Author Topic: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh  (Read 38284 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #80 on: April 07, 2015, 08:35:51 AM »
       History of Gangotri Temple in context Gurkha /Gorkha Rule

        History: Major Temples of Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period -2
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 19
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -84   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -603
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

    A Scottish Businessman son J B Fraser was first European traveler travelling Gangotri and Yamunotri.  Fraser also made paintings of both the shrines.
 The road for reaching Gangotri was one of the difficult most roads in Himalaya. Fraser mentioned that Amar Singh Thapa offered money for repairing the road to Gangotri. Amar Singh Thapa also repaired the Jhulapul (Ropeway Bridge) at Jadgnaga River crossing in Bhairon Valley.  As was in Yamunotri, there was no temple at Gangotri the source of Bhagirathi River. Amar Singh Thapa paid four to five hundred rupees for building Gangotri temple. The temple was 16-20 feet high and on top of temple, the Katyuri Shikhar was fit. There were three four huts built by wood adjusting temple for pilgrims staying. When there used to crowd, the pilgrims used to stay in nearby caves.
  Before, Amar Singh Thapa came on scene, the Khas Budhere of Dharali were priests. Amar Singh Thapa handed over the priest ship to Keedu or Kedar Datt the forefather of present priest Panda Family. The land of Dharali and Makuva villages were donated to Gangotri temple. The revenue of Gharali was Rs 75 per annum. The land worth Rs 22 revenue was donated to Gangotri. The revenue of Mukva village was Rs 75 and half of the land was kept reserve for Gangotri.  That income Rs.37.50 was given to the priests.  Later on, the heirs of Kedar Datt were there in Mukva village.
        It is said that Garhwal King man Shah donated Suparag Village for Gangotri but in Gurkha regime, Suprag village was abarren village along with Kachora and other villages.
   Gangotri pilgrim was very difficult and important also for Hindus. Many rich people used to pay money for other person to visit Gangotri on his behalf. Devotees used to take water in Gangotri and used to offer that Holy water in Vaidyanath and Rameshwar temples.
 Many people used to take water in Kanwad from Gaumukh (source of Bhagirathi) to plains and used to sell holy water. 
** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 7/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -604
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History: Major Temples of Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Dhangu, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Lansdowne Tehsil Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Chamoli Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Dehradun Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Haridwar, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period;  History of Yamunotri Temples in Garhwal,  History of Yamunotri Temples in Uttarkashi Garhwal, History of Yamunotri  Temple in Yamuna –Tones Rivers Valley Garhwal, History of Yamunotri Temples in Garhwal,  History of Yamunotri Temple Garhwal, History of Yamunotri Temple Uttarakhand, History of Yamunotri Temple Himalaya
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #81 on: April 08, 2015, 10:52:13 AM »
       History of Barahat or Uttarkashi Temples in context Gurkha /Gorkha Rule
        History: Major Temples of Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period -3
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 20
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -85   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -604
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

              The old name of Uttarkashi was Barahat or Badahat. ‘Bada Hat’ means the Big Market. That means once, the place was prosperous and was whole sale market.
 There was severing earthquake in 1803 in Himalayan reason. The earthquake on early morning 1st September 1803 was felt from Punjab to Kolkata. Earthquake at Barahat or Badahat (30.72degree N: 78.48degree E) took the maximum ruins (Dasgupta et all, 2014, Indian Journal of History Science). The earthquake killed 200-300 inhabitants and kettles. F.V. Raper provided the details of dreadful earthquake in Asiatic Researches (Vol 11, 1812). Raper wrote about his visit of 1808 that the Town of Barahat (Uttarkashi) by no means fulfilled our expectations. The houses are destroyed by earthquake. A couple of houses are now built by those who were saved from earthquake.  There were ruins, bushes and trees around whole old town. Near the village, a Trishul or Trident was found that was of a temple before the earthquake. The pillar was saved but temple was demolished. There were ruins of temples and Dharamshalas. Parshuram Temple was now a barren place and its land was given to somebody.
.

** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 8/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -605
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History: Major Temples of Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Dhangu, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Lansdowne Tehsil Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Chamoli Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Dehradun Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Haridwar, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period;  History of Yamunotri Temples in Garhwal,  History of Yamunotri Temples in Uttarkashi Garhwal, History of Yamunotri  Temple in Yamuna –Tones Rivers Valley Garhwal, History of Yamunotri Temples in Garhwal,  History of Yamunotri Temple Garhwal, History of Yamunotri Temple Uttarakhand, History of Yamunotri Temple Himalaya, History Gangotri Temple;  History of Barahat or Uttarkashi Temples in context Gurkha /Gorkha Rule;

                           ::: ====स्वच्छ भारत!  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत====:::


Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #82 on: April 10, 2015, 08:52:13 AM »

History of Shrinagar Garhwal, Temples in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule on Garhwal
        History: Major Temples of Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period -5
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 22
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -87   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -604
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

              Shrinagar was destroyed in 1803 Earthquake. Half of Shrinagar was in ruined condition. Maularam wrote praiseworthy Sanskrit Shlokas for following diety Temples of Shrinagar (Dr Dabral from Maularam manuscripts)-
Utfalesh Deity Temple of Shrinagar Garhwal
Vridhkedar Deity Temple of Shrinagar Garhwal
Kshetrapal Deity Temple of Shrinagar Garhwal
Kamleshwar Deity Temple of Shrinagar Garhwal
Kilkileshwar Deity Temple of Gangapar 
Badrinath Deity Temple of Gangapar 
Chandreshwar Deity Temple of Gangapar 
Vishwanath Deity Temple of Gangapar 
Koteshwar Deity Temple of Gangapar 
Jogeshwar Deity Temple of Gangapar 
Neelkanth Deity Temple of Gangapar 
Bhuvneshwari Deity Temple of Gangapar 
Ratrinath Deity Temple of Gangapar 
Deepnath Deity Temple of Gangapar 
Bhimsen Deity Temple of Gangapar 
   In 1812, Gorkha/Gurkha administration sanctioned Gurkha Rs 1003. 50 or Farukhabadi 999 and ten ana for  66  Temples of Shringar and surrounding area and major temples were-
Badrinath Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Kansmardani Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Hanuman (Talla) Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Hnauman (Uprala) Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area
Keshoray (Talla) Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area     
Keshoray (Uprala) Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area
Kamleshwar   Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Vridhkedar Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Juntur Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
  Nagasur Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Dakshinakali Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Mahishmardani Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Gorakhnath Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Nandadevi Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Shitaladevi Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
Vishweshar Temple in Shrinagar or surrounding area   
 Gurkha/gorkha administrators provided many villages for many temples as Kamleshwar.
Top Gurkha /Gorkha Administrators Kaji Bahadur Bhandari and Dashrath Khatri recorded the boundaries (mendbandi) of villages and villages offered to temple in 1912.   

** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 10/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -607
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History: Major Temples of Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Dhangu, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Lansdowne Tehsil Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Chamoli Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Dehradun Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Haridwar, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period;  History of Yamunotri Temples in Garhwal,  History of Yamunotri Temples in Uttarkashi Garhwal, History of Yamunotri  Temple in Yamuna –Tones Rivers Valley Garhwal, History of Yamunotri Temples in Garhwal,  History of Yamunotri Temple Garhwal, History of Yamunotri Temple Uttarakhand, History of Yamunotri Temple Himalaya, History Gangotri Temple;  History of Barahat or Uttarkashi Temples in context Gurkha /Gorkha Rule; History of  Devprayag  Temples in Gurkha/Gorkha rule on Garhwal; History Raghunath Ji temple in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Garhwal; History of Shrinagar Garhwal, Temples in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule on Garhwal
 

 

                           ::: ====स्वच्छ भारत!  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत====:::


Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #83 on: April 11, 2015, 10:49:33 AM »
History of Ranihat (Tehri Garhwal) Temples in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule over Garhwal
        History: Major Temples of Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period -6
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 23
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -88   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -607
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)


            Ranihat was an ancient settlement just opposite of Shrinagar (present day Pauri Garhwal) at Alaknanda River in present day Tehri Garhwal (K.P Nautiyal, 1977, The Himalayas). Asiatic researches and Tehri Museum offered glimpses of Temple of Ranihat in Gurkha Rule over Garhwal.
 In Gurkha/Gorkha period too, there was sizable population in Ranihat. There were small and big temples in numbers. People used to cross Alaknanda by Jhula Bridge (plant fiber rope way) or by boats.
                            Rajrajeshwari Temple Ranihat
 The biggest temple was Rajrajeshwari and that temple still exists. Garhwal Kings donated Ranihat village and nearby villages to Rajrajeshwari temple and Gurkha retained land as same.                                 
                  The Bammargi or Tantrik were there governing the temple and they used to perform scared and enigmatic rituals in the temple. Those Bammargi used to have researches too on Tantra and Mantra.
Tantra is a system of extorted practices involving Yoga, Meditation,  Hypnosis, Autosuggestion, asana, Exercise, Self Control for the fulfillment of worldly desires as well as the spiritual experience.
  The Devdasi (devoted to temple) had major population there and they used to dance, sing and had life of prostitutes.
  When a girl used to come to become a Devdasi (definitely by force from parents or society) the priest used to paste the Oil from the Lamp of Temple on her hair. From that day (Deeksha) those girls were called Devdasi. In reality they were religious prostitutes. 
                                     Das ka Math in Ranihat

  Das ka Math was again a Nath ritual place. Garhwal Kings had donated land for das ka Math. Later on Tehri King Sudarshan Shah also retained the Gunth (land to temple) to the temple.
                       Sureshwari Devi temple Ranihat
    Here too, Tantrik used to use the goddess temple Sureshwari Temple for Tantrik studies. Common people were interested in normal goddess worshipping. Land was donated for temple from Garhwal King and Gurkha Administration too.
                                         Ransi Temple Ranihat
 The temple was related to goddess Rati the wife of God Kamdev. The temple was connected to education of Kamkrida or Love Making perhaps in past. 
 Garhwal Kings donated land for the Rati temple and Gurkha and Tehri kings retained the land for the temple.


** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 11/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -608
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History: Major Temples of Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Dhangu, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Lansdowne Tehsil Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Chamoli Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Dehradun Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Haridwar, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period;  History of Yamunotri Temples in Garhwal,  History of Yamunotri Temples in Uttarkashi Garhwal, History of Yamunotri  Temple in Yamuna –Tones Rivers Valley Garhwal, History of Yamunotri Temples in Garhwal,  History of Yamunotri Temple Garhwal, History of Yamunotri Temple Uttarakhand, History of Yamunotri Temple Himalaya, History Gangotri Temple;  History of Barahat or Uttarkashi Temples in context Gurkha /Gorkha Rule; History of  Devprayag  Temples in Gurkha/Gorkha rule on Garhwal; History Raghunath Ji temple in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Garhwal; History of Shrinagar Garhwal, Temples in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule on Garhwal ; History of Ranihat (Tehri Garhwal) Temples in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule on Garhwal;

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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #84 on: April 13, 2015, 09:49:12 AM »
     
  History: Major Temples of Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period -7
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 24
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -89   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -608
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

            History:  Temples in Devalgarh, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period
    There were three major temples in Devalgarh near Shrinagar.
Rajrajeshwari Temple in Devalgarh –Uniyal caste Pundit was priest
Gaurja Temple in Devalgarh –Bahuguna caste Pundit used to be Priest of Gaurja Temple
Satyanath or Satpir Math in Devalgarh - The Math had importance in the society and administration. The priests and people of Shrinagar and nearby used to visit Math and temples in Navratra.
 Gurkha administration kept those temples under ‘Sadavrat’ that is land was provided to temple. All used to offer gifts .

                 History: Temples in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period
         There was a small Math in Rudraprayag. Asiatic Researches (Vol. 11, page 503) reported that there were a few houses in Rudraprayag occupied by Brahmins.

            History:  Temples in Karnaprayag Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period
  There was a small Math in Karnaprayag. It was said that there was an idol of King Karna inside the Math or temple in Karnaprayag. There were seven eight houses in Karnaprayag. Gurkha Administration built a rope way bridge on Pindar River in Karnaprayag.
            History:  Temples in Nandprayag Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period
   Nandprayag was a barren village in 1808. The temples were ruined by 1808 due to earthquake of 1803. Two or three shopkeepers used to sell necessary materials in Nandprayag. There was a very small stone temple and a couple of deity idols were kept there. A Brahmin used to be there for necessary rituals.
            History:  Temples in Joshimath Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period
Most of temples of Joshimath were destroyed in 1803 Earthquake. However, following deity temples were still safe in 1808-
Vishnu Temple of Joshimath
Ganesh temple of Joshimath
Surya Temple of Joshimath
Navdurga Temple of Joshimath
People used to paste butter on idol of Navdurga and butter was used in such quantity that idol was never seen by the pilgrims.

            History:  Temples Pandukeshwar in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period

      There were two ancient temples in Pandukeshwar in 1808. There were 20-30 Houses in Pandukeshwar in 1808.

                   History:  Temples in Vishnuprayag Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period

 There was a fife feet broad wooden bridge on Dhauli Ganga River in Vishnu Prayag. There were 2 or 3 houses in Vishnuprayag.
   The land (Goonth) was donated for all the above temples.
            Badrinath or Rajbadri Temple in Mana Village
       Badrinath region had importance from Mahabharata time. Badrinath temple was in very bad condition due to 1803 Earthquake. When Daulat Rav Scindia repaired Badrinath temple its ancient style was lost.
          In 1808, There ws Katyuri Shikhar on temple and a copper was covering Katyri Shikhar. On top of Shikhar there was Gold Pot (Kalas). The height of temple was 40-50 Feet.
Taptakund was 20-30 square feet. The roof of Taptakund was of wood.
         Garbhgrih and Idol in Badrinath temple in Gurkha Period
         There was three feet black marble Idol inside the temple. Pujari used to dress Idol by gem clothing and gem crown. On crown, there was a small mirror. There was adiamond on crown. There was no any source of light in Garbhgrig beside door. There used to be two lamp lighted for24x7. There was aChauki (squares low height table) before the idol covered by clothing.
  The temple door used to open in morning. The Bhog used to complete at one Pm and then door were closed. In evening, the door used to open and those were open till night till bedding for God was prepared and in night the door were closed. Main ritual was performed by Rawal or Priest. There were Dharmadhikari and other officers and servants for the Temple. There were Devdasi too in Badrinath Temple.
 In winter the temple was closed and people used to shift to Pandukeshwar and Joshimath.
                Rawal or Main Priest of Badrinath Temple   
  The main priest was called Rawal who used to be a Kerlaite Nambudiparad Brahmin. He used to enter into Garbhgrih and light the place. In 1808, Narayan was Rawal of Badrinath.
 There used to be three four Chobdar before and behind Rawal whene he used to come for ritual performance in the temple. A servant with Chanvar of peacock wing used to be with Rawal. Brahmins for other rituals used to be with Rawal. Rawal used to put green silk with cotton filled  Choga. The waist tag used to be of white ‘Shaul’. He used to put a red Turban and half colored shocks on foot. He used to put big ear rings those having a Mani too on each ring.Rawal used to put Mani garland. He had a multi gemmed Bajuband on each upper hand.  Rawal used to put rings on fingers.
 When Rawal used to shift to Joshimath in winter he used to spend lustful life.
                     Pilgrims of Badrinath
    It was estimated that around 40-50000 pilgrims visited Badrinath Temple in 1807 (Asiatic Researches) . Sadhus were more in numbers. Two or three hundred pilgrims died on that year. Pilgrims had to offer gifts or Chadhava in many places of Badrinath Temple as in Kund, Door, etc. The last offer used to be inside Badrinath Temple. It was not cheap to visit Badrinath. Though, the food was free from the temple management.
       Distribution of Chadhava in Badrinath Temple
 The offerings from Pilgrims was distributed as follows-
1-Bhent – or Idol offering
2-Bhog – for Temple food and clothing etc
3-Dakshina – for Rawal and other priests
 Raper reported that there was a ledger on which the record was kept for income and expenses of Badrinath temple. Outsiders were not shown the ledger.
                          Opening and Closing of High Altitude Temples
 The temples of Yamunotri, Gangotri, Badrinath, Kedarnath and Tungnath were opened in May and closed around or before Deepawali.
 The people of Kedarnath used to shift to Ukhimath in winter and Joshimath from Badrinath. 
 Gurkha used to offer offering on behalf of Gurkha King to Badrinath. In 1813, Gurkha administrators offered worth Gurkha Rs 280 (Farukhabadi Rupees 210) to Badrinath temple.

                   Guru Ram Rai Durbar Dehradun Temple in Gurkha Rule

Guru Ram Rai Temple was built on the style of Jahangir Makbara.
 In Gurkha Time, Mahant Hari Sewak was Mahant of Shri Guru Ram Rai Durbar. Mahnat used to have a specific dress on the occasion of rituals in Guru Durbar. Mahant used to put a red silk cap on his head. The cap used to be round and erected above. There were embroideries on cap.
            Mahant Hari Sewak did his best to improve the farming situation in Dehradun. 
  Every year, three to four thousand pilgrims used pay tribute to Guru Ram Rai durbar. On Kumbh time, the numbers used to increase dramatically.
                    Income of Guru Ram Rai Durbar
 Garhwal King donated seven villages of Dehradun and six villages of Tehri Garhwal to Guru Ram Rai Durbar. Initially, Gorkha got back villages but later on returned the villages to durbar. William wrote on his Memoir of Dehradun that the annual income from Dehradun villages was for Rs 1600 and income from Tehri Garhwal villages was British Rs 35. There used to be Tribute from pilgrims around 3 to 4000 British rupee. I tmeans in Gurkha period the annual income of Guru Ram Rai Durbar was around

** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 12/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -609
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History: Major Temples of Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Dhangu, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Lansdowne Tehsil Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Chamoli Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Dehradun Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History: Major Temples of Haridwar, Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period;  History of Yamunotri Temples in Garhwal,  History of Yamunotri Temples in Uttarkashi Garhwal, History of Yamunotri  Temple in Yamuna –Tones Rivers Valley Garhwal, History of Yamunotri Temples in Garhwal,  History of Yamunotri Temple Garhwal, History of Yamunotri Temple Uttarakhand, History of Yamunotri Temple Himalaya, History Gangotri Temple;  History of Barahat or Uttarkashi Temples in context Gurkha /Gorkha Rule; History of  Devprayag  Temples in Gurkha/Gorkha rule on Garhwal; History Raghunath Ji temple in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Garhwal; History of Shrinagar Garhwal, Temples in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule on Garhwal ; History of Ranihat (Tehri Garhwal) Temples in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule on Garhwal; History Badrinath temple, History  Guru Ram Rai Durbar

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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #85 on: April 14, 2015, 10:04:04 AM »

  History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkhas/Gorkhas in Uttarakhand

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 25
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -90   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -609
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

        Exploitation of Minerals and Mines by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand
                     Minerals in Garhwal
     Garhwal had been fortunate for having important and exportable minerals. There have been perceptions that Garhwal was rich in gold and other metallic mines from Mahabharata period till British period.
 Captain Hearsay reported to East India Company in 1814, that Garhwal is prosperous for copper mines. He wrote about iron mines in Garhwal. Captain Hearsay informed the Company about availability of Pine Resin, Kanman Resin and Hemp in Garhwal.  Hearsay wrote that there were so many pines in Garhwal that those would be sufficient to make ships for whole of England.
  Gurkha retained the mining as was in Garhwal King Period and did not try for improving mineralogy in Garhwal. Gurkha/Gorkha never had faith on miners, contractors. Gurkha on the contrary, exploited contractors and miners by levying heavy duties. Therefore, many miners stopped mining works and mud was filled in many profitable mines too.
                     Copper Mines in Garhwal
    Garhwali King used to get annual income from copper mines for Rs 5000. There was income from Coining Coinage Factory and the annual income was about Rs 500.
    In 18o8, Gurkha/Gorkha administrators got only Rs 4000 from Dhanpur Mines of copper and lead from Pooki Sunar contractor (Asiatic Researches). There were two –three hundred mining workers busy whole year in mining.
    In north of Dhampur, in Nagpur, there was no taker for mining in 1808. It was needed huge investment to clear off the mud from mines of Nagpur and Gorkha were not conducive for business.
 There was only annual income for Gurkah rs 4000 in 1812 from mines of Kumaon and Garhwal. It was lesser than an annual income from Nagpur mines in 1803.
  There were no drastic changes in Iron mining as Iron was required for local utensil uses. Iron and copper of Garhwal was sold in Nazibabad Wholesale Market in 1812.
                          Gold Dust Collection 
  The Rivers of Garhwal were rich in Gold Dust. The Gold dust collectors used to be from Nahan Himachal. They used to collect Gold dust from bank of Alaknanda, Pindar, Vishnuganga Son etc. Those dust collectors used to wash bank sand and used to extract Gold dust from sand. Average person used to get Gold dust worth of Rs 4 per month. In 1819, there were fiteen people busy in Gold Dust collection and their average income was a quarter Tola of gold.
      Atkinson reported that there were following number of mines in Garhwal in Gurkha Period-
Iron Mines- 57
Copper Mines-44
Lead Mines- 5
 There were mines for Gypsum, Khadiya, Selkhadiya Soapstone, limestone etc.


** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 14/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -610
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Upper Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in North Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Garhwal, Uttarakhand History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Dehradun, Uttarakhand ;

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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #86 on: April 15, 2015, 08:45:19 AM »
 History Discussion on Forest Management in Uttarakhand in Gurkha/Gorkha Period
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 26
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -91   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -610
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
    The forest resources were more than minerals in Garhwal and Kumaon in Garhwal King Period and in Gurkha Period too. However, Gurkha Administration did not pay attention for improving Forest Management.  As Garhwal Kings, Gurkha also offered forests to Contractors. Those contractors used to cut all types of grass, fibers, tress, medicinal plants, roots and barks and used to sell in plains. There used to toll Posts at bordering place for taking taxes. The contractors and state servants used to have a conspiracy between them and State never got the real tax as state servants used to disclose less income to state and take major income for them. There was different levy on different products at Toll Post. Catechu taxes were collected as per number of extracting factories.
 There were following Toll Posts in Garhwal –
Laldhang Bhabhar
Balli Kandai Bhabhar
Chandighat near Rishikesh Haridwar
 There were following Toll Posts in Dehradun –
Mohan in Dehradun
Timli in Dehradun
  The record state that following income was there from Forests of Dehradun –
1809-10 – Gorkhali Rs 16000
1810-11- Gorkhali Rs 15200

            Contractors of Bhabhar Garhwal Forests

 In Pradyuman Shah Time, Goldar Bhuri Singh was the Forest contractor for East Bhabhar. His duty was to protect the Balli Kandai Check Post. Goldar Bhuri Singh used to have soldiers with him and used to protect land of South Garhwal that is Bhabhar from Hedi, Mewati, Rohillas. Bhabhar was given him as Jagir. Bhuri Singh used to collect tax at Balli Kandai Check Post. Bhuri Singh called Boksa etc and established them for farming in Bhabhar. Bhuri Singh increased Farm Land in Bhabhar. 
 Bhuri Singh Negi was contractor (Goldar) of Balli Kandai Ceck Post for twenty years before Gorkha attack on Garhwal.  Perhaps, Bhuri Singh Negi was defeated by Gorkha and he ran to plains or towards Bijnor.
  From 1803-15 , Gorkha appointed Check Post In charge, Goldar or Contractor or  responsibility of Bhabhar East Check Post to Sayans of Paino, Bungi and Bijlot for different time.
 There is no record for income of forest from Bhabhar to Gorkha administration. However, the income from Bhabhar Forests would not be less than Dehradun.


** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 15/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -6110
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Upper Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in North Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Garhwal, Uttarakhand History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Dehradun, Uttarakhand ; History Discussion on Forest Management in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Discussion on Forest Management in Kumaon  in Gurkha/Gorkha Period



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Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #87 on: April 16, 2015, 07:19:51 AM »
  History Analysis of Water Resource Management Garhwal under Gurkha /Gorkha Rule

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 27
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -92   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -611
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                               Water Resource Management
  Garhwal Shah Kingdom did not promote water resource Management as state duty. However, whenever time came; their Thokdar built or dig Khali or canal. Most of the water resource innovation or improvement was done by people themselves.
            There is a folk story of Uttarkashi that a man had to marry his two daughters to Old man who was Himachal Watermill Owner for getting Water Mill Technology from Himachal Watermill Owner (Bhishma Kukreti, merapahad.com). That means people were conscious about natural resource management.
      There were Khali constructions on top of hills for water conservation. There were ‘raw’ a small pond dug for water uses for fetching water to animals and irrigation too.
 Canals were dug by people for irrigation and drinking water. The canals were dug by community.
  Gurkha /Gorkha administration never paid attention on canal or Khali constructions in its rule in Garhwal, Kumaon or Himachal. 
                            Kool or Gul a Water Resource Management
 Water was diverted from source through small or big canals and dug by community. Whever, water flow was obstructed by Gadan, hard rock or a boulder the bana trunk, or wood log was used to channelize the water. (Dr Ajay S Rawat).
                     Naula a Water Resource Management
 Naula is dug and constructed for collecting water from subterranean springs. Naulas were community properties and were called prestigious community properties.
                  Dhara a Water Resource Management
  Dhara is Water fountain type of system. There were /are three types of Dhara (Ajay Rawat, 2006)
1-Sirpatiya Dhara- When individual can easily fetch water in normal standing position such Dhara is called Sirpatiya Dhara.
2-Mudpatiya Dhara- When individual has to bend for water fetching such Dhara is called Mudpatiya or Murpatiya Dhara.
3-Patveediya Dhara- Pattveed means made by leave or called ephemeral Dahra and is availavle only in rainy season.
                Simar or Gajar
This source is due to marshy land and paddy is grown in such land. 
           Khali or Chhuptaula
 These are smallest pond types on top of hills.
                 Tal
Those were natural ponds
           Dhaam
 Dhaam are natural or artificial lakes.
         Raw
Raw are dug or constructed and stream water is collected on these pits or big ditches. Fibrous sticks are also submerged in Raw for getting fibers from Bheunl /Bheemal and hemp sticks.
 Gorkha administrators did not do anything to improve water source or irrigation facilities etc. in Doti, Kumaon, Garhwal and Himachal.

** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 16/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -612
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Upper Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in North Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Garhwal, Uttarakhand History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Dehradun, Uttarakhand ; History Discussion on Forest Management in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Discussion on Forest Management in Kumaon  in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Analysis of water Resource Management and Crafts in Garhwal under Gurkha /Gorkha Rule




                           ::: ====स्वच्छ भारत!  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत====:::


Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #88 on: April 17, 2015, 09:19:25 AM »
Downfall in Cotton and Dress Material Industries in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 28
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -93   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -612
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

             Before, Gurkha/Gorkha invaded Garhwal; there were hundreds of craft industries flourishing in Garhwal in Garhwali Shah Kings Period. However, Gurkha /Gorkha entry brought downfall in many village or rural industry drastically.
 Gurkha/Gorkha rulers did not encourage crafts in Garhwal. On the contrary, Gurkha/Gorkha levied new taxes.
   Harijan used to make utensils of various kind and Harijan and their works played important role in Garhwal societies. Gurkha/Gorkha levied new tax on Harijan works as ‘Majhari’ tax. Second another important craft of Garhwal was Dress making or dress making material production. Gurkha/Gorkha levied another tax on dress material makers and traders as ‘Tand ‘Tax.
      Most or all famers used to pasture Sheep with other domestic animals. Farmers used to get wool from Sheep. The wool was used for making dress materials and blanket. ‘Koli’ people used to weave wool and make woolen dresses for families. Bhotiya were famous for wool dress making. They used to export Woolen Dress to plains of India.
Maniyar of Bhagirathi Valley was famous for long and wide Blanket production.
  Dwarf Cotton was cultivated in Salan (South Garhwal) and Koli used to weave cotton for making dresses.
 People of upper Bhagirathi Valley used to cultivate Cotton too.
  However, Due to oppressive methods of Gurkha/Gorkha, farmers left villages and slowly cotton and woolen industry started falling drastically. Cotton industry became the matter of history after Gurkha invasion.
  East India Company established a hemp fiber production factory in Kahsipur (Udhamsingh Nagar). Company used to pay advances to famers for hemp fibers. Farmers of South Kumaon and South Garhwal started cultivating Hemp in abundance. Hemp Fiber was used in making ropes, bags, bed sheets, dress materials etc.
 Dr Dabral concluded that dress making industry and other craft industry fell drastically in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule.
** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 17/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -613
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Upper Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in North Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Garhwal, Uttarakhand History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Dehradun, Uttarakhand ; History Discussion on Forest Management in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Discussion on Forest Management in Kumaon  in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Analysis of water Resource Management and Crafts in Garhwal under Gurkha /Gorkha Rule; Downfall in Cotton and Dress Material Industries in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule

                            ::: ====स्वच्छ भारत!  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत====:::




Bhishma Kukreti

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Re: History of Gorkha Rules over Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
« Reply #89 on: April 18, 2015, 09:36:21 AM »
 History: Downfall Metal Craft Works in Garhwal, Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 29
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -94   
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -613
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)


 Garhwal had been known for its copper and other metal mining and Metal Crafts (Iron Smith, Copper Smith, Brass Smith and Bronze Smith) had its importance in each Garhwal and Kumaon Village. Metal crafts were also source of export.
 Harijan (Lwar and Tamta) were main Metal Craftsmen of Garhwal and Kumaon. They used to produce the following main appliances with indigenous technology in Garhwali Shah period-
1-Metal House Appliances- Pots, Plates, Vessels, Glass, Dishes, etc
2-Metalic Agriculture Appliances- Sickle, Hoe, Axes
3-Metalic Defense Ammunitions-Bow, Arrow, Swords, Spear etc
4-Misclenious Appliances- Nakchundi, Hukka, Locks and Lech etc
 Gurkha were cruel in collecting taxes or financial penalties. Therefore, Garhwalis and Kumaunis were forced to sell their metal potteries etc to pay taxes etc. In case or of nonpayment, Gurkha soldiers used to snatch metal vessels and metal appliances from people.
 Due to downfall in mining also resulted in downfall in metal production in villages as raw materials were not available and people were also afraid of taking metal from one place to other places.
         There was drastic reduction in Metal works in villages. People and Metal Craft Producers were not sure about their life and hence the industry was in standstill situation.
 People were using mud vessels or stone vessels or Bamboo, Bheemal vessels.
       Downfall in Woodcrafts in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Garhwal, Kumaon
 Since, people were not sure of staying in their villages; they stopped building stable houses and Tibari (Drawing Room on first Floor) and by those reasons and other reasons woodwork development and production became stand still situation
      Downfall in Handcrafts in Garhwal and Kumaon in Gurkha Period

   There was steep downfall in Major Handcraft industries used for indigenous uses and export Purposes.
** Moorcroft, Travels in the Himalayan provinces
** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -614
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; गढ़वाल , उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ; डोटी , पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास ;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का गढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकार इतिहास ; गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास ; नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History : Downfall Metal Craft Works in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha rule; History : Downfall Metal Craft Works in Old Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha rule; History : Downfall Metal Craft Works in Old Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha rule; History : Downfall Metal Craft Works in Kumaun  in Gurkha/Gorkha rule; History : Downfall Metal Craft Works in Uttarakhand  in Gurkha/Gorkha rule; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Upper Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in North Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Garhwal, Uttarakhand History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Dehradun, Uttarakhand ; History Discussion on Forest Management in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Discussion on Forest Management in Kumaon  in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Analysis of water Resource Management and Crafts in Garhwal under Gurkha /Gorkha Rule; Downfall in Cotton and Dress Material Industries in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule

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