Uttarakhand > Uttarakhand History & Movements - उत्तराखण्ड का इतिहास एवं जन आन्दोलन

Excerpts from the History of Uttarakhand through Coins

<< < (2/3) > >>

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:
 Affectionately known as ‘King of Kumaon, Major General Sir Henry Ramsey (Ramjey ?) of Scotland worked in Hills for nearly 44 years out of which he was commissioner of kumaon for 28 years (from 1856 to 1884). He ruled this land unchallenged for such a long time that he was conversant with the language and customs and spoke local dialect with the ease of natives. Even his name of localized and he was called ‘Ram Ji Saheb’. He used to mix up with local people and visit the houses of local small time farmers.  Pt. BD Pande has even written that “ He used to eat ‘Madua ki roti’ with the locals. He used to live 4 months in Almora, 4 months in Binsar and remaining 4 months in Bhawar.  After his retirement in 1884, he lived here in Almora and wanted to remain here for the rest of his life but in 1892 his sons took him back to England against his wish. It is said that he cried like a child when he left Almora. He is still known here and a lot of establishments were named after him. This is the charm and attraction of our beautiful land that people once there, never want to leave the place.

 One Quarter Anna Copper Coins of 1919, 1929 & 1941 (British Era)

      Administration of Henry Ramsey left a deep impact and so many systems of administration are still in vogue. The system of Revenue Police in place of civil police was the result of his insistence. He opposed settlement of Englishmen in Kumaon for the reason best known to him but he strongly favoured the church in their endeavour to convert pahari hindus into Christians.

 Reverse of One Quarter Anna Copper Coins of 1919, 1929 with bust of George V King Emperor and 1941 coin with the Bust of King George VI

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:
  His significant contribution in the development of the area was construction of roads, canals and cultivation and establishment of new cities / clustered habitats in inaccessible Bhawar area. He motivated business by simplifying rules and taxation and giving protection to business community. His justice system was considered to be very effective and just. Inspite of the fact that he was a foreign ruler, Sir Henry was considered to be a better ruler that many native kings and succeeded in winning public respect and affection.

      One Pice (Paise) coin of 1933 (British Era) with Hole

      This coin was initially a subject of joke in public in Uttarakhand as they were used to Gold or silver coins. With this coin in circulation, this joke was also popular – Angreza tero raj chu khwat Ter Raj mei dabal mei le padi go twat (Aye angrez (Britishers) your rule is unjust hence even the coins have a hole in it).

      People in the hills were always keen to get education and had always a favourable education policy from the rule of native kings. Katyuri and Chand dynasty always facilitated education for all those deserved.

      In 1923, Commissioner Trail wrote to British Govt. “There are no general schools in Kumaon. Private schools are there which impart high quality education to its pupils. The teachers are Brahmin Pandits who teach language and mathematics. Children of high class Brahmins learn ‘sanskrit’ and go to Kashi for higher studies where they are taught as per hind religion.”

      Mr Barren, who got the deed of Nainital signed in the name of Company by terrorizing the Thokdar nar Sigh during boating in Naini Lake writes in his book ‘Himmala’ in 1840 “All the paharis, however poor , could read and write”.

      Education system and establishment, like all other, were demolished during Gorkha Raj. Inspite, there were 121 Hindi / Sanskrit schools in Kumaon alone and a lot more if included those in Garhwal. These schools were in personal houses of Brahmins. Out of these 121 schools, 54 did not charge any fee.

      Mr Thorton wrote in 1850, “there were 522 students in these 121 school. Apart from these 121, there was one more school which taught  Urdu language. In 1840, a school was opened in Srinagar. Teachers were paid Rs 5  per month from  ‘Lawarish fund’. Later, as per the recommendations of Calcutta Education Samiti, two more schools were opened; one in Kumaon with a monthly budget expenditure of Rs 20 and another in Garhwal with Rs  15 per month expenditure granted to it.

      In 1857, Education department was constituted in Kumaon, which was known as ‘Kumaon Circle’. In September 1858, schools were opened at Someshwar, Dhalarh, Satrali, Dwarahat and Nirai and in 1859 at Champawat, Bhikiyasain, Pithoragarh, Gangolihat, Syalde, Ganai, Bhikiyasaid and Deghat.

      In 1871, Pandit Biddhi Ballabh Pant as Education Inspector replaced Major Garden. At that time, there were 2 middle schools and 116 primary schools with a total student count of 8488 and in 1889 when he left, there were 17 middle schools and 204 primary schools with 10927 pupils. This was a phenomenal progress.

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:
     Ever since, the education has been spreading in the hills but over a period of time there is a clear cut ‘pen divide’. Big Cities Like Nainital, Dehradoon and Masoorie had developed as education centers and earned reputation nationwide. Education facilities in cities were further enriched with opening of new English medium, convent and public schools apart from Govt schools but rural areas are still deprived off. Children have to walk for 2 to 5 kilometers to reach their school even today. Where there are schools, they are not manned as per the requirement.

      Another Silver coin of 1/4 Rupee denomination with Goerge-VI inscipted on it

 Waves of Nationalism in India:
      The mutiny of 1857 spread the waves of nationalism all over India. In 1858, Queen issued an order to abolish East India Company rule in India and arrogated all the powers. She issued a declaration that there would be no discrimination between white and native black populace of India and every one will be given due position in administration according to his ability / suitability but it proved to be a false promise. All powers were concentrated in the hands of white officers and they did what they like. English education system introduced by Lord Macale was advantageous for some Indians and they went to England for higher studies. The educated mass of natives was not given due postings in the beaurocracy. This led to further dissatisfaction in public.

      On 28th December 1885, Indian National Congress was formed with only 28 members. They were –

  1. Diwan Bahadur Raghunath Rao
  2. Mahadeo Govind Ranade
  3. Baijnath
  4. K. Sunderam
  5. Ram Krishna Bhandarkar
  6. Hume
  7. Umesh Chandra Bannerjie
  8. Narendra Nath Sen
  9. Baman Sadashiv Apte
 10. Gopal Ganesh Agarkar
 11. Ganga Prasad Verma
 12. Dada Bhai Neroji
 13. Kashi Nath Tailang
 14. Firoz Shah Mehta
 15. Deenasha Vaacha
 16. Narain Ganesh Chandawarkar
 17. P. Rangaiyah Naidu
 18. Subramanium Aiyyer
 19. M.Veer Raghavacharya
 20. Keshav Pillai
 21. Remaining 7 were the editors of well known news papers of the time

      There were few Britishers who were equally vocal for the cause of India’s independence and fought with us against the Raj. They were –

  1. John Bright
  2. Henry Frossate
  3. Hume’
  4. Sir William Waderburn
  5. Charles Bradla
  6. W. Gradeston
  7. Lord Northbroke
  8. Duke of Argil
  9. Lord Stanley
 10. Norton
 11. General Boothe
 12. Mr Mantegueo

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:

 ... and India declared independent     India broke the clutches of slavery and declared a sovereign nation in 1947 after sacrifice of many brave sons of the land like Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru, Shubhas Chandra Bose and untiring efforts of father of the nation Mahatma Gandhi treading a new and untested path of non-violence. British people had to leave India. But all this happened with a deep scar in the minds of Indians and split of the nation. Iron man Sardar Patel, then home minister was instrumental in merger of many independent states like Hyderabad in India whereas Kashmir was left (the root of a poison tree). Jinnah got his pakistan at the cost of the lives of thousand of people and migration of millions. Those who witnessed the partisan, still spill blood and venom on the excesses they suffered.

      This coin of the year of Independence reminds us the cost of independence we had to pay.

      ‘Pav rupaya’ (Quarter Rupee) with George VI King Emperor in one side and a lion on the reverse

      1948, just one year after the nation was liberated, Nathu Ram Godse shot dead Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi. ‘He Ram’ was the last words from that legendry icon of non-violence. This brass 20 paise coin reminds us of Mahatma and his contribution in securing independence and his indestructible, unconquerable determination to liberate the country by way of his principle of non-violence.

      Coins minted in post-independence period

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:
After independence in 1947, everything started to change. On 15 August 1950, India was declared a sovereign Union Republic with its own constitution and the same is also reflected in coins minted after 1950. Instead of old Anna / pice (Rs 1 = 16 Anna) the system of Rupee and new Paise was started (Rs 1 = 100 paise) and Anna system was discontinued. Accordingly, the currency was minted.

      One Naya Paisa coins of copper minted in 1957, 1961, 1961, 1962 and 1963

      The new coins minted in post independence era were having the four lions from ‘Ashok Ki Lat’ taken from the Buddh Stupa of Sarnath which was accepted as our National Emblem. Following is the reverse of One Naya Paisa coin.

      Another coin of One Naya paisa minted from Aluminum metal in 1957

      Reverse side of the above coin

      Coins of different denominations were minted after independence. Here are two paise steel coin of 1961 & 1964.

      Coins of 3 Naya paise and 5 Naya paise denominations minted during 1965 – 75.


[0] Message Index

[#] Next page

[*] Previous page

Sitemap 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
Go to full version