Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 118972 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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                       Wild Birds and Edible Birds of Garhwal in History Context

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -61 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -250     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -498 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
           There are records of more than 300 species and more varieties of Wild birds of Garhwal. There was no system or culture for recording wild birds in Garhwal Kingdom time. British administrators and scientists put the foundation for recording the birds of Garhwal.
 There were/ are domesticated birds and wild birds eaten in Garhwal.
As far as the edible domestic birds are concerned, they are chicken and Butakh or turkey.
A class that is Badi used to eat jungle birds and even sparrow. However, till today, there are no official records for such eating. This author is witness for Badi catching sparrow, Ghughti by nets.
The following wild birds were/ are widely eaten by Garhwalis –
Chakor
Goose
Capon
Swan
Duck
Quail
Grouse
Fowls
Pigeon
Dove
Pheasants
Woodcock
Spine
Chukar
Many animals and birds were killed for  medical uses in Garhwal.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 30/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -499 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
Wild Birds and Edible Birds of Garhwal in History Context; Wild Birds and Edible Birds of Pauri Garhwal in History Context; Wild Birds and Edible Birds of Haridwar Garhwal in History Context; Wild Birds and Edible Birds of Dehradun Garhwal in History Context; Wild Birds and Edible Birds of Uttarkashi Garhwal in History Context; Wild Birds and Edible Birds of Tehri Garhwal in History Context; Wild Birds and Edible Birds of Rudraprayag Garhwal in History Context; Wild Birds and Edible Birds of Chamoli Garhwal in History Context; Wild Birds and Edible Birds of Bijnor  in History Context; 
              स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!


Bhishma Kukreti

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           Hunting Methods in Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period in History Context 

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -62 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -252     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -499 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)


    Hunting was very common among Garhwalis in Pal/Shah period and even in British Raj. Kings used to go for hunting as a religious ritual.
In Garhwali, ‘ Ayedi’ word is for Hunting.
The following methods were used to capture/trap/hunt/kill wild animals, birds or fishes –
1-Baiting
2-Battue /scarring
3-Beagling of rabbits but very rarely in Bhabhar
4-Beating very common
5-Blind or stand hunting
6-Calling especially birds
7-Camouaflage
8-Hunting by dogs
9-Directing animals in a particular direction
10-Flushing
11-Glueing for birds
12-Netting
13-Trapping in concealed pits
14-Running after pray and exhausting the pryas
15-Scouting
16- Shining firelight  for fish or other animals
17-Suffocating animal by smoke in its hiding burrows Shahi/Shaulu
18-Stalking
19-Tracking
20-Herbal Poisoning and that poison is not harmful to mankind.
21-Hitting Hammer on Stone under whom fishes are hiding


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 1/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -500
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
Hunting Methods in Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period in History Context; Hunting Methods in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period in History Context; Hunting Methods in Tehri Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period in History Context; Hunting Methods in Chamoli Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period in History Context; Hunting Methods in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period in History Context; Hunting Methods in Pauri Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period in History Context; Hunting Methods in Haridwar Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period in History Context; Hunting Methods in Bhabhar Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period in History Context; Hunting Methods in Dehradun Garhwal in Shah /Pal Period in History Context;
              स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!


Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Aspects of Non Vegetarian Food Cooking in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -63 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -253     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -500   
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
 
               Till date in Garhwal, the animals are killed and roasted first before de-skinning them. The intestinal part is taken out of dead animal and then roasted whole animal in campfire. Then the skin, penis, testicles, kidneys, heart, lever are taken out. The intestine or rectum etc is cleaned thoroughly by entering water into intestine and again roasted too.   The roasted skin part, intestine and testicles, kidneys, lever, heart etc are eaten as only after roasting only by mixing spices and salt and pepper. This is called Kachhboli.
 The mutton is cut into pieces and fried in oil with masala, salt etc. Usually water is put after thoroughly frying the mutton. This is called Shikar ku rassa or rasedar shikar or mutton curry.
 As far as fishes are concerned they are also roasted, then are cleaned and after by just sprinting salt pepper are eaten. If fishes are cooked for fish curry the fish is first cleaned and then fried in oil and mixed with spices and salt and then put water to make fish curry.
  In Pal/Shah period, no chilies were available and black pepper was costly as gold. Therefore local hot spices were used.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 2/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -501
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
History Aspects of Non Vegetarian Food Cooking in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Non Vegetarian Food Cooking in Bhabhar Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Non Vegetarian Food Cooking in Haridwar in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Non Vegetarian Food Cooking in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Non Vegetarian Food Cooking in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Non Vegetarian Food Cooking in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Non Vegetarian Food Cooking in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Non Vegetarian Food Cooking in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; History Aspects of Non Vegetarian Food Cooking in Bijnor (Old Garhwal ) in Pal /Shah Period;
              स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!



Bhishma Kukreti

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History Aspects of Smoking, Tobacco Smoking and Hukka Smoking in Garhwal in Pal Period
 
Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -64 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -254     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -501
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
            Hemp smoking was there in India at least 2000BC. Sanskrit word Dhumrapan was meant to smoke. The first record of smoking is in Atharvaveda few hundred BC. Dhupa and Homa were mentioned in Ayurveda for medicinal and meditational uses.
 That shows that hemp smoking, Dhupa and Homa smoking was quite common in prehistoric period of Garhwal too.
In fumigation, Homa or Havan; Fire, with hemp, various grains, ghee, herbs were used in Garhwal.
 Opium smoking was also common and at Tibet border it was common practice.
        Tobacco smoking came in India after 1600. That means tobacco smoking became popular in seventeenth century. Hukka became symbol of prestige. ‘Hukka Pani Band’ means exiling from society also became culture of Garhwal.
 Tobacco smoking was performed by many means. Patbyadi was very common means of tobacco or hemp smoking. The leaves of Banj (Oak) or that type of leaves were bent, pinned by fine wood stick and made as claye made Chillam/Chillum in cone form with end to end channel. Then tobacco or hemp was filled up to top and the tobacco or hemp was fired by putting burning fiber of Kabaslu or cotton. The men or women used to take puff from conical part. Sadhus used to smoke hemp, opium or tobacco through chillum. Water wet handkerchief was used to put at fine end of Chillum.
 Many times the fine bamboo hollow stick or Tuwar stick was also used as alternative of Chillum.
Many times, when chillum or Patbyadi was not available or hollow wood stick was not available, people used to dig a small pit and used to dig a small canal and that canal was covered. In pit the tobacco or hemp was burnt and smoker used to smoke from last end of small canal.
Many times the tobacco or hemp was burnt and smokers used to smoke the smoke openly.   
  Hukka became popular perhaps in end of seventeenth century. Hukka was made by bronze, bamboo stem etc. Huka was of different shape and called Baithak (sitting or kept in room only) and Chalto (walking or movable) Hukka. Elite had large and metallic Hukka and others had bamboo Hukka. 
          There is Garhwal Painting showing elite or prime minster Jaidev smokings Hukka. In the painting of Jaidev Bajir, the workers are following Jai Dev with Hukka and Jai Dev riding on horse smoking through long pipe.
  A couple of paintings of Maularam state that women too used to smoke through Hukka.
   


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 3/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -502
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
History Aspects of Smoking, Tobacco Smoking and Hukka Smoking in Garhwal in Pal Period;
History Aspects of Smoking, Tobacco Smoking and Hukka Smoking in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal Period; History Aspects of Smoking, Tobacco Smoking and Hukka Smoking in Bijnor around  Pal Period; History Aspects of Smoking, Tobacco Smoking and Hukka Smoking in Pauri Garhwal in Pal Period; History Aspects of Smoking, Tobacco Smoking and Hukka Smoking in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal Period; History Aspects of Smoking, Tobacco Smoking and Hukka Smoking in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal Period; History Aspects of Smoking, Tobacco Smoking and Hukka Smoking in Tehri Garhwal in Pal Period; History Aspects of Smoking, Tobacco Smoking and Hukka Smoking in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal Period; History Aspects of Smoking, Tobacco Smoking and Hukka Smoking in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal Period;
               स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!

Bhishma Kukreti

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            History Aspects of Famine in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -65 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -255     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -502
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
  Agriculture was main source of feeding in Garhwal. Agriculture was totally dependent on rain. Over raining and draught created famine. Though, forests produces were providing fifty percent food needs. However, draught used to create shortage of food from forests too.
          The history records direct two major famines in Garhwal.
    There was severing draught and food shortage in 1635 in Garhwal. Tibet was also affected by drought of Garhwal as export of food grains could not be possible from Garhwal to Tibet.
  The famine of 1795 (1852 Vikrami samvat) is called Bavani or famine of 1852 Sanvat was the worst Famine happened ever in Garhwal. Thousands of people died because of non availability of food, medical helps and epidemic together. Forest produces also were in scarcity. Many families too poison to die. People sold their family members.
The Bijnor population was always in fluctuating manners whenever there was famine as happened in 1803-1804 (Uttar Pradesh Gazetteers, Bijnor 1991, page 107).
 Haridwar also used to experience draught famine and flood’s adversity too.
 In Haridwar, Saharanpur, Bijnor and Bhabhar of Garhwal, there are familiar folk stories about Famine and its worst effects (Calcutta Review Vol-LVII, page 203). In the cited story, Devi offers a forest plant tuber (Siral, Sural or Pueraria tuberosa) as food for famine. In Garhwal too, Siral was used as famine food too.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 4/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -503
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
History Aspects of Famine in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; History Aspects of Famine in Bijnor around Pal /Shah Era; History Aspects of Famine in Haridwar, Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; History Aspects of Famine in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; History Aspects of Famine in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; History Aspects of Famine in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; History Aspects of Famine in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; History Aspects of Famine in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; History Aspects of Famine in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; History Aspects of Famine in Saharanpur around  Pal /Shah Era;

               स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!


Bhishma Kukreti

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                Difficult Life in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -66 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -256     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -503
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
                         Diseases of Garhwal
              The diseases in Garhwal were common as in Indian counterparts.
              The state never took responsibility for disease remedies. The Pundit, Priests, were also Ayurvedic doctors for the societies. There were not seen any experiments to develop medicines in Garhwal in Pal Period. Ayurvedic doctors or Pundit or astrologers used to offer herbal medicines to the patients. Tantrik and Matrik were also offering Tantrik-Mantrik remedies.
    Cholera was common on tourist roads. Hundreds of people used to die by plague, small pox, pox, infectious diseases. Gillad disease was common in Tehri Garhwal. Tuberculosis and leprosy was common disease those killed hundreds of people every year. Eye diseases were common around Dudhatauli hills. Women diseases were of various kinds.
                      Difficult Life in Garhwal
  Wild animals used to kill villagers every time and no protecting strategies were from King Side. Snake and Scorpio bites also killed people. People used to die by felling by hills side while traveling of working. Flood and other natural calamity also were factors of killing people.
 Various social pressure and cultural aspects forced women for suicide.
 No defense on bordering region from the Kingdom, The looters from Haridwar, Bijnor, Himachal and Tibet used to attack on bordering villages and used to take animals, grains, slaves etc.
 Insecurity was the way of life in Garhwal in Pal Kingdom.       

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 5/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -504
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 

               स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!



Bhishma Kukreti

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            From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -66 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -256     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -503
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

           From prehistoric period to Asoka and later period, Garhwal witnessed Matriarchy social system. Dr Dabral states that, even today in a couple of societies the residues of matriarchy custom are there. Dr Dabral (1969) states that in Kumaon, Garhwal, Jaunsar Bhabhar; Nayak, Raud, Patar, Kanchan and Ramjani , Banraut societies follow Matriarchal customs. The Mahabharata time was also having Matriarchal system. Sons from other than husband as Kunti and Madri had sons other than their husband Pandu. Tharu societies of Bhabhar of Garhwal, Haridwar and Bijnor followed Matriarchal custom after independence too.
 The oldest lady had the super power in the family.
 In Matriarchal custom, the daughters used to get rights of heir.  The groom used to come to his wife house. The brothers used to be guardians of his nieces and nephews from his sisters. Still today, maternal uncle has to pay some dowry as Mamadam or Mamajholi in marriage of his nieces. Khas societies or some extant Katyuri societies used to follow Matriarchal custom.
 There was custom that maternal uncle was not allowed to touch the wife of son of his sister (Mamaiya Chhut) and vice versa. .
           In later stage, Patriarchal system started after entry of Chauhan or other castes. Matriarchal system faded and Father became the central point of power for family.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 5/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -504
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Haridwar in Pal /Shah Period; From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Bijnor , Old Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; From Matriarchal to Patriarchal Society in Nazibabad , old Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;
               स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!


Bhishma Kukreti

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Rights of Eldest Brother on Parental  Properties in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -68 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -258     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -505
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

              After introduction of Patriarchy, paternal property rights used to transfer to the eldest son. Even till 1960, the name of Kabjedar or tax payer of a Thok (group of blood line families or Mundit) was used to be the son of eldest son of forefathers. In old age before British, eldest son had power to sell fixed and movable properties, animals, women, sons etc. When there was division, eldests brother used to get extra farm as ‘Jethula,’ ‘Jethuda’ or , Jethali’.
 In Jaunsar, Jaunpur, Ravain and Taknaur, the eldest brother used to have marriage and other brothers used to share the wife and it was supposed to be taken from Drapadi –Pandav custom. The children from such family used to children of all brothers.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 7/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -506
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
               स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!


Bhishma Kukreti

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Joint Family Custom, Cooperation in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty History

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -69 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -259     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -506
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
 Joint Family was common and needed norm of Garhwal in Pal/Shah Kingdom.
            Initially, each village had a sub group of Khas Race. They dug forest on descending region for making contour farms. They had two three Shilpkar families in their villages. When new familes entered in the village due to any reason, the new family had newer Thok.
 Jhalu Budya or Old man used to stay with joint families corresponding of sons, grandsons etc. People used to divide families in rare circumstances. When there was need of more space, they used to add new hut just adjusting the old house. Tow-three families used to occupy one room.  Many husband and wife of a family used to sleep in Gaushala, Goth (temporary tent for cattle in Farms). The first united form of families was called Mundit means the people of Mundit would shave heads at the time of death of aperson in Mundit.
 The right on farm land would till harvesting is not completed. As soon as harvesting was finished the farm land used to become common land for grazing for cattle. The people had equal rights on water resources, forests, forest produces, paths, grazing regions, fruit trees on village land other than farm land.
 Most of the rituals and festivals, hunting (Ayedi) , fishing (Machaul) were celebrated and pefromed together.
 When there is work for building or repairing house of a family, every village family used to contribute their labor for building /repairing the houses. Same way, in marriage performances or feast, the people used to cooperate in cutting wood, bring leaves for Pattal, water etc.
There was cooperation among villages of the area for various purposes.
Each village had its own Bhumiya, Kshetrapal, Nagraja, Gwill temple.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 8/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -507
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
Joint Family Custom, Cooperation in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty History; Joint Family Custom, Cooperation in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty History; Joint Family Custom, Cooperation in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty History; Joint Family Custom, Cooperation in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty History; Joint Family Custom, Cooperation in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty History; Joint Family Custom, Cooperation in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty History; Joint Family Custom, Cooperation in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Dynasty History; Joint Family Custom, Cooperation in Haridwar around Pal /Shah Dynasty History;


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Bhishma Kukreti

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Mahabharata Marriage Types in Context of History of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -70 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -260     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -507
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

        It is essential there is discussion on marriage types in old and current India. There were /are following types of marriages –
1-Endogamy –Marriage with similar social group or tribe
2-Exogamy- Marriage outside the social group or tribe
3-Polygamy-Having more than one wife at a time
4-Polyandry- Having more than one husband at a time
5-Monoandry/Monogamy - Having one husband at a time or only one wife at a time



 Before, discussing the types of marriage in Garhwal, it is better to discuss the types of marriage mentioned in Mahabharata.
                 Eight Marriage Types in Mahabharata

       Mahabharata describes, following eight types of marriages –
                      1-Arsha Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
 The bride is offered two cows in her exchange. That shows the groom is poor and can’t afford Brahma type of marriage. The groom is typically a Sage /Rishi.
                      2-Asura or Khas Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
 The bride side (bride parents or relatives) is offered wealth from groom side.
                      3- Brahma Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
 In this marriage type, the bride side analyses, considers the conduct; disposal, learning, lineage; respect and achievements of groom before offering daughter to the matrimonial proposal of groom.
                     4- Daivya Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
The father waits to find the most suitable groom. The daughter’s father or relatives offered girl to the priest after Yagya.

                  5- Gandhrva Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
 The parents marry their daughter as per choice of daughter even though parents might not  agree with the views of daughter.
 
                   6- Paishacha Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
 The groom or groom side takes bride with force even bride in unconscious condition.
                 7- Prajapatya or Kshatriy Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
 First the groom is identified and then groom is enticed by wealth, gifts, and presents etc for winning the groom heart or mind.
                 8- Rakshasa Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
 The kinsmen or relatives of bride are killed, beaten and the bride taken. The bride does not/object/ resist in such marriage.

Reference --- (Bhishma Purva , Chapter -3)

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 9/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -508
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 

               स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!


 

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