Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 118925 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of a Garhwal King offering Asylum to Delhi Sultan Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -40
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -286

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

            The Delhi Sultan Feroz Khan Tughlaq was 90 years old when he handed over the administration to his son Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq.
          In 1787, Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq reached to hills of Sirmaur (Dehradun and Himachal) for hunting and entertainment. He was in Sirmaur hills for two months.
         Knowing the revolt from nobles and slaves from Gujarat region, Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq returned to Delhi. Instead of ruling firmly, Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq started spending life on entertaining activities. Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq made more enemies than friends among nobles and slaves of Delhi. There was fight between the supporters of Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq and rebellions. Rebellions won the battle and Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq fled to Sirmaur hills.
 Feroz Shah handed over the thorn to his grandson Ghiyas –ud-Din Tughlaq (son of Fateshah Tughlaq). Feroz Shah Tughlaq died on 20th September 1388.
    Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq was spending his days in exile in Sirmaur hills (part of Dehradun and Himachal part was also part of Dehradun).  Sirmaur chieftain offered asylum to Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq.

                                  Attack on Doon Valley by Ghiyas –ud-Din Tughlaq Army
               Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq was planning to capture the Delhi thorn with the help of Sirmaur King (west Dehradun).
                   Ghiyas –ud-Din Tughlaq sent his army to attack on Sirmour (Doon Valley).  Prince Muhammad Khan Tughlaq reached to a peak Baknari Garh. Till date, historians could not recognize the place Baknari Garh. Ghiyas –ud-Din Tughlaq army was unable to reach to Baknari Garh. There was battle below the Hill top Baknari Garh. However, army could not win Baknari Garh.
            Muhammad Khan Tughlaq fled to Nagarkot (Kangda) from Baknari Garh and captured the fort there. The Delshi Sultan army followed Muhammad Khan Tughlaq via Badu and Kimar (Himachal Pradesh).  However, Sultan army could not defeat or capture Muhammad Khan Tughlaq.
          After six months, Muhammad Khan Tughlaq attempted to win Delhi thorn with the help of chieftains of Nagarkot, Jalandhar, Saman and Shivalik Sirmour. He took the collected army and attacked Delhi and Muhammad Khan Tughlaq was succsful at this time.
   Muslim historians mentioned Sirmour hills and ruler but did not mention the name of King. At this period there were many attacks on South Garhwal (Dehradun, Haridwar, Bhabhar, and part of Himachal that was under Garhwal region) and subjects face many traumas and were made slaves cruelly.

(Main reference – Firojshai, Tarikh i-Mubarakshahi (Elliot and Dowson)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 12/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -287   
Notes on Early Medieval History of Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  Early Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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             History of Bloodsheds in East Garhwal (1337-1424)

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -41
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -287

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                    No Historical Records for History of Garhwal from 1300-1450

            No historical record is available to know exact history of Garhwal including Haridwar and part of Saharanpur and Bijnor. Historians depend on interpretations of Muslim history writers those were court writers or friends of Muslim Delhi Kings.

         Balban entering into Garhwal Territory
   Delhi Sultanate had rule over Delhi, Ambala, and Saharanpur. Therefore, now it was easy for Muslim Kings to attack on plains of Garhwal including Haridwar.
  Balban was first Muslim attacker to enter into Garhwal territory of Yamuna Plato in 1257. It was only in 1337 that Muslim army could enter far inside Garhwal.
    Muslim Kings were eager to capture Bhabhar (north of Bijnor) as parts of Bijnor were under Muslim rulers. However, the geographical, seasonal difficulties and hard resistance from local chieftains did not allow Muslim attackers to capture east Garhwal. When Nasri ud-Din army crossed Haridwar in 1254 and tried to reach to Ramganga (Rahab) local chieftains and people resisted and there was fierce battle in Tanklabali or Mithaiwala or Kalaghati (Bhabhar)

                          Attack on Karachal
     In 1325, Muhammad Tughlaq planned forceful attack on Khurasan and prepared huge cavalry and artillery. However he had to cancel attack on Khurasan. Therefore, he ordered his army to attack on the territory between India and China that is hills of Uttarakhand (Tarikh i- Firozshahi). The region is cited as Karachal and different copies of Tarikh i- Firozshahi name the territory with different names as Karaachal, Karachal, Karajil, Karachil, Farajil, Himajal, or Himachal.

                                  Identity of Karachal
              Different historians identify Karachal by three major places of Uttarakhand.
Kalsi? – A few historians identify Kalsi hills of Dehradun for Karachal referred by Muslim historian.
Kuberachal or Gandhmadhan Hills – A few historians identify karachal as Gandhmadhan hills of upper Garhwal.
Kurmachal – A few historians state that it might be Kurmachal. However, the Muslim writer of that time used to refer Kumaon for east of Uttarakhand.
             It might be that whole of Uttarakhand was attacked by Muhammad Tughlaq

                   Geographical Situation of Karachal

           An African tourist –historian Ibna Batuta wrote about Karachal campaign by Muhammad Tughlaq. According to the description it seems that the territory was a part of Himalaya. He described that the hill territory was ten days away from Delhi (150-200 Miles). There were sharp valleys and River was flowing in between steep hills. The south territory had plains and people used to farm on that land. The people had ample numbers of herds of goats and sheep. Crop in that territory was good.
              A City-Jidya or Chandiya
   Iban Batuta described that there was a city Jadiya in foot hills of Karachal. Historians assume that Jadiya name must be Chandi or Chandiya of Haridwar.
         City Warangal or Devalgarh?

 Batuta described another city in high hills where river was flowing in between huge steep hills. The River side road was so lean that only one horse could walk on the road. Historians identify this place Warangal as Devalgarh or Garhwal Nagar. Batuta stated that there was a Buddhist worshipping place at the border of Karachal where Chinese devotees used to come for rituals.

            Season of Karachal
 There used to be heavy rains in hills of Warangal or Devalgarh /Garhwal Nagar. There was less rain in foot hills.
  Batuta depicted that on lean rods had huge and tell trees (forests).   

*** Read about bloodsheds in East Garhwal in next chapter
** Main references for this chapter – Elliot and Dowson
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 12/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -288   
Notes on Early Medieval History of Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  Early Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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  History of Anonymous Brave, Strong, Prosperous Karachal King in Muhammad –bin- Tughluq Period

             History of Bloodsheds in East Garhwal (1337-1424) –art II

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -42
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -288

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                The African traveler Ibn Battuta provides some descriptions of a Himalayan Kingdom named Karachal in the period of Tughluq dynasty rule in Delhi (Elliot and Dowson). 
              The Karachal King was brave, bold and strong. The prosperity of Karachal was enormous. The kingdom was prosperous due to gold mines, food, animals, forest produces. The Karachal king was well versed with diplomacy and was wise in using it. The Karachal King was smart in war principles uses. He used to flank, used to act as guerrilla. When the period is not suitable the king used to make treaty. However, Ibn Battuta did not mention the name of Karachal King.
     His travelogue suggests that Delhi Sultanate army attacked on Garhwal –Kumaon kingdoms or Kingdom. The confusion is that whether there was only one king ruling over Kumaon-Garhwal or the region was ruled by many Kings in 1338. Though, there is one rock inscription in Baijnath temple (Kumaon) of 1339 that refers the name of Jaychand and his son Brahmpal.

         Reasons for Delhi Sultanate Attacking on Karachal (Garhwal-Kumaon)

              The historians offer many reasons for Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq attacking one Garhwal-Kumaon (Karachal).
   Historian Mahdi Husain offers the reference of Burny that Muhammad Tughloq wanted to attack on Kharsan and for getting safe road he attacked on Karachal. However, Karachal was not in between Delhi and Kharsan.
            Farishta suggested that Sultan wanted to attack on China and Karachal was in between Delhi and China.
        Hazi Dabir argued that Sultan had interest to capture women from Karachal for his harem.
   The modern historians suggest that Delhi Sultan Muhammad Tughluq wanted to create safe boundaries for his rule as Garhwal-Kumaon chieftains used to provide shelter to rebellions of Delhi Sultanate.

*** Read about bloodsheds in East Garhwal in next chapter
** Main references for this chapter – Elliot and Dowson
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 13/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -289   
Notes on Early Medieval History of Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  Early Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
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       Notes on History of Anonymous Brave, Strong, and Prosperous Karachal King in Muhammad -bin-Tughluq Period; History of Anonymous Brave, Strong, and Prosperous Karachal King (Garhwal) in Muhammad -bin-Tughluq Period; History of Anonymous Brave, Strong, and Prosperous Karachal King (Kumaon) in Muhammad -bin-Tughluq Period; History of Anonymous Brave, Strong, and Prosperous Karachal King (Dehradun) in Muhammad -bin-Tughluq Period; History of Anonymous Brave, Strong, and Prosperous Karachal King (Haridwar  in Muhammad -bin-Tughluq Period; History of Anonymous Brave, Strong, and Prosperous Karachal King (Bhabhar) in Muhammad -bin-Tughluq Period

Bhishma Kukreti

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Did Muhammad bin Tughluq army Capture Dhang Garh of Dhangu in 1330?

 History of Muhammad -bin-Tughluq Capturing Karachal /Qarachll (Garhwal –Kumaon-Haridwar)
             History of Bloodsheds in East Garhwal (1337-1424) –art III

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -44
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -289

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                    Projection for KhurasSn Expedition by Muhammad bin-Tughluq

  Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin-Tughluq projected a huge army for KhurasSn Expedition and arranged 400000 armed forces. Muhammad bin Tughluq abandoned the KhurasSn Expedition. In 1330, out of 400000, 100000 cavalry soldiers were used for attacking a hill tribe Kingdom Karachal (Kumaon-Garhwal?).
            Historian Dr. Mahdi Husain describes (from various Muslim historian writings) that the army captured a hill foot hill Jidiya Nagar (Chandi Ghat or Haridwar) and nearby territories. The army burnt the villages, destroyed crops, destroyed worshipping places and made millions of Hindus (Kafir) as slaves. Hindus ran away leaving their properties and animals towards hills. 
            Sultan army started expediting towards hills through lean and thin road (bank of River). The road was such that only one horse could walk and there was steep hill too. Reaching on top of hill, the army captured Warangal or Garhwal.
  The army erected camps in hill region. Army commander sent message to Sultan. Sultan Muhammad bin- Tughluq   ordered his army to stay there. If there were 100000 horses- riding soldiers that means the Sultan army might have destroyed huge territory.
                    Heavy Rain
   After some time of winning hill top fort, the rainy season started and an epidemic of horses started that horses started dying in numbers. The army commanders requested Sultan for the army coming down in plains. Sultan accepted the request of army commanders to come down in plains.

                       Bloodsheds of Muslim Soldiers

               When Hindus of Hills saw that Muslim soldiers are returning to plains and Muslim soldiers had to return through narrow road (gurbat). Taking the benefits of situation, Hindus slipped heavy stone rocks on the Muslim soldiers. Muslim soldiers were killed. Hindus captured the camps, looted properties of Muslim army. Most of the soldiers were killed while return from hills to plains (Haridwar?).
  According to Battuta, only three army commanders could reach Delhi alive. According to Barni only ten soldiers reached to Delhi. As per Isami, only five thousands soldiers returned to Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughluq did not forgive the cowered soldiers and killed them in mass.

             The territory can’t be Tibet –Garhwal border

   A couple of historians identify the above territory at the Tibet –Garhwal border. However, the geographical conditions and plants described by Battuta and other writers do not tally with the border as trees did not grow in Tibet-Garhwal border and still today trees do not grow there.

            Devalgarh as Warangal
  A few historians suggest that Warangal name should be suggested as Devalgarh. Devalgarh is in far north of Haridwar (Jindiya or Chandi Ghat or Chandi Nagar). Even today, an army of 100000 horses would take at least one year to reach Devalgarh from Haridwar.   While, the time period from start of expedition and killings of Muslim soldiers is only for six –seven months. That means Muslim soldiers did not reach far away from Haridwar or Jidiya Nagar.

                 Dhang Garh and Bnadarbhel of Talla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal

                  There were two probable roads to reach towards north of Garhwal. One road was from Haridwar to Bhabhar via Udaipur and Ajmer Garh to Langurgarh and then Satpuli to Devalgarh. However, the steep hills and steep valleys were/are not there from Haridwar-Bhabhar-Satpuli- Devalgarh described by Battuta, Isami or others.
 Another road to reach from Haridwar (Jidiya city) to Badrinath (near Devalgarh) was /is Haridwar- Bandarbhel, Dhang Garh, Vyaschatti –Dev Prayag to Badrinath or Devalgarh etc.
  The territory described by Muslim scholars tally with the road from Lakshman Jhula- Shivpuri-Foolchatti-Bandarbhel (Jhaid) to Dhang Garh in Talla Dhangu at the bank of Ganges River. There is seven ten miles steep hill road at Ganges bank from Mohan Chatti to Dhang Garh. The folklore also suggests that Pakdwa (Muslim soldiers) captured Dhang Garh Garhi. The analysis suggests that the army of Muhammad bin –Tughluq captured Dhangu region, Udaipur regions. The local and migrated Hindus killed Muslim soldiers from Dhang Garh to Lakshman Jhula by slipping heavy rocks on Muslim soldiers.

                           Buddhist Temple

           Muslim writers wrote that there was a Buddhist temple at the Chinese and Karachal border where Chinese pilgrims used to come. Muslim soldiers destroyed that worshipping place. Chinese king requested Muhammad bin Tughluq to allow him for Chinese king renovating the temple. Muhammad bin Tughlaq accepted the request in turns of laving Jajiya tax on pilgrims. The said temple should be Buddhist temple of Chakravat or Ahogang near   ChandiGhat , Haridwar. Purushottam Singh the Kumaon King built that temple.

                                      Treaty

                Though, the soldiers ran away from Hills but the Sultanate camps were there in hills and people could not perform agricultural activities with ease in Bhabhar Tarai. Garhwal-Kumaon king or Kings had treaty with Muhammad bin Tughluq and then agricultural activities started smoothly in Bhabhar Tarai. 
  The attack might be very destructive and people, Kings might have lost human beings and properties.
              However, we don’t have names of King or rulers of Hills of Garhwal-Kumaon.
** Main references for this chapter – Elliot and Dowson
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 13/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -290   
Notes on Early Medieval History of Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  Early Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
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History of Muhammad -bin-Tughluq army Capturing Karachal /Qarachll (Garhwal –Kumaon-Haridwar); History of Muhammad -bin-Tughluq army Capturing Chandi Ghat, Karachal /Qarachll (Garhwal –Kumaon-Haridwar); History of Muhammad -bin-Tughluq army Capturing Lakshman Jhula, Karachal /Qarachll (Garhwal –Kumaon-Haridwar); History of Muhammad -bin-Tughluq army Capturing Shiv Puri Karachal /Qarachll (Garhwal –Kumaon-Haridwar); History of Muhammad -bin-Tughluq army Capturing FoolChatti , Karachal /Qarachll (Garhwal –Kumaon-Haridwar); History of Muhammad -bin-Tughluq army Capturing Mohan Chatti Karachal /Qarachll (Garhwal –Kumaon-Haridwar); History of Muhammad -bin-Tughluq army Capturing Bandarbhel, Karachal /Qarachll (Garhwal –Kumaon-Haridwar); History of Muhammad -bin-Tughluq army Capturing Jhaid area, Karachal /Qarachll (Garhwal –Kumaon-Haridwar); History of Muhammad -bin-Tughluq army Capturing Dhang Garh Karachal /Qarachll (Garhwal –Kumaon-Haridwar);


Bhishma Kukreti

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 History of Jograj Singh Panwar and Rampyari Gurjar taking part in Haridwar battle against Timur

History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Uttarakhand part -1

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -45
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -290

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                  There are no indigenous records about Garhwal including Haridwar for the time Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani attacked India and Garhwal including Haridwar. The historians have the Malfujat , Zafarnama an autograph written by fifteenth century Persian writer Shraf –ud –Din, biography of Timur Lang by Ahmad Lbn Arabhshah and others. From Malfuzat and Zafarnama, historians came to know that Timur attacked on Garhwal and Haridwar. There are bard tales too to tell about Timur in Haridwar.
             Apart from biography or autobiography of Timur, historians have folk tales from Gujjar communities of Haridwar, Saharanpur and Meerut that throws light on Timur attack on Jatland (western Uttar Pradesh and Haryana) and Garhwal including Haridwar. 
 
              History of Attack of Timur on Delhi and other parts of India

 Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani was born in 1336 and died in 1405. Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani was Turko-Mangol ruler of Barlas linage. Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani conquered South, West and central Asia. 
 On 17 December 1398, Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani conquered Delhi from Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud. Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army killed around lakhs of citizens in Delhi for three days and captured in lakhs. It is one of the bloodiest massacres in the India History.
                After winning Delhi and having bloody massacre, Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army marched towards Ganga Yamuna Doab (territory between Ganges and Yamuna). 
                          History of Gujjar Defending Timur Army

                    Nau Nihal Singh (2003) tells the tales of Jagjit Singh and Rampyari the generals of Gujjar Mahapanchayat those defended or weakened the speedy advancement of Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army. The Mahpanchayat army was comprising of 80000 male soldiers and 40000 female soldiers.
                           The Battle of Meerut between Gurjar and Timur

             Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army advanced towards Meerut from Delhi. The Gurjar Mahapanchayat did not allow space for breathing the Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army. The battles continued for whole day. Wherever Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army would stop at night the Gurjar Mahapanchayat would attack and uproot the Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army.
                 The heroic Devi would supply food and other war materials to Mahapanchayat warriors. The Mahapanchayat warriors were either stopping the supply for Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army or looting the supply. Frustratingly, Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani advanced Haridwar.

              History of Battle of Haridwar between Timur and Gurjars
                  History of Hill Archers taking part in Haridwar Battle

            Beyond, Meerut, Muzzafarnagar and Saharanpur, the Mahapanchayat army fought with Timur fiercely and did not allow Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army to have solid grip. The Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army reached to Tuglakpur-Ptharigarh five Kilometers south to Haridwar. In this land of Haridwar, Gurjar Mahapanchayat army fought three major battles.
  The Deputy General of Gujjar Mahpanchayat army Harveer Singh Gulia had a huge army but less than Timur. The Hill archers joined Gujjar Mahapanchayat army too. There was fierce battle of arrows and spears. Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani was in one horsemen army. One arrow from Mahapanchayat soldier wounded Timur hand. Harveer Sing took part in fight as a lion.  Harveer Singh threw hit on the chest of Timur. It is said that Timur died later in Samarkand due to this wound. Khijra the commander of Timur saved Timur and separated him from the horse. The Timur army attacked on Harveer Singh Gulia together. Harveer Singh Gulia fainted due to wound.  At the same time great Mahpanchayat Supreme Commander Jograj Singh Panwar was fighting fiercely with his 20000 soldiers. He killed 5000 horsemen of Timur. Jograj Singh Panwar lifted Harveer Singh by his own hands. Few hours later, Harveer Singh Gulia achieved martyrdom.

            Supreme Commander Jograj Singh Panwar Offering Inspiring Speech

     .Before the defensive attack by Gurjar Mahapanchayat, the supreme Commander Jograj Singh Panwar offered speech to his soldiers and people to save Bharat from Timur.  The Charan states that Jograj Singh Panwar (Khubed) defeated Timur in Pathre battle field near Jwalapur (Haridwar).
  Jograj Singh Panwar belonged to Khubed clan and belonged to Gujjargadh (Haridwar and Saharanpur). Perhaps the capital was Jhabreda that was called in later centuries as Landhuara.
  Chandra Bhatt an official bard wrote the eyewitness account of battles by Timur. 

                            Brave Rampyari Gurjar taking Part in Haridwar battle

           Jesses Russell and Ronald Cohan offer the detail of Lady Gurjar Mahapanchayat commander Rampyari Gurjar who fought with Timur army with Supreme Commander Jograj Singh and Commander Mam Chand Gurjar. She took part in Haridwar battle.
          Brave Rampyari Gurjar trained 40000 women to be warriors for defending the territory. These women warriors along with shoulder to shoulder with their counterpart male warriors fought against Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army.   


*** Major Reference of this chapter Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications Pvt, Ltd.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 17/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -290   
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
Xx
History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army in Haryana; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army in Meerut; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army in Muzzafarnagar; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army near Jwalapur Haridwar (Garhwal); History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army in Tuglakpur Haridwar (Garhwal) ; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army in Jhabreda Haridwar (Garhwal) ; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army in Landhaura Haridwar (Garhwal); History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army in Jabarera Haridwar (Garhwal) ; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army near Manglaur  Haridwar (Garhwal) ; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army near Sultanpur Haridwar (Garhwal) ; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army near  Laksar  Haridwar (Garhwal) ; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army in Pathri Haridwar (Garhwal) ; History of Gurjar Defending Tamerlane/ Timur Lang //Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army in Sakrauda Haridwar (Garhwal) ;

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History of Vatsraj or Bacchraj (Rai Bahrooz) of Garhwal in Timur Attack Period

History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Uttarakhand part -2

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -46 
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -291

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

There are no indigenous records about Garhwal including Haridwar for the time Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani attacked India and Garhwal including Haridwar. The historians have the Malfujat , Zafarnama an autograph written by fifteenth century Persian writer Shraf –ud –Din, biography of Timur Lang by Ahmad Lbn Arabhshah and others. From Malfuzat and Zafarnama, historians came to know that Timur attacked on Garhwal and Haridwar. There are bard tales too to tell about Timur in Haridwar.
             Apart from biography or autobiography of Timur, historians have folk tales from Gujjar communities of Haridwar, Saharanpur and Meerut that throws light on Timur attack on Jatland (western Uttar Pradesh and Haryana) and Garhwal including Haridwar.
 
                         King Vatsaraj or Bacchraj (Rai Bahrooz) of Dehradun

   Malfuzat and Zafarnama describe two strong brave kings of Uttarakhand –Bahruz and Ratansen. The Bahrooz name is written in Persian and could be counted as Bacchraj or Vatsaraj. In Gopeshwar temple wall inscription of twelfth or thirteenth century, there are two Kings- Bacchraj and Shridhar. It is not certain who those kings were.
    Malfuzat –e-Timuri and Zafarnama describe the strength of Bahruz (Bacchraj or Vatsaraj) as follows -
   “”Then placing my trust in God, I mounted my charger and on the tenth of month marched towards the Siwalik Hills.
               In a valley (darra) of these hills there was a Rai Bahruz the number of whose forces and whose lofty, rugged, narrow and strong position made him superior to all chiefs of the hills and indeed, most of Hindustan.”
   The biography accounts of Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani show that Bacchraj or Vatsaraj (Bahruz) was strong kings among Hill kings and they used to follow Bacchhraj or Vatsraj (Bahruz) to attack united on foreign invaders.
   It is guessed from Zafarnama or Malfuzat –e-Timuri, the rule of Bahruz (Vatsaraj or Bacchraj) was from East of Yamuna to west of Alaknanda. Part of Haridwar and Bhabhar was also under king Baccharaj or Vatsaraj (Bahruz). Part of Dehradun was also under Strong King Baccharaj or Vatsaraj (Bahruz).
              The Kingdom was prosperous.
                      Timur’s Massacre in Haridwar

          Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani marched towards Haridwar (Miyapur or Gangadwar) after conquering or destroying Meerut. Though, there were Gujar people to resist Timur but it seems they were lacking strategies.
                           Battle in Bijnor Ganga Port
           
                 When Timur was five Kos away from Tuglakpur, he got information that Hindus gathered at Ganga Ghat or port in Bijnor district for defending east territory of Ganga.  Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani sent his tow Amirs with five thousand horsemen to destroy Hindu defenders. Timur himself marched towards Tuglikpur.

                             Defending deferent River Ports from Timur

              Baccharaj or Vatsraj came to know the advancement of Timur army through crossing Ganga towards Garhwal and Dehradun. Vatsaraj or Bacchraj (Bahruz) arranged defending River Ports.
                   Seven River Ports for Entry to hills

            There were seven River ports from where Timur could enter into Garhwal Hills
1-Khoh River valley- Present Kotdwara region was easy path for entering into hills from Bijnor region
2-Malani River Ghat near present Chaukighat
3-Pandubala Sot Ghat near present Laldhang
4-Lakshman Jhula near Chandighat Haridwar
5-Mohan valley of Dehradun
6- Timlighat
7-From west of Yamuna River
 The Gurjar folklore describes about Gurjar under Jograj Singh Panwar protecting Haridwar region (refer part 290). However, Timur biography does not describe such resistance.
   The Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani biographies suggest that the Garhwal, Haridwar, Bijnor rulers did not have sufficient tactical strategies for defending Ghats or River ports.


 ** Read about Battle in River Port by boats in the next chapter of History of Uttarakhand part 292.




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -292   
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
Xx
History of Vatsraj or Bacchraj (Rai Bahrooz) of Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack Period; History features of Kotdwara Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of Bijnor old Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of Haridwar, Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of Malani Ghat Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of Laldhang Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of Lakshman Jhula Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of Mohan Ghati Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of Timalighat Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of River Ports or Ghat Protection system in south  Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of River Ports or Ghat Protection system in west south  Dehradun Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of River Ports or Ghat Protection system in Sirmaur in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of River Ports or Ghat Protection system in Haridwar south  Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period; History features of River Ports or Ghat Protection system in Bijnor of old south  Garhwal in Timur Lang alias Tamerlane/Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani  Attack Period;

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History of River Port Battle between Garhwal Chieftains and Timur Lang


History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Uttarakhand part -3

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -47   
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -292 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

  Defending River Ports by Garhwal Chieftains against Timur

          The Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army was marching from west to east. On the march the army was destroying the villages, burning the properties and looting the people. People were aware about coming of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army by heavy smoke in the sky.
          A King , most probably Vatsaraj or Bacchraj ( Bahruz) arranged 48 boat army to defend  Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani army in south of Haridwar. There is no mention of King name in the biography of Timur who sent 48 boat army to defend Timur.  It is generally assumed that Vatsaraj sent 48 boats army to defend Timur.

                                     Boat Battle

                  Getting information that the Hindu king dispatched army in 48 boats, Timur dispatched his 1000 horsemen army.  These soldiers got down from their horses at the Ganga bank and swam towards army boats. The Timur soldiers started attacking to soldiers on boats by their sharp swords.  The Timur soldiers at bank also started throwing arrows on boat soldiers. The Hill soldiers on boat attacked Timur soldiers by arrow. At the end Timur soldiers captured all boats. Timur soldiers killed Hill soldiers by drowning them into Ganges.

                     Looting Ghauspur by Timur army
 At night, Timur rested in Tuglikpur. In night, Timur got information that there was a River Port at Ganges. Timur got information that Mubarak Khan gathered Hindu army with valuable materials. Timur crossed perhaps Balavali Ghat (Bijnor) and with his six thousand soldiers attacked on Hindus at Ghauspur (perhaps).
  Hindus ran away into forest. Timur soldiers followed Hindus up to forest. The Timur army killed Hindus brutally, captured hundreds of men women and made them slave. Timur captured valuables and animals from Hindus. Timur wrote that these were soldiers under Mubarak Khan. However, those were villagers from Bijnor villages. That is why instead of fighting with Timur they ran into Jungle. Timur counted this victory as one of the major victories.

** Read more about Timur’s brutality in the next chapter of History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 19/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -293   

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
Xx
Notes on History of Attack of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani on Garhwal; History of Attack of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani on Bhabhar Garhwal; History of Attack of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani on Haridwar; History of Attack of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani on Tuglakpur; History of Attack of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani on Bijnor; History of  Attack of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani on Ghauspur; History of Attack of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani on Balavali; History of Attack of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani on Dehradun;   

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History of Kutila Darra Battle between Garhwal Hindus and Timur Lang

History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Uttarakhand part -4

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -48   
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -293 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)


                            Battle of Kutil Darra

                         Timur writes in his biography Malfoozat –i- Timuri, that Timur got information that Hindus had gathered at Kutila Darra or Kutila Valley at Ganges bank for defense.  Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani with five hundred horsemen marched towards Kutila Darra. There his army killed innumerable Hindus. Many Hindus hid into jungle and caves. Four hundred Timur soldiers gathered the materials of Hindus.
              Now, Timur had only one hundred horsemen. At this juncture, a Hindu commander Malik Shaikha (Shekhar ?) attacked on Timur with hundred of horsemen and soldiers. The Hindu commander killed many Timur soldiers. Timur and his soldiers attacked on Malik Shaikha. Shaikha got spire on his belly and a soldier attacked his head by sword. Shaikha fell down from horse. Timur soldiers brought wounded Shaikha before Timur. Shaikha was a strong built huge man. Before, Timur could ask him questions brave man expired. Many Hindus wre killed and many ran away.
             After killing Shaikha (Shekhar?), Timur got information that four miles away there are Hindus are gathered with their family and valuables and animals. It was difficult to reach there. At this time the armies of Prince Peer Muhammad and Amir Suleman Shah also reached at Kutila Darra. Timur and armies of prince and Amir marched towards place of Hindus gathering. Timur and his army killed Hindus. A few could save their lives. Timur army captured children, women and men and made them slaves. Timur army captured all properties including animals of Hindus. It was evening and the place was not suitable. Therefore Timur returned to Kutila Darra.
                  In Kutila Darra, Timur came to know that many Hindus are still alive and the looting was not completed. Next morning Timur ordered his army to kill Hindus and loot their valuables. The brave Hindus were also gathered to attack on Timur. Timur army killed most of Hindus and looted everything was available with them. A few wounded Hindus could save them by running towards hills. Now, Timur was satisfied by seeing valuables. Afternoon he crosses Ganges.
              Now, Timur decided to return his capital Samarkand. He camped at a place five Kos away from Ganges. Timur had now, innumerable of slaves, thousands baggage of looted valuables and thousands of animal herds.

                Identity of Kutila Darra of Malfoozat-i-Timuri

  There are disputes among historians about identity of Kutil Darra. There are three theories about Kutila Darra identification.
 The following facts to be discussed first-
1-Kutila Darra was in east of Ganges at a mountains.
2-At Kutila Darra or nearby Timur had battles twice. First place was four miles away from second place. Timur described that in mountain water flew from a Cow mouth stone. This mountain was thirty miles away from first place.
3- From Ghuaspur, Timur reached at first place just after afternoon. There he killed Hindus. Then there he had Namaz ritual of third part of day.
4- At evening he killed Hindus at second place and returned to first place.
5- Second day, he crossed Ganges and had Namaz ritual of afternoon.
    The first place of Kutil Darra must be 20-25 miles away from Ghauspur. This place might be Laldhang. However, Ladhang is not at the Ganga bank.
                   According to Dabral, Kutila Darra should be on the way of Haridwar to Swargashram, Lakshman Jhula road. The Chandi Mountain must be Kutila Darra. Today’s Kangadi Gram is situated at 2008 Feet in Chandi hills region. Perhaps Kangadi gram is where Shaikha fought with Timur. Four miles away from Kangadi village is Chandighat top hill. Might be, Timur killed Hindus at the foothills of Chandighat mountain.
 In Mahabharata, Haridwar is also called Kapila. It might be that Timur wrote Kutila for Kapula or Kapila.

                       Was Kutila an adulterated form of Katal?
 This author has another view about uses of Kutila word by Timur.  In Garhwali, Katal word is used rough, stony; steeply place where framing is not done. Might be Kutila of Timur is adulterated form of Katal that means a rough stony hill region. 



** Read more about Timur’s brutality in the next chapter of History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 20/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -294   

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
Xx
Notes on History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Chandighat, Uttarakhand, Siwalik; History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Kangada village, Haridwar  Uttarakhand; History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Uttarakhand; History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Lakshman Jhula Uttarakhand, North India; History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Chandi Hills, Haridwar Uttarakhand; History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Ghauspur; History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Bijnor


Bhishma Kukreti

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 History of Battle between a Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin


History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Uttarakhand part -4

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -49   
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -294 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                      Battle between a Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur

              On that day, Timur crossed Ganges and he camped at five miles away south of from Ganga Port valley. Timur had his huge army, laksh of slaves, thousands of looted baggage of valuables and two and half laksh of animal herds. 
 Timur wanted to return Khurasan and he required a path where he could get food, water, animal fodder and smoother and least disturbed way to return.
             Such path was from south of Garhwal only. He had to cross Mohan and Timli River ports and Yamuna River. Vatsraj /Bacchraj or (Bahrooz) arranged defense mechanism on each River Port.
             Crossing Ganga near Chandi Port and walking for three days, Timur came to know that Hindus are gathered in numbers in Siwalik hill regions. Timur marched to the point of Hindus gathering.
                            Preparation by Timur for Battle

              Timur had preparation to war with any adversary. Vatsraj was ready with army of other hill chieftains at the Siwalik Darra or valley. Vatsraj also had huge army. Timur directed his Amirs (commanders) and entered in the valley.
                                  First Battle of Timur in Siwalik Hills
 
           Timur army blew the war musical instruments with high pitch.  Timur got down from horse at entry place of valley. Timur ordered his Amirs and army for marching forwards. They also got down from horses and marched towards Bachhraj army.
      Hindu armed forces were hiding into small caves (udyar). Timur army threw arrows on Hindu soldiers. Timur soldiers were using swords too to kill Hindu soldiers. Timur soldiers cut Hindu soldiers and defeated them. The Hindu soldiers were killed in so much numbers that the rivulets became bloody rivers.
      Hindu soldiers ran away from the strategic places. Timur soldiers followed them with speed and vigor. After defeating Hindu army, Timur army entered into valley villages. They destroyed villages, burnt their houses, killed them, looted all valuables including animals and mad those slaves who were alive.
       On that night, Timur camped there only.  The place was described by Timur as Baheda village of Miyapur region (Mayapur that is Haridwar). Third day, he camped a Sar of another region Sarsava (Shikk –e-Sar). Shikk means Pargana in Persian language and Sar is taken as proper noun by Timur but it means the broader landscape in Garhwali. Timur had huge army, slaves, animals, baggage of valuables. Therefore, they could only travel eight miles per day. Fourth day, Timur camped at Kandar. Fifth day, Timur crossed Yamuna another Siwalik zone.

                   Identity of   Battle Ground of Battle between Timur and Vatsraj

    Historians have disputes about the place where Timur and Vatsraj (Bahrooz) fought.
Bandarbhel- Historian Rahul Santyakritan states that Timur wanted to capture valuables as it was his main motto for coming to India. Shrinagar was the only place where valuables were there. That means Timur wanted to march towards Shrinagar. Rahul argued that the battle ground of Vatsraj and Timur battle was Bandarbhel. Bandarbhel is in Jhaid village (Talla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal) area at Ganga bank. Bandarbhel is 35 miles away from Haridwar and forty miles from Shrinagar.
                Haridwar- Nevil (Saharanpur Gazette) argued that Timur crossed Chandighat Port and then he wanted to march towards Sirmaur (today’s Himachal region). Immediately after crossing Ganga, Timur had to face the army of Vatsraj or Bahrooz.
                Calculating the daily march of huge army, slaves, animals, it is definite that Timur was taking eight miles for a day march. It means the battle ground was thirty two or thirty four miles from Yamuna Port.

                             Identity of Mohan Darra as Battle ground between Vatsraj and Timur

            By calculating, a couple of historians came to conclusion that Timur camped on first day at Jagjitpur after crossing Chandighat Port. Jagjitpur is south of Kankhal.  From there, Timur marched to the east bank of Yamuna towards Kalesar. There is Mohan Darra in between Haridwar and Yamuna River. There was very thing path to go for Dehradun at Mohan Darra. Vatsraj (Bahrooz) resisted Timur at Mohan Darra. The hills at both sides of Mohan Darra are two thousand feet high. Walton also considered Mohan Darra a battle ground for war between Vatsraj (Bahrooz) and Timur.
                Historians do not have any other source to know about Vatsraj except Timur biographies.

** Read more about Timur’s brutality in the next chapter of History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 21/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -295   

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx
History of Battles between Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Garhwal with reference to Battles between Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Bandarbhel, Pauri  Garhwal with reference to  Battles between Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Ful Chatti Garhwal with reference to  Battles between Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Timli  Dehradun Garhwal with reference to  Battles between Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Road to Haridwar -Dehradun ,Garhwal with reference to  Battles between Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Siwalik Hills , Dehradun and Garhwal with reference to  Battles between Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Mohan Darra, Dehradun, Garhwal with reference to  Battles between Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Saharanpur -Garhwal bordering region with reference to  Battles between Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of East of Yamuna in Garhwal with reference to  Battles between Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Haridwar -Garhwal with reference to  Battles between  Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Chandighat , Haridwar -Garhwal with reference to  Battles between  Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of South of Kankhal, Haridwar with reference to  Battles between  Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin; History of Jagjitpur , Haridwar  with reference to  Battles between  Garhwal King Vatsraj and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin;   
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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          History of Battle between Garhwal-Sirmaur Chieftain Ratansen and Timur Lang or Tamerlane


History of Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani Attack on Uttarakhand part -5

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -50   
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -295 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

         History Characteristics of Strength and Kingdom of Chieftain Ratansen

                 Historians have details about Ratansen of Siwalik /Sirmaur region only from Timur biography. There are no inscriptions, folklores to testify the biography of Timur.  According to Timur biographies Malfoozat and Zafarnama edited by Elliot and Dowson, Ratan Sen was strong chieftain of western Yamuna valley. To reach in Ratan Sen’s kingdom the Darra (valley) was higher and narrower than the Darra of Vatsaraj (Bahrooz). The Kingdom of Ratan Sen was on height and was surrounded by dense forests. There is no doubt that Ratan Sen was king of present Sirmaur region of Himachal and part of west-south Garhwal –Jaunsar region at the bank of Yamuna.
                 Timur wrote that his army cut trees and bushes to make road in the night. He wrote that he covered twenty four miles in a night. The narrow valley was between Siwalik Hills and Koka hills. Ratansen was ready with his huge army (Timur called them ants).
            In the first battle, Timur defeated Ratan Sen. Timur army killed innocent people, made slaves, looted valuables including domestic animals.
  Timur also described second battle with rattan Sen and Timur defeated Ratan Sen.
 It seems that the battle between Ratan Sen and Timur took place at Kalesar where Timur army crossed Yamuna River. Kalesar. The siwalik hills are 1500 feet high and Kalesar hills are 2171 High there.

             After Timur returning to Khurashan 
      Timur returned to Khurashan via Nagarkot and Jammu.
 The Delhi Sultan and his family fled to Gujarat. His other family members also followed him. 
          Wherever Timur marched the people had to suffer a lot. In protecting them they jumped into valleys and rivers. Timur killed people and in the same numbers captured them and made slaves.
               After return of Timur, there was epidemic in south Garhwal specially Udyapur, Dhangu region of Ganga bank and Dehradun- Sirmaur. Timur looted grains and other food materials too. There was famine due to food shortage. People of effected regions died due to epidemic and famine.

                What was the Role of Chieftain of Dhang Garh?

      Dhang Garh is in Talla Dhangu (Pauri Garhwal at Ganga bank just opposite of present Singtali in Tehri Garhwal. From Swargashram to Dev Prayag, you have to cross Bandarbhel steep valley. The descriptions of Timur for his first battle after reaching Chandighat and crossing Ganga show that Timur army marched towards Dhang Garh and could not cross Bandarbhel. The descriptions raise the question that was Dhang Garh under Vatsaraj (Bahrooz) or Dhang Garh chieftain was independent ruler who was ruling from Swargashram to Vyaschatti?

** Read more about Timur’s brutality in the next chapter of History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 22/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -296   

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx
          History of Garhwal in connection with Battle between Garhwal-Sirmaur Chieftain Ratandev and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani; History of Dehradun, Garhwal in connection with Battle between Garhwal-Sirmaur Chieftain Ratandev and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani; History of Jaunsar Babar Garhwal in connection with Battle between Garhwal-Sirmaur Chieftain Ratandev and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani; History of Siwalik -Garhwal in connection with Battle between Garhwal-Sirmaur Chieftain Ratandev and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani; History of Dhang Garh ,Garhwal in connection with Battle between Garhwal-Sirmaur Chieftain Ratandev and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani; History of Bandarbhel-Jhaid Garhwal in connection with Battle between Garhwal-Sirmaur Chieftain Ratandev and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani; History of Garhwal in connection with Battle between Garhwal-Sirmaur Chieftain Ratandev and Timur Lang or Tamerlane/ Tarmashirin Khan /Timur Beg Gurkhani;


 

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