Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 68284 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwal King Attacking on Kumaon in the Period of Kumaon King Deep Chandra 

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 213

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

            When there is inside differences the outsider helping hand also becomes an enemy. Same thing happened in Kumaon King Deep Chand time.

                            Differences among Joshi groups
             Shiv Datt Joshi of Mara Dal became guardian of King Deep Chandra. Joshis and their supporters were on the powerful positions.  Hari Ram Joshi the cousin of Shiv Datt Joshi was wishing to become Bakshi (prime minister) of Kumaon kingdom. Hari Ram Joshi helped Fadtyal group for appointing Amar Singh Rautela as Kumaon King. Shiv Datt Joshi suppressed the revolt. Hari ram Joshi ran to Garhwal.  Long back, Kantu Joshi was blinded by Doti Kalayan Chand and he also came to Shrinagar Garhwal. Jaya Nand the son of Kantu Joshi was in Shrinagar the capital of Garhwal.  Other Joshis who were oppressed by Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra were also there in Shrinagar. Under the leadership of Hari ram Joshi other Joshi went to visit Garhwal King Pradip Shah in Shrinagar.
         Hari Ram Joshi told to Garhwal King Pradip Shah that they all belonged to Joshan (area of Joshi caste). Hari ram told to Pradip Shah that till date Joshi were looking after Kumaon kingdom administration. Hari ram inspired Garhwal King Pradip Shah to throw out Chand kings from Kumaon. Joshi requested Pradip Shah to make his son as Kumaon king. Hari Ram Joshi assured Pradip Shah that Kumaon people will welcome Pradip Shah as soon he would enter into Kumaon.

             Factionalism and Fractions among Garhwali administrators and army Commanders

                 Garhwal Kingdom was also facing factionalism and fraction among Garhwal administrators and commanders. 
           Brahmins and upper caste Rajput were outsiders in Garhwal. Khasa Rajputs were original inhabitants of Garhwal. The leaders of both the Rajput groups did not see eye to eye. They used to fight with each other in open. There were many murders openly among groups of Rajput from outsiders and Khasa Rajput.  The outsider Rajput groups were called Nagarkotiya. Nagarkotiya were from Jammu, Jeevi, Kamgda, Guler , Mandi regions. Narpat Singh Guleriya was the leader of outsider Rajput. He was army chief of Garhwal. Most probably, the Nagarkotiya leader Guleriya advised the Garhwal King Pradip Shah to attack on Kumaon. Pradip Shah came under influence of Hari Ram Joshi and Narpat Guleriya.
                  Attack on Kumaon by Garhwal King
            Under the conspiracy influence of Hari Ram Joshi, Garhwal King attacked on Kumaon in 1757. It was one of the blackest days in the history of Kumaon and Garhwal because from this day the erosion of Uttarakhand started.
      Pradip Shah reached juniyagarh  (Garhwal border) with his huge army. Shiv Datt Joshi and Kumaon King Pradip Shah camped at Naithana of Palla Daura region. Shiv Datt Joshi captured Jaspur village at the bank of Ram Ganga and Binogad. Hari ram Joshi assured Pradip Shah that Kumaon people would welcome Garhwal King. Pradip Shah stayed in Juniyagadh for many days but no Kumaoni and Kumaon administrator came to welcome him. Even, the Fadtyal group opponent of Hari ram Joshi did not send any welcoming signal for Garhwal King. Fadtyal group became friend with Shiv Datt Joshi to save Kumaon kingdom.
  Shiv Datt Joshi called Hari ram Joshi and assured him to appoint him Bakshi. 
       Shiv Datt Joshi sent his messenger with a letter that Pradip Shah was well wisher of Deep Chand. Shiv Datt Joshi asked the reason for Pradip Shah attacking on Kumaon.  Pradip Shah answered that Deep Chand was as good as his real nephew. Pradip Shah put a condition that if Deep Chand write letter to him  (Pradip Shah) as his uncle he would forgive Kumaon King.  Indirectly, Pradip Shah wrote that Kumaon Kingdom would be under super rule of Garhwal Kingdom.
  Pradip Shah also put another condition that Ram Ganga would be the dividing river for borders of Kumaon and Garhwal kingdoms. Shiv Datt Joshi accepted the second condition of Garhwal King. Joshi refused that Kumaon king would write any request to Garhwal King.  Garhwal King and his advisors were ready for battle or war.
    The Garhwal army camped in west of Ramganga till 1796.
              It is said that Deep Chandra offered gifts to Dharnidhar Oza diplomat of Garhwal King. Oza refused to take gifts. Dharni Dhar put the sides of Kumaon King before Garhwal King Pradip Shah. Pradip Shah and his advisors declared Oza as corrupt diplomat for taking gifts from Kumaon King.  Garhwal kingdom poet Maulram wrote that not only Dharni Dhar Oza but other administrators of Garhwal Kingdom took gifts from Kumaon King.
                Those Garhwal Kingdom administrators planned with Shiv Datt Joshi that Garhwal King would not be ready to return. They planned that Kumaon army should attack on Pradip Shah and Garhwal commanders (who were against Guleriya) would take Garhwal King in the name of taking away the king for safety purpose and They would not supply war weapons and food to Guleriya’s army.

Read about Tamadhaunth battle in next chapter --214

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 11/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -214   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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     History of  Battle between Kumaon Kingdom and Garhwal Kingdom in Tamadhaundh

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 214

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                  Tamadhaundh Battle

             There were many groups in Garhwal Kingdom. Narpati Guleriya was leader of one group and other groups were opposing Narpati. The opposite groups advised Shiv Datt Joshi the guardian of Kumaon King Deep Chand to attack on Garhwal army camping at west of Ram Ganga bank and they would advice Garhwal King Pradip Shah to return Shrinagar for security purpose. . 
             Kumaon army led by Shiv Datt Joshi attacked on Garhwal Army. Small army of Narpati Nagarkotiya defeated Kumaon army. However, the opposite group of Narpati Guleriya in Garhwal King Court advised Garhwal King to run away from battle for security reason. Garhwal king ran awy from battle region towards Shrinagar.
             The opposite groups of Narpati Guleriya did not supply necessary war ammunition. Therefore, Kumaon army killed Narpati Guleriya and his armed forces.   Now, Kumaoni army followed Garhwal King and his army. The advisors of Garhwal King did not care for security of the King but were busy in their life saving. Kumaon army surrounded Garhwal King. Two Hudkiya the son and father lost their lives in saving the Garhwal King. Garhwal King reached Shrinagar in very bad situation.
            Kumaon army looted the Garhwal King Army camp and killed Garhwal soldiers. Atkinson sates that the place of battle took place near Tamadhaundh hill (in Chaukaut Patti, on the road for going to Masi above Udaypur). Jaikrishna Joshi was killed. Hari ram Joshi ran to Kumaon.
         According to copper inscription given to Shiv Datt Joshi from deep Chandra, Kumaon army killed one and half thousands Garhwal king soldiers.
                Now, Pradip Shah was in defense. Garhwal king lost his army commander and also came to know the people who did conspiracy. Atkinson states that Kumaon army killed 400 Garhwali soldiers.
  There was treaty between Pradip Shah and Kumaon King Deep Chandra. There was exchange of turbans from both the end on 6th June, Saturday, 1755.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 12/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -215   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx

Bhishma Kukreti

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                   History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers in 3rd Panipat Battle   

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 215

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                          Importance of Copper Inscription by Deep Chand to Shiv Datt Joshi

                 Kumaon King Deep Chandra offered a copper inscription to his mentor and able administrator Shiv Datt Joshi in 1755. The said inscription is very valuable for knowing the history of Kumaon and Garhwal of eighteenth century.
                     Nazib Khan in Kota Doon

            Nazib Khan belonged to Roha of Afghanistan. Nazib Khan came to today’s Indian Territory with his son for earning. Initially, he worked with Muhammad Bangas and Vazir Gazi Uddin. Later on, he joined Al Muhammad Khan who captured Kumaon for certain time. Ali Muhammad had to leave Kumaon Tarai-Bhabhar zone due to intervene of Delhi Mogul Emperor. Ali Muhammad watched the capability of Nazib Khan and awarded him a Jagir (rule over a portion of land). When Ali Mohammad had to flee from Kumaon; Nazib collected migrated Afghan soldiers. Nazib helped Ahmad Khan Bangas in Chilkiya or Laldhang battle. Nazib captured the partial territory of Bijnour and Saharanpur. Nazib also captured Bhabhar of Kumaon from Kali River to Garhwal Doon Bhabhar till Yamuna River.
                   In 1753, Nazib helped Delhi Mogul Emperor by sending fifteen thousand soldiers to Delhi for suppressing the revolt of Awadh Nabab Safdar Jung. Delhi Mogul Emperor awarded Nazib to collect tax of Doab between Ganga and Yamuna Rivers.
            He captured the administration of western Rohilkhand. Nazib Khan also captured territory of Meerut and Saharanpur. Delhi court awarded him the title as ‘Nazibuddaula’. Nazib Khan was well aware about hills of Kumaon and Garhwal. He was anxious to   establish his capital in foot hills. In 1755, he started building the fort in Pathargarh (near toady’s Nazibabad). Some time back of 1755, Nazib Khan captured Kota Doon of Kumaon but Shiv Datt Joshi compelled Nzaib Khan to run away from Kota –Doon. He established the capital as Nazibabad or where Nazib stays.
   Nazib Khan liked Kota Don more in comparison to Dehradun.  However, it is also a fact that Shiv Datt Joshi had cordial relation with Nazib Khan.

                   Kumaon Kingdom Soldiers in Panipat

        In mid of eighteenth century, the Mogul Empire was in decline. Maratha and Ahmmad Shah Abdali were trying to capture North Indian territories. In 1759, Maratha captured Punjab territory of Ahmmad Shah Abdali. Abdali capture Punjab from Mogul Empire. In 1760, Ahmmad Shah Abdali attacked on India to recapture Punjab from Maratha. Nazib Khan or Nazibudduala was with Ahmmad Shah Abdali. Both wanted to establish an Afghan-Pathan Empire in India and wanted to get rid of Shiya rulers. Ahmmad Shah Abdali and Nazib Khan were now to crash down   Martha a newly powerful force emerged in Indian politics.
                 Due to pursuance of Nazib Khan, all Afghani warriors (Rohila) and Awadh Nabab Shuza-ud-Daula helped Ahmmad Shah Abdali. Maratha tried to inspire Hindu Kings and to become a collective force but were unable to do so.
             In the mean time, Delhi Mogul emperor sent a letter to north Indian kings to send army to fight against Maratha. The Kumaon King (definitely by advice of Shiv Datt Joshi) sent four thousand soldiers under the capable leadership of Hari Ram Joshi and Birbal Negi to Panipat. Kumaon soldiers fought the third Panipat battle with aggression and wisely in January 1761.
    Kumaoni army was in the same camp of Rohila army under the brigade of Hafiz Rahmat Khan. Kumaon soldiers were expert in throwing Hand grinned and rockets. Ahmmad Shah Abdali won the battle against Maratha.
          After the 3rd Panipat battle, Delhi Emperor wanted to meet the brave Kumaon army commanders. However, in jealousy, Rahmat Khan played the game and did not allow the meeting of Delhi Emperor and Kumaon commanders. Hafiz Rahmat Khan offered gifts to Hari ram Joshi from the side of Mogul Emperor and sent back Hari ram to Kumaon. Hafiz Rahmat Khan told a lie that Kumaon commanders and soldiers could not bear the heat of plains and they went to hills of Kumaon.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 13/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -216   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Pithoragarh in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Champawat in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Dwarhat in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Bageshwar in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Almora in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Nainital in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Bhimtal in third Panipat Battle;  History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Udham Singh Nagar in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Kashipur  in third Panipat Battle;  History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Kotadoon in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Jaspur in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Tanakpur  in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Khatima in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Ranikhet in third Panipat Battle; History of Bravery of Kumaon Soldiers from Hladwani  in third Panipat Battle;   

Bhishma Kukreti

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 History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Kumaon King Deep Chandra

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 216

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti


                         Shiv Datt Joshi had experience of working with Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra and his son deep Chand.

                               Friendly Treaty with Nazibuddaula
                Rohila ruler Nazib Khan made disturbance in Kumaon Bhabhar. However, before, 3rd battle of Panipat, Shiv Datt Joshi and Nazib came together for a friendly treaty.  Nazib had go for battle to take side of Ahmad Abdali.  Kumaon Prime minster sent his son Harsh Dev Joshi with five hundred soldiers to Patthar Garh fort (Nazibabad) of Nazib for protection of family members of Nazib and his wealth.
            Harsh Dev Joshi was there in Patthar Garh till Nazib returned from Panipat battle. Therefore, Maratha could not harm fort of Nazib.
       Shiv Datt Joshi promised Nazib Khan that Kumaon kingdom would provide shelter in case of Maratha wins in Panipat battle.

                      Conflicts among Joshi

  Hari ram Joshi returned from Panipat battle. After his return, the conflict between him and Shiv Datt Joshi started as in past.
  Initially Jay Krishna Joshi the son of Shiv Datt Joshi and Jay Ram the son of Hari Ram Joshi fought with weapons. Later on there had been seven fights took place between Shiv Datt Joshi and Hari Ram Joshi. The seventh fight took place at Bans ki Sera at the confluence of Gagas River and Doasandhgad, Jay Ram was killed with his 1500 soldiers.  Hari ram came to meet Shiv Datt Joshi. Rahmat Khan Rohila arbitrated between Shiv Datt Joshi and Hari ram Joshi. Hari ram Joshi had to promise in writing that he would obey Shiv Datt Joshi.   

                           Suppression of Fadtyal Group
                      After suppression of revolt from Hari ram Joshi family, the trouble started from Fadtyal group of Kali Kumaon for Shiv Datt Joshi. A local old village chief Raymall of Chauki village sent a letter to his friend in Kashipur. Raymall promised to his friend that in case he was ready to conspire against Shiv Datt Joshi, the Fadtyal group of Kali Kumaon would help. Shiv Datt got the letter.
   Shiv Datt reached to Almora to suppress Fadtyal group revolt. There, Shiv Datt Joshi came to know that Joshi of Danya are also playing role in another conspiracy. Shiv Datt Joshi caught the rebellion group leaders (Joshi from Danya).  Shiv Datt Joshi wanted to terrorize his enemies. He put the rebellions into rags and threw them alive into Saryu River at Balighat. Many other people became enemy of Shiv Datt Joshi by that inhuman punishment.
           Shiv Datt Joshi repented his acts and pardons other prisoners. He returned their lands. Raymall ran to Doti. The King awarded Shiv Datt Joshi lands and gifts and titles.

                        Murder of Shiv Datt Joshi
       Shiv Datt Joshi got information that Nagarkotiya and contractual soldiers are involved in movement for increasing their salaries. Fadtyal group insinuated these soldiers for asking more salaried.
    Shiv Datt Joshi rushed to Kashipur.  Shiv Datt Joshi called the soldiers and their leaders for meeting. However, before the meeting, other soldiers killed Shiv Datt Joshi, his two sons Jay dev Joshi and Hari Nidhi Joshi. His third son Harsh Dev Joshi escaped from the incident place.
              The soldiers looted the wealth, titles, inscriptions and other records of late Shiv Datt Joshi 

  Since from the time of Doti Kalyan Chandra, there were disturbances in Kumaon Kingdom it was necessary for Shiv Datt Joshi to take hard and harsh decisions. Many administrators were unhappy over those decisions and wanted to take revenge against Shiv Datt Joshi. Shiv Datt Joshi protected Kumaon by his war management skill and diplomatic skills. However, the rebellions killed Shiv Datt Joshi on 11th December 1764 in Kashipur. Hari Ram Joshi also died after some time. From that day, Tarai-Bhabhar was separated from Kumaon.
              The death of Shiv Datt Joshi also was the beginning of ending of Chand dynasty from Kumaon forever.
 After the death of Shiv Datt Joshi, Kumaon witnessed fierce inner fights among administrators and selfish people.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 13/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -217   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Pithoragarh Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Bageshwar Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Champawat Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Almora Kumaon King Deep Chandra;  History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Dwarhat Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Nainital Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Kashipur Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Jaspur Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Tanakpur Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Administration of Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor, Prime Minister of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon King Deep Chandra;               

Bhishma Kukreti

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Rise and Fall of Queen Shringarmanjari as Administrator in Kumaon King deep Chand Period

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 217

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

               The period of Deep Chand and later on till British came into scene, Kumaon and Garhwal witnessed many internal and external disturbances.

                Death of Elder Queen of Deep Chandra

    Deep Chand loved Dilipmanjari the elder queen very much. She did not have any child. Dilipmanjari expired before 1760AD. Deep Chand built an idol of Dilipmanjari with his own idol and established the sculptures in Jageshwar temple. The queen-king sculpture is four feet high and is witness of culture of Kumaon of that time.
  Deep Chand was always sad after death of his beloved queen.

                 Jayakrishna as Administrator
 Shiv Datt Joshi was prime minister of Kumaon Kingdom but he used to live in Kashipur for strategic purpose. His had four sons, out of four sons, three sons Jay Dev, Harinidhi and Harsh Dev had other responsibilities in Kumaon Kingdom. Jaykrishna Joshi the son of Deep Chand was given charge of Almora administration. After the death Shiv Datt Joshi, the King appointed Jayakrishna Joshi as prime minister and Mukhtar of Mall.
       Shringarmanjari was younger queen of Deep Chand and is said that she had extra marital relations with other men. She delivered a son in 1760. Therefore, Shringarmanjari became important for the kingdom. Shringarmanjari was highly ambitious. Shringarmanjari started interfering in the administration. Jayakrishna Joshi opposed her interference. Shringarmanjari asked help from Rohila commander Hafiz Rahmat Khan. Rahmat Khan had a subordinate Jodh Singh Katehar. Jodh Singh Katehar was engaged to daughter of King Deep Chandra. Jodh Singh Katehar was supporter of queen Shringarmanjari. Jodh Singh Katehar influenced Rahmat Khan to write a letter to minister Jayakrishna Joshi that he should obey the queen Shringarmanjari. Jayakrishna felt it insult and challenge from Rahmat Khan and queen. In utter frustration, capable minister Jayakrishna Joshi resigned from the ministerial post and left Almora.
                Administration of Queen Shringarmanjari

          Queen Shringarmanjari had extra marital relationship with Parma Nand Bisht. Jayakrishna left Almora without any problems for the queen.
 The queen appointed her own men for following posts –
Mohan Singh – as Bakshi or prime minister
Kishan Singh –Deewan or chief minister
Parma Nand Bisht- Mukhtar or residential representative of prime minister
Jodh Singh Katehar- Officer in charge of Bhabhar- Tarai
 Jodh Singh Katehar was son in law of queen Shringarmanjari.
The King deep Chand was helpless before his queen.
 Now, after Jayakrishna leaving Almora, the queen Shringarmanjari was super head of Kumaon Kingdom.
   Queen administrated this way for a year.
  Parma Nand Bisht the male friend of queen Shringarmanjari was against Jodh Singh Katehar. Due to high level conspiracy from Parma Nand Bisht, Mohan Singh ran away from Almora  and took shelter under Rohila in Rohilkhand. Parma Nand Bisht became Bakhsi but was unable to administrate well. Bisht called Jayakrishna Joshi and Harshdev Joshi and offered them Diwan and Bakshi.
               Eight months after Joshi brothers becoming ministers, Mohan Singh reached a Rohila Ruler of Bisauli Nabab Dundikhan. Nabab Dundi Khan had dream to capture Bhabhar and Tarai of Kumaon. Dundi Khan was also jealous for another Rohila commander and ruler Rahmat Khan Influence on Kumaon. Mohan Singh reached to Almora without any resistance with his own army and army of Nabab Dundikhan.
 Mohan Singh captured the queen Shringarmanjari and King deep Chand and put them in house arrest.
Mohan Singh became Bakshi of Kumaon. Mohan Singh killed his enemy Parma Nand Bisht. Nobody could do against Mohan Singh.
 Mohan Singh came to know that queen Shringarmanjari was making strategy to oust him from the Kingdom. Mohan Singh entered into queen house and threw the queen Shringarmanjari out of palace through window. She died instantly. The king Deep Chand and other administrators were helpless.
 Chief Minister Kishan Singh ran away from Almora.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 15/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -218   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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       History of Initial Stage of Fall of Chand Dynasty in Kumaon Kingdom

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 218

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                       Resurgence of Joshi in Almora

                Mohan Singh became whole and sole of Kumaon Kingdom after killing queen Shringarmajari with the help of a Rohila commander Dundikhan.  Hafiz Rahmat Khan was not pleased to see downfall of his fried King deep Chandra. Rahmat Khan called the sons of Shiv Datt Joshi and asked them to try to regain power.
                  The chief minister Kishan Singh was in exile. He helped Joshi brothers.  Joshi brothers appointed professional soldiers (whose earning was dependent on providing army service to anybody).  Joshi brothers attacked on Kumaon with their newly collected army. Joshi brothers defeated Mohan Singh and Mohan Singh ran away. Shiromani Das of Bajpur helped Joshi brothers.
     Deep Chand was pleased by the new situation. Deep Chand wanted to appoint Jayakrishna as Deewan and Harshdev Joshi as Bakshi of Kumaon Kingdom and Kishan Singh as Mukhtyar. However, Jayakrishna was not ready to work under Kishan Singh.  Kishan Singh was ‘Chukundaru’ brother of deep Chand.
Therefore, deep Chandra appointed the following administrators as-
Harsh Dev Joshi- Deewan and Bakshi
Kishan Singh –Mukhtyar
Chupwa Bisht –Nayab
Lakshmipati Joshi –Nayab
Hakim of Kashipur- Shiromani Das
Manorath Joshi (son of Hari ram Joshi) –Rudrapur in carge
 The King awarded Shiromani das with eight villages and land of Mohan Singh.
 The new administrators corrected the administration. Shiromani Das died and his son Nand Ram was appointed as Hakim of Kashipur. Nandram and his brother Hargovind were ambcious. On that period, most of administrators became over ambitious to collect wealth and rewards.
   Nandram and Hargovind called professional soldiers from Nagarkot, Kangda Himachalpradesh.on that time professional solders used to roam here and there as labor roams today in search of job.
     Many influential people were unhappy over the behavior of Kishan Singh. Mohan Singh was in Awadh under the shelter of Awadh Nabab. He sent message to Joshi brothers through Awadh Nabab for permission to come to Almora. Harshdev Joshi denied permission for Mohan Singh entering in Kumaon diplomatically. However, Jaykrishna permitted Mohan Singh to come Almora.

               Mohan Singh in Almora
 
 Mohan Singh met Nandram in Kashipur while coming from Awadh to Almora. Mohan Singh promised to Nand Ram that after becoming the Kumaon King Mohan Singh Would provide Nand Ram the rule of Bhabhar –Tarai as sovereign country.
  Mohan Singh took administration as soon as he reached to Almora. Joshi brother were under him and Mohan Singh showed that he was well wisher of Joshi brothers.
    One day, before Mohan Singh, it was discussed that since Nand Ram was trying to become free ruler of Tarai-Bhabhar the Kingdom should bring the rule under Kumaon Kingdom from Nandram. Mohan Singh showed pleasure on that planning. However, Mohan Singh sent secret message to Nand Ram about attack from Kumaon Kingdom on him.
  Jaykrishna Joshi marched towards Tarai-Bhabhar with force to capture Tarai-Bhabhar. When Jaykrishna reached to Halduva in Bhabhar the army of Nandram was there to fight. Nandram’s army defeated the army of Jayakrishna. The army of Nandram killed Kishan Singh too.
Jaykrishna fled to Bareli
  Harshdev Joshi fled to Pali. Now, the King Deep Chand was totally helpless.

              Murder of Deep Chand 
   Mohan Singh caught Deep Chand and his sons Uday Chandra and Sujan Singh Gusain. Mohan Singh sent them in Seerakot prison. In 1777, Mohan Singh killed them in prison through indirect method or directly.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 16/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -219   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Pithoragarh Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Champawat Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Bageshwar Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Almora Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Nainital Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Ranikhet Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Kumaon, central Himalaya; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Kumaon, north India; History of Rise and fall of Chand Kingdom in Kumaon, South Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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  History of First Phase of Mohan Chandra as Kumaon King

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 218

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 Ruling Period of Mohan Chandra in first phase-1777-1779
Inscriptions- 1777
Land for Jageshwar temple
Another land for Jageshwar temple
Land for Seetladevi temple
To Radhapati Bhandari
To Hussainbaksh family
Land for Patalbhuvneshwari , Gangoli
 1778
Land to Nagnath temple Champawat
Land for Kapileshwar temple Dug
Land for Kalika temple, Gangoli
Land for Bhatneshwar temple

Contemporary Kings
Garhwal King –Lalit Shah -1772-1780
Rampur- Nabab Faijulallakhan
Awadh –Nabab Asafuddaula

             Crowing of Mohan Chandra
              Mohan Singh or Mohan Chandra put Deep Chandra and his sons in Seerakot prison  and killed them.
       Mohan Singh defeated Jayakrishna Joshi and Harsh Dev Joshi had to flee to Pali. Mohan Singh or Chandra was aware that main hurdle in his being King were Joshi brothers. Mohan Singh invited Jayakrishna in Gagar hills of Kota Pargana. Jayakrishna was initially reluctant to meet Mohan Singh. Mohan Singh persuaded and Jayakrishna came to meet Mohan Singh in his camp. Mohan Singh made Jayakrishna busy in discussion that Jayakrishna Joshi did not care to watch the activity around him. In the mean time, the hired killer from Mohan Singh beheaded Jayakrishna Joshi.
  After reaching to Almora, Mohan Singh caught Harsh Dev Joshi and put him jail. Mohan Singh decided to kill Harsh Dev Joshi. Lal Singh the brother of Mohan Singh advised Mohan to give life imprisonment to Harsh Dev Joshi. Mohan Singh agreed and Harsh Dev Joshi was put in prison.
 Mohan Singh got crowned  as Mohan Chandra. Mohan Singh appointed his brother Lal Singh as Bakshi of Kumaon Kingdom and Madhu Sudan pande of Patiya as Deewan.

          Tarai in Mohan Singh Time
           Mohan Chandra sent a letter to nandram the ruler of Tarai, Now, Hills of Kumaon is under me. I accept your rule over Kashipur and Tarai. The Gularghati would be our dividing line.” However, Nand Ram wanted a stable and reliable ruler to get shelter. Nand Ram visited to Nabab of Awadh. Nand Ram told to Awadh nabab that Tarai was under Awadh. Nand Ram requested Awadh Nabab to permit him as regional commander of Tarai Kumaon. Awadh Nabab accepted the deal. Awadh nabab asked his border commanders to help Nand Ram in need.
  Now, protected from Awadh Nabab, Nand Ram wanted to extend his territory. Now, Nand Ram sent letter to Mohan Chandra that as aKumaon King he should compel Rudrapur ruler Manorath Joshi to accept the Kumaon rule over Rudrapur. Mohan Chandra sent message to Manorath Joshi to accept the rule of Kumaon kingdom. Manorath Joshi did not accept the order or advice of Mohan Chandra. Manorath Joshi became prepared to fight with Mohan Chandra and Nand Ram. Nand Ram sent a secret message to Manorath Joshi that he (Nand Ram) was enemy of Mohan Chandra, they both should arrange to get rid of Mohan Chandra and Joshis could get Kingdom of Kumaon. Manorath got in trap of Nand Ram. Believeing on Nand Ram, Manorath Joshi came to meet to Nand Ram to Bajpur with scanty soldiers. The soldiers of Nand Ram killed Manorath Joshi. Nand Ram captured Rudrapur in the name of Awadh Nabab. Now, from whole of Tarai and Bhabhar, only Kilpuri was left under Kumaon Kingdom.
  Under Nand Ram administration, the new canals were dig and dams were built. The farmland increased in Tarai Bhabhar under Nand Ram and his cousin Shiv Lal.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 16/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -219   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Cruel Acts of Kumaon King Mohan Chandra and Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Active 

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 220

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

         Donations by Mohan Chandra

 Mohan Chandra donated land for following temples
Land for Jageshwar temple
Another land for Jageshwar temple
Land for Seetladevi temple
To Radhapati Bhandari
To Hussainbaksh family
Land for Patalbhuvneshwari , Gangoli
 1778
Land to Nagnath temple Champawat
Land for Kapileshwar temple Dug
Land for Kalika temple, Gangoli
Land for Bhatneshwar temple

      Killing of Opponents by Mohan Chandra
              According to Pande, a few elites from Kumaon brought Kunvar Jodh Singh Katehar (son in law of late King Deep Chand) of Amarpur with his son Shubhkarn Singh. However, advised by Mohan Chandra, Nand Ram did not help Kunvar Jodh Singh Katehar and Jodh Singh returned back to Amarpur.
            B.D. Pande also writes that another group from Kumaon inspired Shekh and they attacked on Kumaon through Vanani Devi. Army of Mohan Chandra defeated those Shekh soldiers in a hill Gadhi above Vakh.
    Mohan Chandra killed or put the supporters and relatives of Shiv Datt Joshi. Lakshmipati Joshi the assistant of Harsh Dev Joshi was coming to pay tribute to court of new King Mohan Chand.  Laksmi Pati Joshi was hanged on a cedar tree near Almora. Many Joshi families fled from Kumaon to other parts of plains. Harsh Dev Joshi fled to Bareli from Kumaon prison. Jaya Nand Joshi with other Joshis also ran to Bareli.

          Joshis getting Active in Bareli

          Joshi families were gathered in Bareli. They did not have any work for earning. They came to know that army of Garhwal King Lalit Shah was defeated by Sirmaur (Himachal) army in Sirmaur.
   Joshi made a strategy to involve Garhwal King into internal politics of Kumaon.
           Harsh Dev Joshi wrote letter to Garhwal King Lalit Shah,” We are capable to win Champawat (Kumaon Kingdom) and Sirmaur Kingdom for you. Since, you did not involve the ministers and citizens of Sirmaur for your attack, you could not win Sirmaur.
  We all Joshi are now in Bareli. After winning Kumaon, we shall win Nahan (Sirmaur) for you. Your three sons would be King of Garhwal, Kumaon and Nahan (Sirmaur) respectively.
          Lalit Shah forgot the history of past about Joshi inviting his grandfather Pradip Shah to attack on Kumaon and a bitter insult for Pradip Shah.

   Lalit Shah wrote back to Harsh Dev Joshi to visit Shrinagar immediately.



** Read more on Garhwal King attacking on Kumaon Kingdom in next chapter of History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 221

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 18/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -221   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History of Cruel Acts of Pithoragarh -Kumaon King Mohan Chandra and Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Active; History of Cruel Acts of Seera -Kumaon King Mohan Chandra and Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Active; History of Cruel Acts of Almora-Kumaon King Mohan Chandra and Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Active; History of Cruel Acts of Bageshwar -Kumaon King Mohan Chandra and Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Active; History of Cruel Acts of Gangoli-Kumaon King Mohan Chandra and Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Active; History of Cruel Acts of Jageshwar-Kumaon King Mohan Chandra and Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Active; History of Cruel Acts of Vananidevi -Kumaon King Mohan Chandra and Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Active; History of Cruel Acts of Nainital-Kumaon King Mohan Chandra and Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Active; History of Cruel Acts of Dwarhat -Kumaon King Mohan Chandra and Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Active;

Bhishma Kukreti

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    Garhwal Army attacking on Kumaon Kingdom in Mohan Chandra period 

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 221

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

  Harsh Dev Joshi inviting Garhwal Kingdom for attacking Kumaon

 The ex- administrators Joshis of Kumaon were gathered in Bareli after Mohan Chandra became King.
 Harsh Dev Joshi wrote letter to Garhwal King Lalit Shah to attack on Kumaon.
Garhwal king accepted the advice of Harsh Dev Joshi and called him to visit Shrinagar.
    Harsh Dev Joshi wrote to Garhwal King that they are in debt. Garhwal king sent rupees twenty or twenty five thousand to Joshi. Joshis distributed that money among them.
    Garhwal King Lalit Shah had two queens. Jaykrit Shah was eldest son from elder queen. Doti princess was second queen of Lalit Shah. She had Pradyuman (13rteen year old) and Parakram (7 year old). Doti queen wished that her sons would become heir of Kingdom.
   Harsh Dev Joshi sent Jayanand Joshi and other Joshi to Shrinagar. Garhwal King welcomed Jaya Nand and other Joshi. Jaya Nand reached to court. Jaya Nand Joshi blessed the Garhwali King with wrong Sanskrit pronunciations. 
  Jaya Nand Joshi told to King that the king was lucky as the Kumaon ministers had come to Shrinagar.
Lalit Shah handed over thirteen year old prince and said that now, Pradyuman was Kumaon King. Jaya Nand accepted Pradyumnu as Kumaon King.

   It was decided that first Garhwal king would defeat Mohan Chandra and then Prince Pradyuman would be taken to Kumaon.
  Pradyuman was declared as adopted son of late King Deep Chandra. Pradyuman was coroneted as Kumaon King n Shrinagar.
    Joshis sent message to their supporters in Kumaon. Garhwal King sent money to supporters of Joshi. Those supporters of Joshi corrupted other Kumaon king administrators. Secretly, they became opponents of Mohan Chandra.
                       Battle
         Under the leadership of Prempati Khanduri and Dhannugadi, in 1779, Garhwali army along with Joshi reached in Kumaon though Lohaba path.  Ir was shock for Kumaon. Mohan Chandra sent his army to resist Garhwal army.
          There was battle between Kumaon army and Garhwal army in Bagbali Pokhar.
           Mohan Chandra sent another army under his brother Lal Singh. Harsh dev Joshi also reached to Almora.  Surprisingly, Harsh Dev Joshi was with Lal Singh.
   When Mohan Chandra heard that Garhwali army defeated Kumaon army and now, Kumaon army was supporting Garhwal King he fled to Lucknow (Awadh). From Awadh, Mohan Singh took shelter under Rampur ruler Faijullakhan. Lal Singh also fled to Rampur.
                      Rule of Joshis
          The subject and administrators became supporters of Joshis. With th help of Garhwal armed force, Joshi captured strategic position. Joshi took main administrative positions of Kumaon Kingdom.
  There was winning ceremony both in Shrinagar and Almora.
 Joshi ruled Almora in the name of King Pradyuman Shah. The Garhwal Kingdom commander Prempati Khanduri was with Joshis.
 Joshis and Khanduri sent letter to Garhwal King to send Pradyuman Shah to Almora for ruling over Kumaon Kingdom.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 18/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -222   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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                   History of Pradyuman Shah as Kumaon King

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 222

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

         Pradyuman Shah-  Ruling Period – 1779-1786
Contemporary King
Garhwal -Jaykrit Shah -1780-1786
       Before, the Garhwal army attack on Kumaon, Pradyuman Shah was coroneted the King of Kumaon in Shrinagar Garhwal as adopted son of late Kumaon King deep Chandra.
  Joshi family and their supporters rules Kumaon on behalf of Pradyuman for one year. Pradyuman Shah was only thirteen years old and he was very soft by body and by nature too.
       Kumaon Bajir or whole and sole of Kumaon Harsh Devi sent many messages to Garhwal King Lalit Shah to depute Pradyuman Chandra to Almora.
             Garhwal King Lalit Shah had experience of Kumaon Kingdom where kings were killed by their own administrators or relatives in past. Lalit Shah wanted to correct the situation himself in Almora before deputing Pradyuman. Lalit Shah wrote to Joshis that first he wanted to experience the real situation. Joshis wrote back that Lalit Shah should not worry and should depute only Pradyuman Shah.
  However, Lalit Shah was not satisfied the reply from Joshis. Garhwal King reached to Khetsari in Kumaon with huge army. Joshis became afraid and Harsh Dev Joshi fled away from Almora. Jaya Nand Joshi met the Garhwal King. Jaya Nand Joshi informed that people of Kumaon fled away from the area due to fear of Garhwal King. Jaya Nand suggested Garhwal King Lalit Shah that he should go back to Duladi (towards Garhwal and back away from Khetsari). Lalit Shah agreed the advice of jaya Nand Joshi and camped at Duladi.
                  Lalit Shah was there in Duladi for seven months but Harsh Dev Joshi did not come to meet Lalit Shah. Lalit Shah wanted to meet Harsh dev Joshi for future assurance for protection of his son Pradyuman. Lalit Shah sent many letters to Harsh Dev Joshi. Harsh Dev Joshi did neither send the reply not he paid visit to Garhwal king.
   Jaya Nand Joshi and Lalit Shah used to show cordial relation for each other but both were playing games with each other. No side trusted the other side. Lalit Shah wanted that Pradyuman should administrate Kumaon Kingdom but Jaya Nand Joshi had plan that Pradyuman would be king but real administrations should be in the hand of Joshis. Harsh dev Joshi sent message for Garhwal king to return and send Pradyuman Shah. Lalit Shah wanted to meet Harsh dev Shah.
       One day, Harsh Dev Joshi came to meet Lalit Shah with army. He entered to camp of King and suddenly went away from his camp without discussion.
             The Garhwal King paid huge money to Joshi to buy army and support. Now, Harsh Dev Joshi and other Joshi were showing their intention. Now, Joshi were ignoring Garhwal King.
  Lalit Shah got malaria in Duladi. In August 1780, Lalit Shah died. Garhwali soldiers brought the dead body of Lalit Shah to Shrinagar Garhwal.
           Lalit Shah could not send his son Pradyuman Shah to Almora. However, his greed for taking Kumaon Kingdom generated group enmities and divisions among Garhwal Kingdom administrators.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 20/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -223   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)



 

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