiya used call them Rajput. Bhotiya had Brahmin or Lama Priests. The Morchha, Jad , Nitwal, Tolchha, Johari caste people used to live at Garhwal-Tibetan border. They were called Bintaga or without Yagyopavit people. They were also called Dobasa or people residing in two places. In summer they still live on upper region of Garhwal and in winter they settled at lower level. There were a few settlement of Gyagarkhampa. Jad, Marchha and Nitwal did not have any difference with Khampa for food touching etc. Tolchha used to take torched breads (Roti) from Marchha but did not take touched/cooked rice from Marchha class. Tolchha used to have only tea with Khampa but not other food. The Khasiya Rajput of Painkhanda used to marry their daughters with Tolchha but did not marry daughters with Marchha. Tolchha used to marry their daughters with Marchha grooms but did not marry with daughters of Marchha. There were own Harijan, Shilpkar, craftsmen of Bhotantik people in their villages.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 17/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -486 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx
Notes on History Aspects of Bhotantik /Bhotiya , Marchha, Tolchha, Jad, Nitwal, Johari in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Bhotantik /Bhotiya, Marchha, Tolchha Jad, Nitwal, Johari  in Mana, Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Bhotantik /Bhotiya, Marchha, Tolchha Jad, Nitwal, Johari in Neeti Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Bhotantik /Bhotiya, Marchha, Tolchha, Jad, Nitwal, Johari in Bampa , Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Bhotantik /Bhotiya, Marchha, Tolchha  Jad, Nitwal, Johari in Bhiundhar, Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;
 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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  History Aspects of Khas in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

         History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era -12

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -49 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -238     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -486 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
 According to Atkinson (Himalayan Districts), the 90 % population of Bith or Savarn (Upper Caste Claus) was from Khas castes. The Atkinson report stated that only 10% Brahmin and Rajput were pure among Bith/ Savran. Today, there is no difference between Khasiya and Rajput. In census of 1865, there were Khursiya, Khasiya as Khas; Chhatri, Thakur or Rajput as Rajput. Harijan were called as Domeor Muslim. 
            There were tens of Khas sub groups. Their sir name (Jati) was derived from their villages. There were Khas Brahmin and Khas Rajput. Therefore, there was no much cultural differences between Khas Brahmin and Khas Rajput. The Khas Brahmin used to marry with daughters of Khas Rajput as was seen a few years back in jaunsar, Jaunpur, Ravain, Taknaur, and Nagpur regions.
 Khas were old inhabitants or original inhabitants of Garhwal. Khas used to marry their daughters with upper caste Rajput and Brahmins migrated from other parts of India to Garhwal.
  As far as Bijnor and Haridwar districts are concerned, after separating from Shah /Pal regime, Khas of Bijnor and Haridwar lost their identity and blended with other castes. Still, at the bordering line of Garhwal -Bijnor and Haridwar-Garhwal; the Khas Shilpkar or Khas Rajput /Brahmin live there.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -487 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx
History Aspects of Khas in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Khas in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Khas in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Khas in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Khas in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Khas in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Khas in Dehradun  Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Khas in Haridwar, Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Khas in Bijnor  Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;

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Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Aspects of Brahmin and Rajput Communities in Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era

         History Aspects of Lifestyle in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era -13

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -50 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -239     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -487 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

               Rajput Communities
  Rajput communities had two major groups –Original Local inhibitants –Khas and migrated from outside Garhwal. Garhwal Kings offered Jagir (land lordship) to Rajput migrated from outside Garhwal. Their positions were as were Negi, Bhandari, Bisht, , Raut in the court. Later on those positions became Sir Names or castes too.  Migrated Rajput caaled them upper than Khas Rajput. Bhatt caste of Brahmin also called Negi (servants). Migrated Brahmins and Rajput became owner of land and the local Rajput and Shilpkar became their Khaikar . Rajput did not marry their daughters with Khas boy but were eager to have beautiful Khas girls as their second wife (Rakhail or Up Patni).
 There were subgroups in each Rajput major groups. Upper class Rajput and lower caste Rajput was the system of the period.
            Brahmin Communities

  Brahmin communities also had two major groups –Khas Brahmin and Migrated Brahmins from outside Garhwal. Migrated ones were upper class Brahmins and Khas or locals were lower caste Brahmins.
 Upper Caste bRahmins had two major groups- saryul or official cooks and Gangadi.
  Initially, there were 12 Saryul Brahmin castes in Garhwal but later on King added 24 more totaling 36 Saryul, Purohit, Guru Brahmin castes.  Saryul did not take food cooked by Gangadi Brahmins but Gangadi and upper caste Rajput used to take food cooked by Saryul Brahmins.
                       Other Castes
  There were other castes as Sadhu, Mahatma, Jogi who used to marry and settled in Garhwal. Those people were /are called Bairagi, Gusain, Nath, Puri, giri, Jogi etc.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 19/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -488 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx
History Aspects of Brahmin and Rajput Communities in Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History Aspects of Brahmin and Rajput Communities in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History Aspects of Brahmin and Rajput Communities in Pauri Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History Aspects of Brahmin and Rajput Communities in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History Aspects of Brahmin and Rajput Communities in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History Aspects of Brahmin and Rajput Communities in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History Aspects of Brahmin and Rajput Communities in Tehri Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era; History Aspects of Brahmin and Rajput Communities in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal/Shah Era;

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