Author Topic: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh  (Read 38129 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,377
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #20 on: January 21, 2015, 12:12:14 PM »
                        Rise of Brave Gorkha Commander Amar Singh Thapa

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -20
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -539
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
  Mother Queen and Care Taker (Nayab) Rajya Lakshi sent an army led by 31 year old commander Amar Singh Thapa for defusing the combined attack of Chaubisi Kings. Amar Singh Thapa was son of Bhim Sen Thapa who was effective commander of Prithvi Narayan Shah. Prithvi Narayan Shah appointed Bhim Sen as ruler of Nichauk under Gorkha Kingdom. Amar Singh Thapa was brave, courageous and war expert as his brave father. Amar Singh participated in many wars led by Prithvi Narayan Shah.
        Chaubisi Kings fought battles at Chinnauti, Sriha, Nichauk and Jyamruk to stop Amar Singh Thapa. However, Amar Singh Thapa won the Jyamruk territory. After winning Jyamruk, Amar Singh Thapa army won the battle of Tarkughat and captured Balibhanjan the army commander of Parvat Raj Kingdom and Bhakti Thapa the army commander of Lumjung Kingdom in the battle. Bali Bhajan died in prison. Bhakti Thapa accepted Gorkha command and he was offered a nominal position in Gorkha army. Later on, on west Campaign,  Bhakti Thapa was right hand of Amar Singh Thapa. In 1782, Tinhu and Lumjung Kingdoms were included into Gorkha Kingdom.
   In 1785, Amar Singh Thapa captured   Nuwakot West, Dhunvakot and Paiyun Kingdoms. Another commander Abhiyan Singh captured Palpa , Tanhu, Bhirkot and Rising regions.
 Rajya Lakshmi died in 1786. Her brother in law Bahadur Shah never gave chance her to be in peace. However, the Iron Lady Rajya Lakshmi saw that Gorkha Kingdom continued to expand its Kingdom. She has respectable name in Gorkha History. Rajya Lakshmi was so busy in day to day interference of Bahadur Shah that she could not pay attention in educating her son Ran Bahadur Shah. Therefore, Ran Bahadur Shah could not become a strong ruler. After death of Rajya Lakshmi, Bahadur Shah returned to Kathmandu and became again the Nayab or Care Taker King.


** Read more about Gorkha King Ran Bahadur in next chapter….
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 21/1/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -540
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,377
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #21 on: January 25, 2015, 11:38:38 AM »
     Arms and Ammunition Collection by Nayab Bahadur Shah in Gorkha King Ran Bahadur Period 

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -21
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -540
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                       After the death of Rajyaendra  Lakshmi, Bahadur Shah became the Nayab (Care Taker) of Gorkha Kingdom. Bahadur Shah was brave, courageous and war lover as his father was.  He paid attention on adding the arms and ammunitions and training his army with new innovative technique of war and battles  for winning the rest of Nepal. Bahadur Shah experienced watching the dress , army organizations, discipline and new weapons of East India Company Army in Patna.
                 As East India won the weak Indian Kingdoms one by one, Bahadur Shah also decided for winning the smaller Kings one by one in Nepal Hills.
   Bhadur Shah sent his minister Dina Nath Upadhyaya to Kolkata for purchasing 500 Guns. When Dina Nath Upadhyaya was coming back with 500 Guns, East India Company stopped Dina Nath Upadhyaya for taking guns out of Kolkata. East India Governor General informed Bahadur Shah that it was illegal to take guns out of East India Territories. Governor General gifted one gun for Bahadur Shah.
       Bahadur Shah sent Dina Nath Upadhyaya to Kolkata again for calling the Gun manufacturing experts. Dina Nath Upadhyaya brought three European Gun manufacturing experts to Nepal. One of them was French expert. Bahadur Shah appointed French Gun expert for making Guns. Bahadur Shah used to pay Rs 500 per month to French Expert. When French Expert manufactured 200 Guns and Nepalis became expert in manufacturing Guns, Bahadur Shah stopped paying to French Expert.
       Bahadur Shah built a few factories for manufacturing Guns. Though, Guns were of old model Guns, they were more fatal than Bows and Arrows.
              Bahadur Shah also imported new types of Guns from Plains of India.
                  He provided red shirts to his soldiers. Bahadur Shah made Parade for soldiers as compulsory activity. Bahadur Shah organized his army as per East India Company Army. Bahadur Shah created Positions in army as Sardar, Faujdar, Subedar, Captain and Colonel. The Gorkha army was more devoted to their Kings as they supposed the Gorkha King the incarnation of Lord Gorakhnath. Each Gorkha soldiers was ready for sacrificing his life for the King.
** Read more about Gorkha King Ran Bahadur in next chapter….
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 25/1/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -541
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
XXX
स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,377
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #22 on: January 26, 2015, 10:57:02 AM »
               Gorkha Army Looting Tibet Temples and Gorkha Reaching Kali River

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -22
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -541
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

               Gorkha Army up to Teesta River , Sikkim
             Regent Bahadur Shah dominated the Nepal Politics. With the aid of his army generals Damodar Pande and Amar Singh Thapa, Bahadur Shah crushed Sikkim up to Teesta River. Sikkim Ruler accepted the sovereignty of Nepal. Gorkha Rule was at least till 1817 and Sikkim used to pay tribute every year, to Gorkha Kingdom.
                   Gorkha Army Looting Tibet Temples
 In 1788, Gorkha Army marched towards North and captured a few Tibetan Provinces.  Gorkha Kingdom gave reasons for attacking on peaceful Tibet that Tibet ruler increased import duty on Nepal goods.
 Nepali Historians argued that conflict was due to Coins.  Gorkha Regent Bahadur Shah sent letter as excuse for the attack on Tibet to East India Company Governor General that Tibet broke the old treaty.  Gorkha Kingdom asked East India Company not to help Tibet. East India Company did not help any party.
          Gorkha Army attacked on and captured Kerung/ Foryang and Kuti territory of Tibet. After capturing the above, Gorkha attacked on Shikarjong but could not capture the Fort.
In Night, under the leadership of Kaji Damodar Pande, Kaji Dev Dutt Thapa, Captain Bamshah, Captain Nahar Singh, Sardar Prabal Rana and Taksari Nar Singh, Gorkha army attacked on Digarchi city. Gorkha army looted Math and Temples there with cruelty.
  The Lama of Dagrchi was Dharmpita of Chinese King. Chinese King sent his army chief Chun Chun to help Dagrchi. Chun Chun made treaty between Tibet and Gorkha. Tibet had to pay annual tribute for Rupees fifty thousands.
 After one year, Tibet refused to pay tribute. Due to fake Nepali currency /coins from Tibet, Nepal was facing cash crunch. Gorkha were in search of excuses for looting Tibet Temples or Math. 
                      Gorkha up to Kali River
 
 Regent Bahadur Shah married with daughter of Palpa King. After that with Palpa army, Gorkha army led by Damodar Pande, Abhiman Singh, Kaji Jagjit Pande, Prabal Rana, , Subba faujdar Singh attacked on Parvat Rajya  Kingdoms. Gorkha captured Parvat Rajya.
                 Gorkha Army along with Pampa Army captured Gulmi, Chandrakot, Khanchi, Arjunga, Adha, Baklung, Piuthan, Jumla, Accham, Doti   (K.L Pradhan, Thapa Politics in Nepal). Gorkha Army reached to Mahakali River the west of Gorkha Land. 

   
** Read more about Gorkha King Ran Bahadur in next chapter….
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 26/1/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -542
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
XXX
History of Gorkha Army Looting Tibet Temples and Gorkha capturing and Reaching Kali River; History of Gorkha Army Looting Tibet Temples and Gorkha capturing Accham and Reaching Kali River; History of Gorkha Army Looting Tibet Temples and Gorkha capturing Doti and Reaching Kali River;

स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,377
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #23 on: January 28, 2015, 11:11:51 AM »
      Terror some Effects of Gorkha Expansion on Kumaon and Garhwal

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -23
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -542
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

  The Gorkha rule expansion in Nepal stories, facts and overrated facts were reaching to Kumaon and Garhwal. The stories about cruel methodologies applied by Gorkha force for capturing the Kingdoms of Nepal and terrorizing acts for suppressing the common people by Gorkha army were well known in Kumaon and Garhwal. The rulers and army commanders of Kumaon and Garhwal and Himachal were feeling heat. Those terror stories were creating fear, terror and surprise among rulers and administrators in Kumaon, Garhwal, Bareli and other parts.
                     Kumaon Chand King Mohan Chand having Treaty with Gorkha King

               When Gorkha Kings were expanding their territories in Nepal, Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms were facing internal disputes, internal conflicts and many other external disturbances too. In 1786, Mohan Chand defeated Pradyuman Shah in Paligaon battle and Pradyuman Shah had to flee Shrinagar. Harsh Dev Joshi had to take asylum in Shri Nagar. There was huge influence of Joshis and supporters related to Harsh Dev Joshi on common Kumaunis and elites. Mohan Chand was aware that Joshi clans would not permit him to rule Kumaon peacefully. Mohan Chand required external help and support to balance the power of Joshis. Kumaon King Mohan Chand contacted Gorkha Kingdom Regent Bhadur Shah.
           There was a freindly treaty (Dharmptra exchange) between Gorkha King Ran Bhadurshah Bahadur Shamsherjang and Kumaon King Mohan Chand witnessing Dieties Lakshmi Narayan, Badrinath, Kedarnath and Shrikalika in January 1788. The treaty was in Sanskrit stating that the friends of Kumaon would be friends of Grokha and foes of Kumaon would be foes for Grokha and friends of Gorkha would be friends of Kumaon and foes of Gorkha would be foes of Kumaon.(Bhandari- Nepal ko Aitihasik Vivechan page 202).
                  Disturbances in Shrinagar Garhwal

            Pradyuman Shah ruled Kumaon from 1781-84. Now, Kumaon King Mohan Chand was always fearful that Pradyuman Shah would try to capture Kumaon crown from him. Therefore, Mohan Chand had friendship with younger Parakram Shah the younger brother of Pradyuman Shah. After Paligaon battle,  the supporters of Mohan Chand and Parakram Shah argued that since Pradyuman Shah and Harsh dev Joshi were defeated now Mohan Chand was Kumaon King and Parakram Shah was Garhwal King.
         Parakram Shah appointed his own army in Shrinagar and Pradyuman Shah appointed his own army to balance Parakram. There were groups among administrators supporting two power centers. The situation was of civil war in Shrinagar Garhwal around 1788 when Mohan Chand had treaty with Gorkha King.

** Read more about Gorkha King Ran Bahadur in next chapter….
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 28/1/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -543
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
XXX

स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत


Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,377
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #24 on: January 29, 2015, 11:27:59 AM »
                Fall of Mohan Chand in context History of Gorkha Rule on Kumaon

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -24
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -543
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                  Mohan Chand did not get relief even after friendly Treaty (Dharmapatra) with Gorkha King and disturbances in Shrinagar Garhwal. Mohan Chand had hired armed forces from Tarai and Bhabhar or Barely promising theme higher salries. However, Mohan Chand could not pay them salary in time. The state treasury was empty. Mohan Chand levied new tax as Manga Kar on people for getting revenues. Mohan Chand tried to collect tax cruelly. He captured the children and women of those families who failed to pay tax. Mohan Chand did not spare even Mahar and Fartyal groups. Mohan Chand collected two lakh rupees. He paid the salaries of hired soldiers. However, people were dissatisfied by his cruel methods.
             Harsh Dev Joshi was busy in getting back Kumaon Kingdom. From limited resources, Harsh Dev Joshi collected Rohila soldiers and other Kumaoni soldiers and attacked on Kumaon. When his army reached to Sitoli and Railkot via Havalbag, Mohan Chand got the information of Harsh Dev March towards Almora. Armies of Mohan Chand and Harsh Dev Joshi fought a fierce battle in Railkot and Sitoli. Harsh Dev Joshi army killed Prince Vishan Singh the eldest  son of Mohan Chand. Harsh Dev Joshi captured Mohan Chand and his brother Lal Singh and kept thm in Prison. Joshi freed Lal Singh and kept Mohan Chand in jail. Mohan Chand died in jail.
         Gorkha Ruler did not help Mohan Chand when he needed the real help.  Harsh Dev requested Pradyuman Shah to return Kumaon to take the Kingdom. However, due to old bitter experiences, Pradyuman Shah refused to come back Almora. Harsh Dev Joshi appointed Shiv Singh as Siv Chand as Kumaon King. Shiv Singh was from Udyot Chand families. However, the subject was unhappy from the acts of Joshis. Harsh Dev Joshi could not make his position stable in Kumaon.
                       Crowning of Mahendra Chand
   At the same time, Mahendra Singh the son of Mohan Chand with the help of Lal Singh and army of Rampur Nabab Faijulla Khan attacked on Kumaon. There was battle at Dhungsil near Bhimtal. The army chief of Shiv Chand was killed in the battle and Kumaon army ran away from battle field. Mahendra Chand captured Kumaon Kingdom. Harsh Dev Joshi ran towards Garhwal. Lal Singh and his army followed him with speed. Harsh Dev army defeated Lal Singh army in Ulkagarh at border of Kumaon and Garhwal. Lal Singh took asylum in a village Chukam. In the mean time, prince Parakram Shah came with army and defeated Harsh Dev Army. Harsh Dev went to Shrinagar. Parakram Shah took Lal Singh and Mahendra Chand to Almora.  Mahendra Chand was crowned by Lal Singh and Parakram Shah on Kumaon Kingdom in 1789. Parakram Shah returned to Shrinagar.
  Now, Lal Singh and Mahendra Chand started suppressing Joshi party. They captured Joshis and put them jail. Many Joshis were killed. The landlord ship was taken back from Joshis.
            Harsh Dev Joshi could not stay  in Shrinagar for long. Harsh Dev Joshi took asylum in Barely under Suberdar Menhadi Ali beg. Barely was under Awadh Nabab. Lal Singh became worried man.
At the same time, Awadh Nabab came to Kheda Bhabhar (east of Kathgodam and Haldwani) for hunting. Lal Singh met the Awadh Nabab there. Lal Singh assured Awadh nabab that Kumaon Kingdom was the Awdh friend. Lal Singh again assured that Kumaon Tarai-Bhabhar would be under Awdh. The Kumaon minister Nand Ram handed over Kumaon Tarai to Awdh Nabab. Awadh nabab assured Lal Singh for help. Lal Singh returned to Almora.
             

** Read more about Gorkha King Ran Bahadur in next chapter….
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 29/1/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -544
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
XXX

स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत


Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,377
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #25 on: January 30, 2015, 10:14:04 AM »
              Harsh Dev Joshi inviting Gorkha for Attacking on Kumaon

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -25
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -544
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
              There was no hope for Harsh Dev Joshi getting help from Awadh Nabab and Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah. He stayed in Barely. Barely Subedar (Governor) used to offer him stipend for Rs ten daily. In Nepal, by 1790, Gorkha Kingdom captured small and middle area Kingdoms of East of Kali River. Kumaon Kingdom started in west of Kali River. Harsh Dev Joshi decided to take help from Gorkha for ruling Kumaon. Harsh Dev Joshi invited Regent Bahadur Shah for attacking on Kumaon (West of Kali River).
              Regent Bahadur Shah was ambitious as his father Prithvi Narayan Shah. Bahadur Shah was anxious to capture Kingdoms as much as he could. Bahadur Shah was aware about disturbances in Kumaon Kingdom. After getting invitation from Harsh Dev Joshi, Bahadur Shah sent letter to Harsh Dev Joshi that if Harsh Dev helped Gorkha, Harsh Dev would be appointed ruler of Kumaon. Harsh Dev Joshi offered various secrets of Kumaon to Gorkha Regent Bahadur Shah. Harsh Dev also collected soldiers and offered to serve Gorkha. Bahadur Shah forgot the Dharmaptra or Treaty to Kumaon of 1788.
                  Attack on Kumaon
        In January 1790, for capturing Kumaon Kingdom, Gorkha Regent Bahadur Shah sent Gorkha army led by Sardar Amar Singh Thapa, Captain Golaiyan, Captain Ranveer Khatri, Subba Jognarayan Mall, Subba Faud Singh, Sugbeer Singh .
 After crossing Kali River, one army marched to Sor and other marched to Visung patti.
  The information of Gorkha reaching to Sor and Visarg reached to Almora. There was chaos in Almora after getting Gorkha March in Kumaon. Mahendra Chand collected people those were capable to fight. Mahendra Chand marched with army towards Gangoli. Lal Singh with army marched towards Kalikumaon region.
           Mahendra Chand defeated Gorkha army in Gangoli be sudden attack on Gorkha army. Gorkha army had to run towards Kalikumaon region. In Kalikumoan region, Amar Singh Thapa attacked suddenly on Lal Singh Army at Gautadgaon , near Kolagarh. Amar Singh Army defeated Kumaon Army and killed two hundred Kumaoni soldiers. Lal Singh ran towards Tarai. Mhendra Chand started march to support Lal Singh. In the way, he learnt the fleeing of his uncle Lal Singh to Tarai. Mahendra Chand also ran to Tarai. Lal Singh met Mahendra Chand in Rudrapur.
  There was no resistance from Kumaon Kingdom for Gorkha Army. Gorkha Army reached to Almora with super ease. There was a little resistance from Kumaoni army in Havalbag and Gorkha defeated the army without any difficulty. On Chaitra Krishna, February 1790, Gorkha army entered into Almora. Harsh Dev Joshi with his small army and Gorkha Kaji Jagjit Pande greeted Gorkha army.  With the help of traitor Harsh Dev Joshi , Gorkha Kingdom captured Kumaon without any resistance.
                     Gorkhas Offering Importance to Joshi and Pant
  Harsh Dev Joshi helped Gorkha Kingdom representatives in establishing general administration.  Joshis were unhappy with Lal Singh and Mahendra Chand because of their suppressive acts. Joshis allover Kumaon helped Gorkha Administrators.   Gorkha appointed Joshis as Kamdar (administrative representative) in Jhinjad, Danya, Digauli, Kalone, Oliyagaon and Galli villages. Gorkha Administrators appointed Chaudhari the Kamdar of Dwara and appointed many Pants the Kamdar of Gangoli, Uprada, Syunrakot and Khunt. Other important personalities were appointed Kamdar of various regions by Gorkha Administrators. Gorkha Administrators offered the Kumaon Pundits for rituals, medical facilities too.
            Gorkha Administrator of Kumaon used to take suggestions from harsh Dev Joshi for various purposes. Harsh Dev Joshi was sure that he would get chance to become Chief Administrator of Kumaon again. He also advised Gorkha for capturing Garhwal.

* Read about Gorkha attack on Garhwal in next Chapter …
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 30/1/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -545
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
XXX
History of Attack of Gorkha Army on Kumaon; History Battle of Gangoli between Kumaon and Gorkha Army; History Battle of Kalikumoan between Kumaon and Gorkha Army; History Battle of Gautadgaon  between Kumaon and Gorkha Army;

स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत



Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,377
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #26 on: January 31, 2015, 09:48:24 AM »
        Gorkha Attack on Garhwal Kingdom

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -26
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -545
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                      A Nepali Historian Balchandra Sharma stated that Gorkha army crossed Alaknanda River and captured territory without any resistance, there was treaty and Gorkha army returned back in 1791. The said statement is absolutely wrong and against the records.
      Harsh Dev was present in Almora in 1791. He was providing all sorts of support to Gorkha Commanders for attacking on Garhwal. Gorkha wanted a traitor in Garhwal Kingdom as Harsh Dev Joshi. However, Garhwali administrators fighting among themselves but nobody wanted to deceive his mother land as Harsh Dev Joshi did. Garhwali people had faith and devotion on the King equal to Shri Badrinath. Whenever, Gorkha army tried to attack on Garhwal the Border security forces answered with bravery and did not allow Gorkha army entering into Garhwal territory.
  Kumaon Kings used three regions for attacking Garhwal- Chaukhatiya via Havalbagh, Dwarhat Mahargaon at bank of Ramganga. Garhwal Border Security force used to be there in Lohabgarh (8231 Feet height) . Another raod was Simli via Begshwar, Baijnath, Gwaldam, Pindar region Tharali and Narayan Bagad. From Simili the road was via Karnprayag, Rudraprayag and Shrinagar.  There was Border Security force at Badhangadhi (8124 Feet height).
 Third road was from Almora to Shringar via Bhikhiyasain, Deghat, Gujdugadhi , Devlikhal to Nayar valley. There was Garhwal Force at Gujdugarhi (6000 feet height).
  Fourth road for Shringaar from Almora was via Salan (South Garhwal). The road was from Almora to Chhakhata, Bhimtal, Tarai, Ramnagar, Kashipur, Kalagarh and by crossing Ramganga to Kotdwar Bhabhar. From Kotdwara road was via Duggadda, Dadamandi to Langurgarh , Banghat ( , Nayar Valley) , Kanskhet , Naithana , Dev Prayag and Shrinagar.
 There was Garhwal Security Force in Langurgarh (Bhairongarh 6200 Feet Height)) near Dwarikhal.
        Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah was worried man as Gorkha could attack on Garhwal anytime as their strategy was to attack after winning one territory. However, grokha knew the geographical condition of Shrinagar. Gorkha commanders decided to attack on Garhwal from four ways.
    Gorkha commander Sardar Gangaram with his battalion marched towards Chandpur of Garhwal via Havalbagh, Dwarhat, Chaukhatiya from Almora. Garhwal Security Force of Lohabgarhi fought with Gorkha army with bravery. Pradyuman Shah sent another armyto Benital  led by Parakram Shah and Army Chief Dharnidhar Khanduri. Dharnidhar defeated Gorkha army and Gangaram was killed in the battle of Benital. Gorkha Army ran away to Almora.
 Nepali Historian Bhandari (Nepal ko Aitihasik Vivechana) stated that there was battle between Garhwal Force and Gorkha Army in Malangarhi (Garhwal). However, there was no such place in Garhwal neither there was /is any record for Malangarhi. According to Bhandari, Gorkha army was initiating camping there and Garhwal force attacked Gorkha army. Gorkha Army defeated Garhwal Army but this statement is just written for showing praise of Gorkha Army. No historical evidence is available for Malangarhi battle. 



* Read about Gorkha attack on Garhwal in next Chapter …
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 31/1/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -546
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
XXX

स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत


Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,377
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #27 on: February 01, 2015, 09:55:07 AM »
                History Gorkhas /Nepali Capturing Garhwal

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -27
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -546
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
History of Gorkhas/Nepali Attack on Ganga Salan Garhwal (Langurgarh)

              Gorkhas or Nepali strategists in Kumaon did not follow the conventional path for attacking on Garhwal from Kumaon.  Nepali/Gorkha commanders of Kumaon called new well trained and well armed army from Nepal. It was necessary to cross Kaliganga at Brahmdev Mandi to reach Kathgodam from Nepal. The road from Almora via Chhakhata, Bhimtal, Tarai met here. From Brahm Dev Mandi the raod goes to Kashipur via Chilkiya (present Ramnagar) . From Ramnagar , the road goes to Bhabhar, Kotdwara , Salan Garhwal via Kalagarh by crossing Ramganga River. From Bhabhar, Kotdwara, road goes to Shrinagar via Dwarikhal, Langurgarh  (still today footpath road goes to Shrinagar via Dwarikhal).
  Another reason for taking the above rout was that ex-Kumaon King Mahendra Chand and his uncle Lal Singh tried to attack on Kumaon from Birgul in between Gangol Ppatti and Sipti Patti. Gorkha defeated Mahendra Chandra at Birgul. They tried to attack on Kumaon via Balkheri valley. Therefore, it was essential for Gorkhas to control Tarai –Bhabhar of kumaon too to stop invasion of Mahendra Chand. By attacking on Salan (South of Garhwal), it was easy to watch on South of Kumaon too.
            Gorkha Army Cordoning or Surrounding Langurgarh
  Due to Gorkha army reaching to South of Kumaon, Garhwal King kept an army at Langurgarh (Langur and near Dwarikhal, Goomkhal).  Langurgarh was very strong Garh or fort. There is Bhairav statue there. The slop from South (coming from Kotdwara or Duggadda) was aprotecting slop for Langurgarhi as soldiers could throw or push heavy stones to harm soldiers coming from slop to Langurgarh. The North Slop reaches to Nayar (near Satpuli, Banghat etc.  There was water source too in Langurgarhi. The food supply could come from raskil, Barsudi, villages and other villages from Northern slop.
        Gorkha first planned to capture Abhedya (unwinnable) Langurgarh. They marched to Kotdwara, Bhabhar. When Nepal/Gorkha army attacked on Kotdwara Bhabhar, Garhwal Army did not resist. When Gorkha reached at the south valley of Langurgarh, in 1791, Garhwal army threw big stones on Nepal Army.  By hard work, Gorkha army reached to Langurgarh. It was not possible for Gorkha army to win there with Garhwal army. Nepal or Gorkha army surrounded Langurgarh and dug trench on another hill just opposite of Langurgarh (Kutalmanda) .  Garhwali army used to trap Gorkha soldiers by attacking them in one post and then used to get food etc from villages. Gorkha Army surrounded Langurgarh for one year but was unable to capture Langurgarh fort. Langurgarh was the door to reach Shrinagar.
            Cruel Gorkha Oppression in Garhwal


              Gorkhas were more or equal than Muslim invaders in cruelly harassing, oppressing and suppressing people.  Gorkha army camped in Langoorgarh for one year. The soldiers used to go for food etc to nearby villages and used to loot villages cruelly.
           There are various folk tales about oppressions of Gorkha soldiers in Gangasalan, Malla Salan, Talla Salan. The soldiers used to loot food, grains, milk, curd, ghee etc. They used to take animals with them. Gorkha soldiers used to take women with them too and women were behaved by Gorkhas as consumable items.  Gorkhas used to plough on standing crops to spread their terror.
                  Call from Deities and Goddesses
             The phrase was reinitiated or faith re-came in existence that village deities and goddesses call villagers for informing coming of Gorkhas near the village.
                 Running away from village by villagers

             People started living in forests due to cruel oppression of Gorkhas. Still, we find the ruined huts or walls in ruined conditions in villages built in the time of Gorkhas. A couple of people used to stand on top of hills and used to call their people as soon as they watch Grokhas arrival. The villagers used to run into dense forest.
   The villagers were afraid that Gorkhas would come into village by seeing smoke. The villagers stopped cooking food in day time and started cooking food in night only. People started keeping money or jewelries in a pot and that pot was dug in a cave or elsewhere.
 There was no peace in Gangaslan and Badalpur region (nearby Bhabhar, Dugdda, Dwarikhal or Langoorgarh).
  Garhwal King could not act to protect its subject from Gorkha oppressions.
                China attacking on Nepal
             Gorkhas were unsuccessful in winning Langoorgarh. Gorkhas were arranging second attack on Langoor Garh. Gorkhas were ruling Tibet. In the mean time, in 1792, Quing Empire China attacked on Nepal.
Nepal King sent message to Kumaon commander to bring armed forces to Nepal. Nepal King asked them to hand over Kumaon to Harsh Dev Joshi.
                       Treaty with Garhwal Kingdom
   It was not possible for Gorkha soldiers to be in Langoorgarh. Force was to shift to Nepal. However, wisely Gorkha commander put pressure on Garhwal King to sign a treaty. Following were the conditions of traty for Garhwal King-
1-Garhwal Kingdom would pay annual tribute for rupees three thousand.
2-On its own cost, Garhwal Kingdom would keep its advocate in Nepal court
3-Nepal court would keep advocate in Garhwal court at the expense of Garhwal Kingdom.
             Pradyuman Shah was already a weak King due to regular treacheries of his brother Parakram and Garhwal administrators. Garhwal King did not have a choice to accept insulting conditions of Nepal commander. Garhwal King accepted the conditions of Gorkha commander.
  Atkinson stated that Garhwal King used to pay annual tribute of twenty five thousand rupees. Atkinson did not mention anything about Nepali representative in Shrinagar Court. However, Repar who visited Shrinagar in Gorkha rule period (1808) mentioned that Nepal representative was there in Srinagar court. Repar also mentioned that initially annual tribute was three thousand rupees.
         The Most Selfish Harsh Dev in Shrinagar in Gorkha period of Kumaon

                          Harsh Dev Joshi Escaping
             The most Selfish personality of Uttarakhand History, Harsh Dev Joshi not only brought foreign rule in Kumaon but also paved the way for foreign rule in Garhwal too.
              When, Nepal King called major force from Kumaon and Garhwal to Nepal, the Nepal King wanted one to one dialogue with Harsh Dev Joshi. Nepalis handed over Kumaon to Joshi. Gorkha/Nepali commanders took Harsh Dev Joshi with them for Nepal. Harsh Dev was conscious about bad days in Nepal.  Harsh Dev escaped from Nepali force and ran towards Johar.  Within shortest time, there was treaty between China and Nepal and Gorkha force retuned to Kumaon.  It was not possible for Joshi to collect his supporters in Almora in the presence of Gorkhas there.
     In Johar, Johariyas (now with Fartyal group) captured Harsh Dev Joshi and informed his enemies Lal Singh, Mahendra Chand (ex Kumaon King) those were staying in Tarai region. Mahendra Chand sent his community brother Padma Singh to bring Harsh Dev to him.
                Padma Singh went to Johar to bring Harsh Dev. The wisest diplomat of Uttarakhand in its whole history, Harsh Dev Joshi lured Padma Singh to become Kumaon King. Harsh Dev Joshi trapped Padma Singh very well. Harsh Dev Joshi took Padma Singh to Shrinagar. Harsh Dev Joshi asked help of Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah for eradicating of Gorkhas from Kumaon.  Pradyuman Shah had already taken vow not to involve himself in Kumaon politics. Pradyuman Shah refused to help them for attacking on Gorkhas in Kumaon.
              Padma Singh returned to Tarai with his soldiers. Harsh Dev was in Shrinagar for some time. Atkinson stated that Harsh Dev tried to convince Pradyuman Shah to attack on Gorkhas. However, Pradyuman and Parakram refused to do so.
                              Harsh Dev in Almora

                  Harsh Dev sent messages to Gorkhas in Almora and convinced them that he was pro-Gorkhas. Harsh Dev Joshi went to Almora.
 Mahendra Chand tried to defeate Gorkhas twice and both the times, Gorkhas failed his efforts getting back Kumaon Kingdom. Harsh dev Joshi and his group Mahar group also supported Gorkhas.
History of Oppression, Repression, Exploitation Era in Pradyuman Period in Garhwal


 From the time Harsh Dev Joshi inspired Gorkhas to capture Garhwal, Garhwal experienced repression, subjugation, suppression, exploitation, power abuse of Gorkhas/Nepalis.
          Gorkha had a treaty with Garhwal that Garhwal would pay three thousand rupees as tribute to Nepal.  However, by various suppressive methods, Gorkha increased the tax from three to nine thousand rupees annually. The Nepali representative and his assistant in Shrinagar used to collect gifts with force or with notorious methods from Garhwal King and people. Whenever, Nepali administrators used to visit Badrinath or Char Dham Yatra the Garhwal Kingdom had to bear the cost of their visits. By this way, Garhwal Kingdom was paying very high amount for defusing the tension from Gorkhas.
                   Gorkhas Raids on Garhwal
    Gorkha soldiers were cruel and used to raid on border villages of Garhwal Kingdom from Kumaon. They used to loot wealth, animals, food and used to capture women too. Burning the standing crops or destroying standing crops was common phenomenon for Gorkhas.
  When Garhwal King was unable to take actions against Gorkha raiders the people of border villages of Garhwal started resisting Gorkhas and started fights with Gorkha soldiers. Garhwalis were ready to take revenge by killing cruelly Gorkha soldiers.
Why Do Uttarakhandi Plow Standing Millet Crops? A Garhwali-Kumaoni Folk Tale


                    In hills of Uttarakhand, when the barnyard millets and finger millets plants get height of six or seven inch after sowing the farmers  plough millet field. This is very peculiar agro-custom.
                 However, there is a folk saying for plough the standing millet crops when the shoots are six seven inches in height.
              It is said that before rule of Nepal on Kumaon and Garhwal, the standing millet crops was not ploughed.  Gorakha soldiers of Nepal were very cruel. They used to find ways and means to suppress the citizens. Their mean of controlling the citizens was to create fear among citizens of Garhwal and Kumaon. Gorakha soldiers used to burn the standing crops to create fear among citizens. They used to beat or punish people without any reason. They used to burn forests too.
              Once, a few Gorakha soldiers thought to create fear by destroying standing crops of barnyard millets and finger millets. The pants of both millets are grown in rainy season. The sowing time between barnyard millets and finger millets is fifteen days to one month. The shoots of both millets were grown from six to eight inches height in that village. Gorkha soldiers first plowed the plough in barnyard Millet fields and then went the area where finger millets were grown. Those soldiers plowed the plough on standing finger millet crops.
            After plowing the plough on standing millet crops the Gorakha soldiers returned to their Chauki. The farmers were in shock that now the barnyard and finger millets crops are destroyed completely. Citizens were afraid of feminine after rainy season.
 However, that year rain rained normally. Farmers were shocked to find that the millet plants in those fields which were plowed by Nepal soldiers flourished more than the normal. That year the crop production was also more from those fields where standing millet crops were plowed by Gorakha soldiers.
  From that time, farmers started plowing (though not fine but on wider line) plowing the standing barnyard and finger millet crops when the shoots are half feet high.
        History of Bawani Famine, Disaster and Calamity   in Pradyuman Period


                  Bawani Akal or Drought Famine of 1852 Samvat
              There was a stiff drought in Garhwal in Samvat year 1852 or 1795-96 and there was disastrous earthquake too. The drought is still remembered as Bawani ku Akal.
         The drought was so acute that there was shortage of food everywhere including forests produces. There was reduction in population of Garhwal.
           The rain deficiency was so sharp that people could not sow the seeds and they were forced to eat boiled tree bark and weeds.  Mass migration started and people became slaves in the plains. People were forced to sell the human beings.
                The border villages of Kumaon and Garhwal were already population less. The raids of Gorkhas from Kumaon on the east of Garhwal also forced people to migrate from the effected regions.
             Rohillas Musslim raiders used to rain and loot Salan ( Badlapur, Paini, Langur, Sheela, Dhangu, Dabralsyun, Udyapur, Ajmer regions) region. The villagers were also compelled to leave the region. Gorkha soldiers entered into Garhwal from Bhabhar, Langur Salan region and they used to repress people of Salan. The region was having scanty population. There was infighting for crown in Shrinagar for a century. The weakening of King’s administration increase taxes on people and people became poorer than poorest.
Captain Hardwicke travelled from Haridwar, Bhabhar, Dwarikhal, Bilkhet, Naithana and Shrinagar. Captain Hardwicke described about worsening conditions of villages. He described that there were hardly five hut in a village. Rarely, he saw ten huts in a village.

                             Earthquake of 1803
   There was sever, disastrous earthquake on Anat Chaturdasi in 18o3 in Garhwal.  There were quake jerks and shots for seven days.
  There were cracks on most of the houses of Garhwal. Many hills got crack. In many cases the water sources dried and in many cases, new water sources also emerged.  Many farm walls were also fall down.
 In Shrinagar, every house was effected by earthquakes. 80 percent of houses were so much affected that the houses were not fit for living. The palace became the piles of ruins. There was heavy rain after earthquake and it was salt in would. The records in palace were destroyed due to earthquake and it is one of reasons that we don’t get historical evidences of Garhwal.
         In Barahat Uttarkashi, the houses fell down. More than three hundreds of people lost their life and many got injured. There was total destruction in Barahat.
Animals also died in thousands in Garhwal.
 In Devprayag, many houses and temples got destroyed. There was breakage on roof of Raghunath temple. Daulat Rao Sindhiya repaired the Raghunath temple.
In many temples in Garhwal, Badrinath temple was in ruined condition after the quake. Daulat Rao Sindhiya repaired the temple and by that the originality of temple was lost. The temples of Joshimath were also fallen down. There was also destruction in Kedarnath temple.
 Thousands of people and animals died in that earthquake. The economic loss was countless.

            History of Parakram Group Killing Khanduri Brothers
                       Unsteady Behavior of Parakram

                    Parakram the younger brother of King Pradyuman Shah had unstable behavior for Pradyuman Shah. Many times, he tried to dislodge his elder brother Pradyuman Shah from crown and many times he created amicable relation with the King.
  By 1802, there was sour relation between Pradyuman and Parakram. There was division among administrators too for and against Pradyuman. 
        Ministers Rama Khanduri and Dharni Khanduri were supporters of Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah. Khanduri brothers increased force for protecting Pradyuman Shah. At the same time, the supporters of Parakram Shah, Shish Ram Saklani and Shiv Ram Saklani also started increasing force for Parakram.
             Battle between Uncle and Nephew

   Saklani brothers caught the King orders and told that they would not obey Pradyuman Shah. Saklani bothers surrounded the palace of Pradyuman Shah by their own force. Now, Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah was virtually under house arrest under Saklani brothers or Parakram Shah.  Saklani brothers spread the rumors that Pradyuman Shah handed over the charge of Kingdom to Parakram Shah.
          Rama Khanduri sent the message to sixteen years old prince Sudarshan Shah the son of Pradyuman Shah. Khanduri sent message to prince Sudarshan that he should act to free his father. Sudarshan came to Rama Khanduri.  Khanduri brothers and Sudarshan Shah had discussion.
          As per advice of Rama Khanduri, Parakram and his supporters camped with soldiers in Shrinagar capital at various places. The soldiers of Parakram also came opposite of forces of Sudarshan Shah.
   Prince Sudarshan Shah came with force near the palace. Sudarshan Shah surrounded palace. That was surrounded by soldiers of Parakram Shah. Now , Sudarshan Shah with soldiers was surrounding solider of Parakram. Parakram took Pradyuman Shah with him and took him to Ranihat (crossing Ganga) now Tihri Garhwal.
  The soldiers of Parakram were attacking on soldiers of Sudarshan Shah from other side of Ganga (Tehri side) by guns and spears. The battle ran for many days. People ran way from Shrinagar and other nearby villages. Hundreds of soldiers and people lost their life in the battle between Parakram and his nephew Sudarshan Shah. After there was truce in Shrinagar, people returned to Shrinagar.
 This year is supposed to be 1803.
   Nepal intervened to stop this battle. Nepal King sent his emissary Chanchal Dharani to Shrinagar and asked Parakram to accept Pradyuman as King.
              Pradyuman Shah meeting with Bambshah
     In 1797, Thapadal lost power in Nepal Kingdom and Chauntariyadal got the power. Chauntariya group asked Thapadal supporting officers for returning from Kumaon. Chauntariyad sent its own officers to Kumaon.
        Chauntariya group sent its faithful officers Bambshah Chauntariya and Rudravir Shah to Kumaon.
         Bambshah , Hastidal Chauntariya and Amar Singh Thapa prepared a plan for  capturing Garhwal. They called Pradyuman Shah to come to meet them in Kumaon. Pradyuman Shah went with his guards and most probably with Dharani Khanduri to Kumaon. Bambshah and company asked him to pay the balance taxes. Bambshah threatened to capture Garhwal in case of nonpayment of taxes due from many years. Maularam wrote about Prayduman in Kumaon but did not mention the meeting place between Bambshah and Pradyuman Shah.
                                 Treachery by Parakram Shah
  Pradyuman was in Kumaon for meeting Bambshah the Nepali governor in Kumaon. Parakram pushed away the army of Pradyuman Shah from Shringaar. Getting information, Bambshah called Parakram Shah to Kumaon. Parakram went towards Kumaon via Salan.
            Murder of Rama Khanduri and Dharni Khanduri
  When Parakram was in Salan (south Garhwal), his spy killed Rama Khanduri and then beheaded Dharni Khanduri. After killing Rama and Dharni Khanduri, Parakram entered into Shrinagar.
                     Folklores about Rama and Dharni Khanduri
              For many years, there was tussle between Dobhal supporters and Khanduri supporters in Shrinagar.
   With the support of Ghamand Singh, Rama Khanduri and Dharni Khanduri became chief administrating officers of Garhwal Kingdom. They made Pradyuman Shah their pet.  Pradyuman was as good as dead without their supports.
   Opponents of Khanduri brothers killed them.
         The opponents of Khanduri brothers accused them that they snet gold Kingdom Throne to Kumaon. Opponents killed Rama Khanduri in Dhuniramni of Painkhanda and Sharni in Shitala Reti at Ganga bank near Shrinagar.
        According to Girija Datt Naithani, Khanduri brothers inspired Nepali administrators to attack on Garhwal.
  According to Vishwambar Datt Chandola, Khanduri brothers persuaded Nepal court not to levy tax on Garhwal.
A couple of records of Tehri Darbar and folklores in Tehri, Khanduri brothers sold half of throne in Nepal. Rama Khanduri used to take Rice in meal but used to make stinginess in offering millets to Pradyuman.
           However, the statements of Maularam seem to be correct because if Khanduri brothers would be opponent of Pradyuman, Parakram group would not have killed Khanduri brothers.

                          Garhwali Folklore about Baiju ki Bamni
  According to a folklore, a woman Baiju ki Bamni was there in Khanduri family. Her husband Baiju was killed with Rama and Dharni Khanduri. Baiju ki Bamni reached to her father the Rajguru of Nepal. She inspired Nepal king to attack on Garhwal. It is just a folklore that does not have any logical connection with Nepal attacking on Garhwal as they had already made plan for attacking Garhwal, Himachal Pradesh Lahore.

              Dates of Killings of Khanduri Brothers


    As per Bhakt Darshan, it is said that a Tehri Durbar handwritten records mentioned the following dates for killings of Khanduri brothers –
Dharni Khanduri visiting Nepal – April 1803
Killing of Rama Khanduri – October 1803
Killing of Dharni Khanduri – December 1803
  According to Maularam, after killing of Khanduri brother, in Bhadon (September –October 1803), there was earthquake that destroyed Shrinagar. That means, Khanduri brothers were killed in summer season.
             Losing Ravain Region by Garhwal Kingdom
       Watching the bad situation of Garhwal Kingdom,  Bashahar (Himachal ) King (Himmat Singh or Ugar Singh) attacked on Rawain region of Garhwal with the help of Jubbal King Puran Chandra. Garhwal force resisted by Bashahar captured Ravain for (west of Garhwal, Uttarkashi).  However, this author could not find mentioning name Himmat Singh as Bashahar Kingdom in the history of Bashahar.
             History of Gorkha Capturing Garhwal

  Gorkha or Nepalese were trying to capture Garhwal from 1791. Gorkhas got many setbacks in Langurgarh , Ganga Salan (Near Dwarikhal, Gumkhal, Pauri Garhwal). Gorkha attacked minimum 13 times on Langurgarh. The people of Salan resisted the attack and did not allow Gorkha to capture on Garhwal. When there were acute disturbances by Parakram against Pradyuman Shah; the factionalisms among Garhwal Kingdom administrators came out in open and there were calamities in Garhwal; in 1803, Gorkha attacked on Garhwal with force reasoning that Garhwal Kingdom did not pay dues for many years.
             Gorkha Commanders for Attacking on Garhwal
   Bada Kaji Amar Singh Thapa (son of Commander Bhim Singh Thapa) was the leader of Gorkha force. There were more than eight thousand soldiers under Amar Singh Thapa. Hastidal Chautriya, Bambshah Chautriya, Desh Bhakt Thapa were assisting commanders of Amar Singh Thapa.
    Gorkha soldiers were equipped by Britain made Guns, swords, Khunkri, shields, spears, bow-arrow. Gorkha soldiers were trained in using and application of newer versions of guns and new weapons.
           The Nepali army was disciplined and soldiers were having red colored dress. The positions were divided as per British army. Gorkha army was fearless army. Though, Gorkha did not have the materials and power as Sindhiya, British, Jat armies but Gorkhas were better from Garhwali soldiers. Gorkha already knew the weaknesses and strengths of Garhwali soldiers and army. Gorkhas were well aware of numbers of Garhwal soldiers in each fort or Garhi. Nepali commanders were well aware about strategic points of Garhwal.
               Garhwali Army at the time of Gorkha/Nepal Attack

          There were only permanent 5000 soldiers in Garhwal Kingdom in 1796.Most of the soldiers were normal soldiers. One thousand soldiers were in Shrinagar and balance soldiers were in Pargana headquarter or forts in different regions. Parakram pushed away the soldiers devotee of Pradyuman Shah from Shrinagar and there were only five hundred soldiers of Pradyuman Shah in Shrinagar.
            There was no formal dress for Garhwal soldiers even in the Pradyuman period. There was no arrangement for training the army. There was no custom or system for paying regular salary to the soldiers. Very few soldiers (countable on fingers) knew to uses guns. Most of the soldiers were versed with swords, bow-arrow and spears.
                  Nepali Army in Shrinagar
        Amar Singh Thapa sent Gorkha or Nepali to Garhwal from two directions. According to Raturi, Nepali army reached to HSringar via Chandpur. Garhwal King sent his army to stop invasion of Gorkha/Nepali army. However, Gorkha /Nepali army defeated Garhwal army and Garhwal army came back to Shrinagar.
 Another army led by Bhakti Thapa and Chandravir Kunwar defeated Garhwal army at Langurgarh and proceeded towards Shrinagar.
           Both the army battalions reached to Shrinagar. There was no battle in Shrinagar and Gorkha /Nepali captured Shrinagar easily.
           Garhwal King Escaping from Shrinagar    
         Before Gorkha/Nepali army would reach Shrinagar, most of elites escaped from Shrinagar.
         Pradyuman Shah already sent his family members as son Sudarshan Shah, son Devi Singh from a servant and other female members to Chauras Tehri region side. The King ran away towards Tehri region by crossing Alaknanda River with his little army and Parakram Shah before Gorkha /Nepali army entered into Shrinagar. Wife of Pradyuaan Shah died earlier than Gorkha attack. Parakram sent his wife to his brother in law Ramsharan das at Nalagarh before Gorkha attack. Pritam Shah was unmarried.
                 Three Battles on other Side of Alaknanda River (Tehri Garhwal Side)
         Pradyuman Shah with his family was in Chauras side (Tehri Garhwal side) opposite of Shrinagar.
             A few Pargana officers sent armies to rescue Garhwal King. According to Captain Repar who reached Shrinagar in 1808-09, Garhwal King was able to collect twenty thousand people or soldiers. Gorkha battalions crossed Alaknanda River. Gorkha army defeated Garhwal army.
       There were three battles and every time Gorkha defeated Garhwal army. Garhwal King Pradyuman
              Garhwal King ran towards Barahat. Gorkha army followed Garhwal King. Gorkha/Nepali army defeated Garhwal king there in Barahat. Garhwal King ran to Chamua and there Gorkha/Nepali army defeated Garhwal army.
    Gorkha battalion crossed Bhilangna River and Garhwal army led by Shivram Saklani fought with Gorkha /Nepali army at Guttu Gala at Bhilangana bank. Nepali commander Bhakti Thapa or his soldier killed Shivram Saklani.
  Garhwal King ran towards Doon valley with his family and a few soldiers. Gorkha/Nepali army followed Garhwal King up to Dehradun (Doon valley). Gorkha/Nepali army captured Doon value with ease.
  The Faujdar or Governor Ummed Singh did not do anything to protect his father in law.
        Pradyuman Shah reached to Jwalapur (Haridwar).

       The Last Try by Pradyuman Shah for Getting Back Garhwal Kingdom
  Now, Pradyuman Shah was in Jwalapur (Haridwar). He was curious to get back his Kingdom. Pradyuman Shah sold his Throne and Jewelry at Saharanpur. He got Guhar, Rajput, Raghad, Pundir soldiers from Landhur King Ramdayal Singh. Pradyuman Shah took the new army and attacked on Gorkhas of Doon valley. Initially, Pradyuman Shah was abl e to capture Doon valley. Nepal/Gorkha government sent armies with Kaji Amar Singh Thapa, Bhakti Thapa and Ranjit Kunvar.
  There was fierce battle at Khudbura (Near Guru Ram Rai darbar, Dehradun) between Pradyuman Shah and Gorkha battalion. Pradyuman Shah’s horse got fire from a gun. Pradyuman fell from horse and died taking hands on grounds. A Gorkha commander praised Pradyuman Shah that he did not lay by back but by hands and he was great brave King. Garhwal army ran away from the battle after martyr death of the Last King of United Garhwal. Gorkha captured Pritam shah and sent him to Nepal. Sudarshan Shah and his step brother Dev Singh escaped to Jwalapur. Gorkha sent the dead body of Pradyuman Shah with honor to Jwalapur.
                Terror of Gorkhas/Nepalese in Dehradun
             Gorkha captured Dehradun. There was terror in Dehradun. People ran away towards hills leaving their houses. Gorkhas lured them to return back but they did not return. Gorkhas /Nepalese looted Dehradun cruelly.  For one year, villagers did not return to their houses nor did they crop in fields. Gorkha also captured the property of Guru Ram Rai Darbar. Gorkha stopped Mahant Harseval Das’ usual activities too.
  There are disagreements for date of Khudbura battle.
Atkinson –
October 1803
Or
January 1804
Raturi –
February 1804
Or
14th May 1804
Bhaktdarshan –
July 1804
Or
August 1804






* Read about Gorkha attack on Garhwal in next Chapter …
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 1/2/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -547
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
XXX

स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत



Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,377
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #28 on: February 02, 2015, 08:55:12 AM »
                Fall of Gorkha Regent Bahadur Shah

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -28
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -547
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)


  Many Commanders and Elites were against the rise of Bahadur Shah as regent. Bahadur Shah did not care for opponents and continued winning campaigns for Gorkha Expansion. The Gorkha Rule expanded till Kumaon and Garhwal. Regent / Nayab Bahadur Shah was courageous, strategist, visionary and brave.
 There were two major groups in Gorkha Kingdom –
Thapa – They were from Khas bloodline and other those came out of Nepal used to trat this clan as inferior class. Thapa were the main people who sacrificed the most for expanding Gorkha Rule. They were mostly in army.
Chautariya Dal- Cautariya Dal was Rajput class those presume them higher than Khas or Thapa. There were three sub groups in Chautariya Group.
 Parvat Rana of Thapa group did not see eye to eye with Chautariya Group leader Mulak Diwan. Mulak was minister (Diwan) of Bahadur Shah. Parvat rana was anxious to get Diwan position from Mulak.
    Bahadur Shah pushed   his nephew the heir of Gorkha Kingdom Ran Bahadur towards consuming wine and women. However, when Ran Bahadur was twenty years old he put Bahadur Shah in jail without any lawful procedure. Bahadur Shah died in 1795 in jail. Thapa group became powerful than Chauteria Group in Gorkha Kingdom.
 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 2/2/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -548
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
XX
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
XXX

स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,377
  • Karma: +22/-1
Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #29 on: February 04, 2015, 11:01:24 AM »

                History Analysis of Gorkha King Girbana Juddha Bikram Shah
                History Analysis of Gorkha King Girvarna Yuddh Vikram Shah

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -30
   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -549
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

             After getting assurance from East India Company, Ran Bahadur was in ease that opposite Bhardar (Gorkha Court Elites) would not get help from the Company. He invited Palpa King Prithvi Pal Sen at the time of coronation of his one and half year old son Geervarna Vikram Shah /Girbana Juddha Bikram Shah as Gorkha King. Palpa Kingdom was one of the oldest Nepal Kingdoms. Cornonation took place in March 1799.
     Ranbahadur ordered to Bhardar or Courtesans for taking oath for being faithful to Geervarna Vikram Shah /Girbana Juddha Bikram Shah. He made queen Rajrajeshwari as Nayab or Regent of Gorkha Kingdom till Geervarna Vikram Shah /Girbana Juddha Bikram Shah takes charge of the Gorkha Kingdom.
 Ranbahadur became Sanyasi and changed his name as Swami Nirvana Nand . Swami Nirvana Nand migrated to Devpatan with his beloved wife Kantimati. He was called  Swami raja by his people.
                   Death of Kantimati
   After some time of Ran Bhadur Shah alias Swami Nirvana Nand settling in Devpatan,  his wife Kantimati fell ill. He called Pundits, Brahmins from various temples and regions for curing her by Tantra, Mantra and medical remedies. Ran Bahadur spent around twelve lakh rupees on her cure. However, she died.
 Ran Bahadur cut noses and ears of those Pundit, Brahmins, Ojhas , Tantrik –Mantrik, Ayurvedic doctors who cured Kantimati. He put filth and meat of dogs and pigs into mouth of those Brahmins. He crushed golden idol of Bhavani Temple and threw into toileting places. He ordered to destroy that Bhavani temple. Three army battalions refused to destroy Bhavani Temple. In rage, he put boiling oil on naked solders who refused to obey his order.
.

             
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 4/2/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -550
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX

                    Reference
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
XX
Gorkha King Girvarna Yuddh Bikram Shah & History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha King Girvarna Yuddh Vikram Shah & History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha King Girvarna Yuddh Bikram Shah & History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha King Girvarna Yuddh Bikram Shah & History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha King Girvarna Yuddh Bikram Shah &  History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha King Girvarna Yuddh Bikram Shah & History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; Gorkha King Girvarna Yuddh Bikram Shah & History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History Analysis of Gorkha King Girbana Juddha Bikram Shah ; History Analysis of Gorkha King Girvarna Yuddh Vikram Shah

XXX

स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत



 

Sitemap 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22