Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 121159 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Review about Existence of Kanakpal as Founding Garhwal King

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -71     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -316 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

    Raturi provides three proofs for Kanakpal as Garhwal King-
1-The so called rock inscription of Chandpur describes that Kanakpal reached to Cahndpur in 888.
2-Three sholkas those describe that Badrinath deity ordered to Bhanupratap to take Kanakpal to Badrinath with him from Haridwar.
3- Folklore that Kanakpla was younger brother of Dhara King.
       Till date, no Chandpur inscription is published.
       The Sholka states Gurjjratat for Gujrat. While in old Sanskrit literature, Gurjar and Gurrjaratra are mentioned for Gujrat and not Gurjjratat. That means that Shloka is created very later around nineteenth century from Hindi word.
   A Court Poet Bharat of Manshah a Garhwali King who wrote Manodaya Kavya did not mention Bhogdatt, Bhuvanpal or Kanakpal.
 The Garhwal Kingdom Vanshavali in Ramayan Pradip (1771) starts from Ajaypal as in Manodaya Kavya.
Hardwick list also starts from Ajaypal after anonymous Kings.
Maularam List mentions Bhuwanpal as founding King of Garhwal. Williuam describes Ajaypal as founding King.
 Therefore, it might be said that no proof is available for Kanakpal as Founding Garhwal King.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 13/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -317 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
History Review about Existence of Kanakpal as Founding Garhwal King; History Review about Existence of Kanakpal as Founding Pauri Garhwal King; History Review about Existence of Kanakpal as Founding Chamoli Garhwal King; History Review about Existence of Kanakpal as Founding Rudraprayag Garhwal King; History Review about Existence of Kanakpal as Founding Tehri Garhwal King; History Review about Existence of Kanakpal as Founding Uttarkashi Garhwal King; History Review about Existence of Kanakpal as Founding Dehradun Garhwal King; History Review about Existence of Kanakpal as Founding Haridwar Garhwal King;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Garhwal 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -72     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -317 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

 Historians have five lists of Garhwal Kings-
1- List of Garhwal Kings by Hardwick
2- List of Garhwal Kings by Maularam
3- List of Garhwal Kings by a Pundit of Almora
4- List of Garhwal Kings by Beckett
5- List of Garhwal Kings by Williams

                 List of Garhwal Kings by Captain Hardwick


  Captain Hardwick got a list from King Pradyumanshah. It is said that Pradyumanshah told  to Hardwick that the list is as per court records.

SN---------King------------------------No. Ruling Years
1--------Bhogdatt to 14th King ------------900 Years (?)
15--------Ajeypal---------------------------50
16th ---------Vijaypal------------------------60
17th Lakpal--------------------------------55
18- Dehram or Dharampal--------------65
 19-Keram (Karam) Pal----------------70
20-Narayandev ----------------72
21-Harshdev -------------------45
22-Govinpal--------------------------------49
23-Ramdev----------------51
24-  Ranjeetdev -----------53
25-Indrasen-------35
26- Chandrasen-------------39
27-Mangalsen---------------32
28-Chudaman------------29
29-Chintaman--------------33
30-Puranman--------------27
31-Virke /Vrishabh Bhan--79
32-Vrirbhan--------------------81
33-Suryabhan-------------------79
34-Kharag (Kerag) Singh -60
35-Surat Singh --------------------79
36-Mahasingh --------------59
37-Anup Singh --------59
38-Pratabsingh-------29
39-Harisingh- 39
40-Jagannath------45
41-Bujinath---65
42-Gokulnath-----55
43-Ramnath---75
44-Gupar (Gopal) Nath- 82
45-Lachme Nath—69
46-Premnath—71
47-Sadanand—65
48-Preamnanad-----62
49-Mahananad------63
50-Suranand—61
51-Subachand---59
52-Tarachand—44
53-Mahachand—52
54-Gulabchand—41
55-Ra/Ram/Raj Narayan------59
56-Govindnarayan—35
57-Lachamannarayan—37
58-Jagatnarayan-32
59-Mataubnarayan—25
60-Sitabnarayan---37
61-Anandnarayan---------42
62-Harinarayan----45
63-Maharayan-------33
64-Ranjitnarayan-----31
65-Ramrau-----33
66-Kritanrau-49
67-Jagrau—42
68-Harau------32
69-Fateshah----39
70-Duledshah--------50
71-Pratabshah-------35
72-Lalit Shah---------40 (Lalat Shah had four sons, expired in 1781)
73-Jaikritshah—72 (In real for 2. 5 years ruled)
74-Pradyumanshah- 73
It seems that instead of recording ruling years (period), it is written total life span of Kings


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 17/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -318 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX

Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Garhwal; Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Pauri Garhwal; Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Kotdwara Garhwal; Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Chamoli Garhwal; Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Garhwal; Hardwick List of Tehri Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Garhwal; Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Dehradun, Garhwal; Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings: South Asian History Review of Haridwar, Garhwal; 
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Garhwal 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -72     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -317 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

 Maularam was Garhwal kingdom court poet of Pradyumanshah time. Maularam created a long poetry about his tory of Garhwal Kingdom. He provided the following list of Garhwal Kings –
1-   Bhavanpal
 2-Abhaypal
3-Karnpal (brother of Abhaypal)
4-Visheshanpal
5-Sompal
6-Vigatpal
7-Surathpal
8-Jaintpal
9-Punnapal
10-Avigatpal
11-Salibahanpal
12-Sangotpal
13-Mangotpal
14-Ratnapal
15-Madanpal
16-Vidhipal
17-Bhagdantpal
18-Chandrapal
19-Kirtipal
20-Madansinghpal
21-Aniruddhpal
22-Vibhogiripal
23-Vidhanpal
24-Vikrampal
25-Viajupal
26-Sahajpal
27-Sonpal
28-Kandhpal
29-Sahadevpal
30-Sulakhshanpal
31-Lakhandev
32-Alakhanpal
33-Anantdevpal
34-Abhaydevpal
35-Ajaipal
36-Ajaidev
37-Aspratappal
38-Jairajdevpal
39-Gantdevpal
40-Jitarathdev
41-Kalyanpal
42-Anantpal
43-Dipantpal
44-Jaipal
45-Sundarpal
46-Sahajpal
47-Vijaurajpal
49-Valbhadrashah
50-Seetalshah
51-Manshah
52-Shyamshah
53-Duloram Shah
54-Mahipati Shah
55-Medani Shah
56-Fateshah
57-Upendra Shah
58-Dulipshah
59-Pradipshah
60-Lalitshah

The above list tallies with the list of a Kumaoni Pundit



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 17/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -318 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Haridwar, Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Dehradun Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Tehri Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Kedar Ghati or Mandakini valley Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Mana Valley Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Niti valley Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Chamoli Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Pauri Garhwal; Maularam List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval North Indian History Review of Kotdwara Garhwal; 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Garhwal 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -74     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -319 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

       On 25-11-1814, Williams Frazer offered the following Garhwal King List to J. Adams the secretary of Government Head Quarters –
According to Williams, Kanakpal came to Saharanpur from Malwa and established Gangoha town. 
1-Kanakpal
2-Visheshwarpal
3-Sumitpal
4-Puranpal
5-Abhigatpal
6-Bhuktipal
7-Retipal
8-Shalivahan
9-Madanpal
10-Bhagdatt Pal
11-Vibhogpal
12-Jayachandra
13-Hiratpal
14-Madansahaypal
15-Avigatpal
16-Surajpal
17-Jayantpal
19-Aniruddhpal
20-Vibhogpal
21-Gumanpal (This name is odd as it is Arabic or Persian name)
22-Vikrampal
23-Vichitrapal
24-Hanspal
25-Sonapal
26-Kantikripal
27-Kamdev
28-Sulakshanpal
29- Mahalakshanpal
30-Satpal
31-Apurvdev
32-Jay
33-Jirtagpal
34-Kalyanpal
35-Ajaypal
36-Anantpal
37-Sundarpal
38-Sahajpal
39-Vijaypal
40-Bahadurshah
41-Shitalshah
42-Manshah
43-Shyamshah
44-Mahipatshah
45-Prithwipatishah
46-Mednishah
47-Fatehshah
48-Upendrashah
49-Pradiptshah
50-Laltshah
51-Pradyumanshah
                   List of Tehri Riyasat
1-   Sudarshan Shah
2-Bhavanishah
3-Pratapshah
4-Kirtishah
5-Narendrashah
6-Manvendrashah





Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 19/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -320 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Garhwal; Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Saharanpur, Old Garhwal; Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Haridwar Garhwal; Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Dehradun Garhwal; Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Tehri Garhwal; Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Chamoli Garhwal; Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Pauri Garhwal; Williams List of Garhwal Kings: Medieval Himalayan History Review of Kotdwara Garhwal; 
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Himalayan History of Predecessors of the First King of Garhwal Ajaypal

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -75     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -320 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                          Jagatpal
 
               According to Hardwick List of Garhwal Kings, no record is available about thirteen generations after the founder Bhogdatt. Ajaypal was fifteenth King and the list goes up to Pradyuman Shah.
       According to Hardwick list, Ajaypal established Shrinagar as capital of Garhwal.
           According to Beckett list, Ajaypal was born in thirteenth generations from Kandilpal Panwar. Ajaypal captured many Garhis and expanded Garhwal Kingdom. Ajaypal established Shrinagar as Garhwal Kingdom capital.
           The Williams list state that Ajaypal was founder and he captured the Kingdom of his father in law the King of Chandpur. There was a low caste (Khas) king in Garhwal but was honest and religious too. The Khas King of Chandpur used to pay tribute to the King of Baidyanath Kartikeypur. Ajaypal came from Haridwar and took service under Khas King of Chandpur Garhi. Later on Ajaypal captured the Kingdom by force and tactics.
                Two Garhwal Kingdom court poets Bharat and Medhkar Shastri also vouched Ajaypal as founder of Garhwal Kingdom. Ajaypal had to establish first Devalgarh as capital and in later stage at Shrinagar.
          There is a inscription at Devprayag (1445) that mentions a King Jagtipal. The language of inscription is the Garhwali of fifteenth century. The title of Jagtipal is Rajwar. Rajwar was as equal to Maharaj for Kings of other areas.
 The Devprayag inscription does not mention the region on which Jagtipal ruled. By logic, Dr. Dabral states that Jagtpal or Jagtipal was at least ruling over Devprayag, Shrinagar, Chandpur, Barahsyun and Pindar valley.

                              Ruins of Chandpur Garh Fort

 The Kumaon King Gyan Chandra destroyed Chandpur Garh Fort. The ruins show that once, the fort was strong fort. Dr. Dabral states that most probably, Chandpur fort was built in between 1425 to 1500. That also suggests that Jagtipal might have built Chandpur Garh fort.

 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 20/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -321 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX

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History of Predecessors of the First King of Garhwal Ajaypal Part-2

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -76     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -321 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                          Jitpal: the Successor of Jagatipal or Jagatpal

                Beckett, Historians as Patiram, and Raturi suggested That Jitpal was immediate successor of Jagatipal.
 Other historians as Maularam, Williams and Almora list recognized Jitpal as Jitarthdev, Jitarthpal or Jitargpal
 Still in Garhwal, Jitaru, Jeetu, Jitang, Jitpal names are common name. No information is available about this King.

                                            Anandpal

         Beckett, Patiram, Raturi recognized Anandpal as the son and successor of Jitpal. Other information about Anandpal is lacking.

                              Other Imaginative Names of Garhwal Kings


        In Bhaunapal folklore, there had been fifty two kings of Garhwal Kingdom. The list names do not have any record or proofs.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 21/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -322 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX

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 History Review of General Administrations before Garhwal King Ajaypal

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -77     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -322 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

             History Review of Taxation before Garhwal King Ajaypal
               The Devprayag inscription provides fascinating aspects of history of Garhwal before Ajaypal.
          There were various land taxes and levies. The Kingdom was the sole proprietor of land. The land owner was owner till land owner paid taxes. As soon as the land owner stopped paying tax, the owner was changed by the Kingdom officers or representatives.
 There were two types of taxes.
Kar- A definite portion of agriculture produces was paid to the Kingdom.
Akar- This tax was probably on other King services as Begar (free service to king, Kingdom officers or representatives, Village or Area Chieftain, Pundits, Temples etc).

 History Review of Land Ownership before Garhwal King Ajaypal
        The land ownership depended on paying land taxes.
         Many times King used to offer land or region for reward or as payment for a specific service to a person. The said person was authorized to collect tax from land owners living in the region.
 The King could take back land from those were awarded Jagir.
          King also used to donate land to temple or Pundits of any type (Sanskrit Karmkandi or Mantrik-Tantrik). However, King never took back such land from those Pundits.  Dhangu, Dabralsyun and Dhaundiyalsyun Pattis are examples of Jagir offering by Garhwal King to Brahmins. Dhangu, Dabralsyun and Dhaundiyalsyun were offered to Brahmins and never took back by Kings.
The Jagirdar was free to mortgage or award land to other people.

        Types of Landowners before Garhwal King Ajaypal
 
           The landownership was not changed till the landowner stops paying tax or the owner leaved the land by his choice. In the following conditions, the landownership was changed.
Gayali- Gayali means who has gone somewhere. If an owner leaved land the owner could offer the land to other and the new owner became owner by paying the tax.

Muyali- When a person die, the ownership ended. However, the heirs used to pay small amount of tribute to Kingdom/representative and automatically used to get ownership right.

Autali- Aut means no sons. When aperson die without sons, the Jagirdar or Thokdar or Kingdom used to became landowner. The relatives were not supposed to be owner. The unmarried daughters of deceased were supposed to be the consumable goods and Kingdom or Thokdar used to make those daughters as maid servants.

Natali- Natali means young or unmarried. If a person dies, the land ownership used to transfer to immediate kin. In the absence of any immediate kin, Kingdom or Thaokdar used to become land owner.

                             Language

 Garhwal King as Jagtipal promoted Garhwali Language as the court language and not Sanskrit. The inscription of Jagtipal is the oldest record of written Garhwali. The Garhwali language was quite mature on the time of Jagtipal. However, the Sanskrit was powerful language and used to influence Court.


   History Review of   Income from Pilgrims before Garhwal King Ajaypal

 The pilgrim tour in Haridwar and Garhwal was common. Pande and other priests used to take donations from their Jajman or pilgrim tourists. Perhaps the Kingdom used to collect apportion of donations from Pande or Priests.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 22/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -323 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
History Review of General Administrations in Garhwal before Garhwal King Ajaypal; History Review of General Administrations in Pauri Garhwal before Garhwal King Ajaypal; History Review of General Administrations in Chamoli Garhwal before Garhwal King Ajaypal; History Review of General Administrations in Rudraprayag Garhwal before Garhwal King Ajaypal; History Review of General Administrations in Tehri Garhwal before Garhwal King Ajaypal; History Review of General Administrations in Uttarkashi Garhwal before Garhwal King Ajaypal; History Review of General Administrations in Dehradun Garhwal before Garhwal King Ajaypal; History Review of General Administrations in Haridwar Garhwal before Garhwal King Ajaypal;

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                 History of Garhwal King Ajeypal

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -78     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -323 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                          Name Variations
              The Garhwal Kings list by Hardwick states the name Adjey Paal a Garhwal King who established Shrinagar as his capital. .
                 The Garhwal Kings list by Beckett states that Ajaypal was son of Anandapal.
                  The Garhwal Kings list by Williams suggests that Ajaypal was son of Kalyanpal.
             Maularam wrote the name as Ajaipal the ninth kings after Kandhpal and tenth king as Ajaidevpal.
 Almora list speaks Ajaipal and Ajaidevpal too.
 Bharat poet states as Ajaypal.

                           Historical Evidences
     
                    There are three inscriptions those are discussed about historical evidence for Ajeypal. The historians have the inscription of Sahajpal the son of Ajeypal; Manshah the grandson of Ajeypal. There is mention of Shyamshah the great grandson of Ajeypal in Jahangirnama.
           Most of historians suggest that Ajeypal was founder of Garhwal Kingdom.

                               Crowning Date of Ajeypal
              There are various theories for Crowning dates of Ajeypal.
 On the basis of Devalgarh inscriptions, Gairola mentions that the birth year of Ajeypal is 1254 when a land was donated. Cunningham states that Chandpur kingdom (Garhi) was founded in 1159 and Ajeypal founded Shrinagar in 1358.
 Other folklores state that Ajeypal existed in 1359, 1376 and 1389.
Atkinson suggest the ruling period of Ajeypal from 1358-1370.
Beckett suggests that Ajeypal ruled from 1358-1389.
Raturi suggests the ruling period of Ajeypal from 1500-1519.
The Sahajpal (the son of Ajeypal) inscription at Devprayag is of 1548. That means Ajeypal was before 1548. A folklore tells that Champawat King Kirtichand attacked on Chandpur King  Ajeypal and Ajeypal had to flee from Cahndpur to Deval garh. The ruling period of Kirtichand is 1488-1503. That means the ruling period of Ajeypal would be before 1503.
By above analysis it is said that the ruling period of Ajeypal must be from 1500-1548.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 23/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -324 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued

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          History of Satyanath and Champawat King Kirtichand Attacking on Garhwal 

Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -80     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -325 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)


                         Satyanath Folklore

           According to Raturi, Champawat King Kirtichand attacked on Garhwal as soon as Ajeypal got crown. Champawat King attacked on Garhwal through Badhan side. Ajeypal reached Badhan to defend Champawat King. However, Champawat King defeated Ajeypal. Ajeypal flee to a hill top and started performing Shiva Prayer. Lord Shiva presented Him to Ajeypal as Satyanath Bhairav. Satyanath lifted Ajeypal on his solder. Now, Satyanath started extending his body in height. Now, Ajeypal saw Himalaya and Shivalik hill too. Ajeypal was shocked to see Himalaya and Shivalik hills. Satyanath told to Ajeypal that whatever region Ajeypal saw that region would come under the Rule of Ajeypal.
 Now, Ajeypal was motivated. Ajeypal fought back the battle and won the battle. Champawat King had to have treaty with Garhwal King.
                     Tribute to Champawat King by Garhwal King
         Historians as Pandey and Raturi mentioned Folklore of Nagnath and Satyanath the Nath priests. It seems that either Garhwal King paid taxes for some time to Champawat King or paid tribute at the time of treaty. Frazer mentioned that a person informed him that Garhwal King used to pay tribute to Karvapur King.
  It is sure that Garhwal King stopped paying tribute to Champawat King after the treaty.

              Road of Champawat King Attack on Garhwal
  There might be one road from two roads for attack on Garhwal by Champawat king.
One road might be From Pali Pachhaun of Kumaon to Chaukhatiya, Lohabgarhi, Mehalchauri, Gairsain to Chandpur.
Another road of Champawat King Attack on Garhwal might be from Deghat (then Malla Salan of Garhwal). Deghat is now in Almora.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 25/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -326 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
Notes on History of Satyanath and Champawat King Kirtichand Attacking on Garhwal; History of Satyanath and Champawat King Kirtichand Attacking on Chandpur Garhwal; History of Satyanath and Champawat King Kirtichand Attacking on Devalgarh Garhwal; History of Satyanath and Champawat King Kirtichand Attacking on Gairsain Garhwal; History of Satyanath and Champawat King Kirtichand Attacking on Lohabgarhi Garhwal; History of Satyanath and Champawat King Kirtichand Attacking on Mehalchauri Garhwal; History of Satyanath and Champawat King Kirtichand Attacking on Chaukhatiya Garhwal;

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               History of Kingdom Expansion by King Ajeypal

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -81     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -326 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
  Kumaon attack on Garhwal Kingdom does not have any logic and authenticity too.
                   
                   Small-Small Thakurais in Garhwal

              There were small Kingdoms in Garhwal at the time of Ajeypal rise. In every valley and hill to, there was one chieftain of Garhiraja.
 No doubt there are no inscriptions about so many Garhis but ruins of many Garhis were witness.
             It is said that Ajeypal won over all Garhis. However, there is no logical answer for the question of Ajeypal winning all Garhis of Garhwal. It seems that Ajeypal did not win whole South Garhwal (Salan) especially Gangasalan and Talla Salan.  Dr Dabral assumed that Ajeypal’s territory was upto Najibabad and Afajlgarh. Researched found Shershah coins in Ajmer Patti of Gangasalan.

                     Winning over Small Garhis by Ajeypal

  The record at Tehri Riyasat and folklore state that following Garhis (small Thakurais) were there at Ajeypal period.
1-43 Garhis of Painkhanda and Jumala
2-Dumag Garhpati . Kandargarh was capital of this kingdom around Mandakini valley.
3- Aswal Garhpati of Malla Salan were being threatened by Muslim attackers. Aswals were not able to resist Muslim attacks. This might be reason that Aswals chieftains might took shelter under Ajeypal.
4-Uppugarh of Chauhan chieftain- Ajeypal won over Uppugarh of Kaffu Chauhan.
5-Janhavi Garhi- The upper Bhagirathi region Janhavi or Jadganga had a Gangtang Garhi. Gangtang Garhi coins were found and Raturi mentioned about those coins. Dr. Dabral sent the picture of these coin pictures to archeological survey but he reported that scholars could not read those coins.
                   Shifting Capital

  It is said that due to Kumaon attack, Ajeypal shifted capital from Chandpur to Devalgarh. Rajrajeshwari temple or Peeth was established there only.
 A few scholars claim that Ajeypal shifted again from Devalgarh to Shrinagar. It seems that Devalgarh was just shelter to Ajeypal.

                   Shrinagar as Capital
  A group of scholars argue that Ajeypal shifted his capital from Devalgarh to Shrinagar. Folklore states that Ajeypal was in Shrinagar region for hunting, Ajeypal saw that a rabbit killed a hunter dog. In Night, in his dream, Bhagwati goddess ordered Ajeypal to establish his capital where rabbit killed hunter dog. Ajeypal established his capital at Shrinagar. Most probably Ajeypal might analyzed that Shrinagar is at Alaknanda River bank and there flat -even land.
           However, Atikinson argued that Ajeypal did not establish Shrinagar as capital but his great grandson Manshah established Shringar as capital. However, dr Dabral argued that there are no proofs left in Devalgarh that prove that Devalgarh was capital for five generations of Ajeypal. Manodaya Kavya states that capital of Manshah (grandfather of Mahipatshah) was Manpur at Alaknanda River Bank .Manpur and Shrinagar are same place.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 26/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -327 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX

 

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