Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 68301 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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                 Calling Pradyuman Shah to Almora by Harsh Dev Joshi and company

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 223

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                Pradyuman was Panwar but then, he was being called Pradyuman Chandra and as Kumaon King.
         Joshi and company were ruling Kumaon in the name of King Pradyuman Chandra living in Shrinagar palace. However, it was not possible for Joshi to rule like that for ever. They needed Pradyuman Chandra as cover for their rule.  Lalit Shah died in Kumaon. Now, his eldest son Jayakirti Shah was Garhwali King. It was necessary for Joshi to take permission from Jayakirti to bring Pradyuman Chandra in Almora.
               Prempati Khanduri one of the high positioned administrators of Garhwal Kingdom was still in Almora. Doti queen was mother of Pradyuman and Parakram. Prempati Khanduri was in the side of Doti Queen of Garhwal kingdom (second wife of late Lalit Shah). Lalit Shah appointed Prempati Khanduri as guardian of Pradyuman Chandra. A family member of Prempati Khanduri, Nitya Nand Khanduri was Mukhtyar (minister) and director of Kingdom administration from the time of Lalit Shah. He used took after income and expenses of the kingdom. Nitya Nand Khanduri was Faujdar or Jagirdar of Salan (south Pauri Garhwal) and his income was around rupees one and quarter lakh. Nitya Nand was quite old.
                The Garhwal army chief of the army sent for Kumaon attack was Minyan Dhanu Gaddi. Prempati Khanduri and Dhanu Gaddi were close friends.  Prempati Khanduri was very close to Harsh Dev Joshi and Jaya Nand Joshi. Jaydev Dangwal in Shrinagar was also supporter of Joshi Company. Later on Jaydev Dangwal became minister of Kumaon Kingdom.


       Conspiracy of Nitya Nand Khanduri against Garhwal King
  Nitya Nand Khanduri had political affiliation with Doti queen. Nitya Nand Khanduri wanted to make Pradyuman Shah as Garhwal king. When Jayakirti Shah became Garhwal King he appointed Kripa Ram Dobhal as Mukhtyar or prime minister in place of Nitya Nand Khanduri.                    Now, Nitya Nand was Faujdar and director of revenue only. Nitya Nand Khanduri became annoyed by that change.
           Due to changes in administration in Garhwal kingdom due to death of King Lalit Shah, Pradyuman Chandra was not sent to Kumaon.
             Joshi of Kumaon wanted that Pradyuman Shah reach to Almora and Nitya Nand Khanduri wanted that Kripa ram Dobhal is vanished. 
          Nitya Nand Khanduri sent a message to Joshis that Kripa Ram Dobhal had a plan to come to Kumaon to take over Kingdom and Dobhal would harm Joshis. Khanduri sent message to Joshis that they should come to Shrinagar and after killing Jayakirti Shah and Kripa Ram Dobhal they can take Pradyuman Chandra. Khanduri told in message that youngest prince Parakram would be king of Garhwal. Nitya Nand advised to Joshi that by this way he would be ruling Garhwal and Joshis would be ruling Kumaon.
  Getting message from Nitya Nand Khanduri, Jaya Nand Joshi made a plan to attack on Garhwal.

        Letter of Jaya Nand Joshi to Kripa Ram Dobhal

 Jaya Nand Joshi sent a letter to Kripa Ram Dobhal that “Garhwal king sent the army to Kumaon to defeat Mohan Chand. As per advice from Lalit Shah we also appointed free lancer soldiers in Kumaon. By that Mohan Chand was defeated.
              Now, Garhwal Kingdom did not send Pradyuman Chandra to Almora not Garhwal Kingdom sent money for salaries to soldiers. All the soldiers including free lancer soldiers are desperate, wanted we go to Shrinagar and they themselves are insisting to come to Shrinagar. Therefore, you send Pradyuman Chandra to Almora and pay salaries to soldiers. If these soldiers come to Shrinagar they would destroy everything there.”
                 Now, Kripa Ram Dobhal was a worried man. On that period, there was a fashion of free lancer soldiers. These free lancer soldiers would fight for anybody who paid them high salary or looting opportunity. A couple of years back, Lalit Shah sent such army to conquer Sirmaur-Nahan. That army did not defeat Sirmaur Kingdom and returned to Shrinagar. The free lancer soldiers created violence and disturbance in Shrinagar. Lalit Shah had to sell his personal jewelry and gold to pay back salaries to these free lancer soldiers.
          The news came that  Jaya Nand Joshi was coming Shrinagar with army.   
            In the mean time, Kripa Ram Dobhal came to know about the conspiracy of Nitya Nand Khanduri. Before, Jaya Nand Joshi could reach to Shrinagar with army Kripa Ram Dobhal took action. In a night, Kripa Ram Dobhal arrested Nitya Nand Khanduri and his all family members and put them in Bangadh jail. Nitya Nand was blinded by putting indigo in his eyes. The wealth and  Jagir of Nitya Nand Khanduri was snatched. 
 



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 21/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -224   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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  History of Jaya Nand Joshi in Shrinagar and Pradyuman Chandra entering into Kumaon

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 224

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

               Jaya Nand Joshi reached with army near to Shrinagar. There, Jaya Nand Joshi got the information of his supporter Nitya Nand Khanduri was in prison by the order of Kripa Ram Dobhal. Kripa Ram Dobhal was supporter of Garhwal King Jaya Kirti Shah and not Doti queen (mother of Pradyuman and Parakram Shah). Now, Joshi was in danger as he sent his threatening letter to Shrinagar and had conspiracy with Nitya Nand Khanduri against Jaya Kirti Shah. However, Jaya Nand Joshi was wiser than fox. He made strategy to make profit from unfortunate days. Jaya Nand Joshi entered Shrinagar.
         Jaya Nand Joshi visited court of Jay Kirti Shah. Jaya Nand Joshi requested to Garhwal King that Garhwal king should send Pradyuman Chandra immediately to Almora as people are not paying tax without King.
  Jaya Nand Joshi also demanded payment for soldiers in Kumaon kingdom.
        Garhwal King Jaya Kirti Shah accepted sending Pradyuman Chandra to Kumaon but refused to pay payment for soldiers in Kumaon. Jaya Kirti Shah told that Kumaon king and administrators should collect tax and should arrange for payment to soldiers in Kumaon.
 In past, with the help of Nitya Nand Khanduri, Jaya Nand Joshi collected money from late Garhwal King Lalit Shah. But this time Joshi could not make fool of Jay Kirti Shah. It seems that Jaya Kirti Shah was ready to pay payment of Garhwal soldiers sent by Lalit Shah but did not agree to pay Kumaon soldiers.
 
                     Pradyuman Chandra in Kumaon

                 Garhwal King provided a horse as gift to Jaya Nand Joshi. Jaya Kirti Shah did graceful, diplomatic farewell party and paid gifts to Pradyuman Chandra. Pradyuman Chandra was accompanying   soldiers, a few court administrators and servants. People from all regions of Kumaon came to Almora. Pradyuman Chandra was officially declared Kumaon King there in 1780.
          Fourteen year old Pradyuman Chandra was Kumaon king for the sake of King. Pradyuman Chandra had palace for sleeping and food for living. In reality, Jaya Nand Joshi was the King. Jaya Nand Joshi was administrating the rule. There was no need to take order from Pradyuman Chandra by any administrators.
      Pradyuman Chandra could gauge the reality and he called his younger brother Parakram in Almora. Parakram was strong built man and ambitious too. Parakram came to Kumaon.
   Prempati Khanduri was guardian of teen age Pradyuman Chandra in Almora.  People of Kumaon were frustrated by watching the conspiracy of Joshi and company. People well understood that Joshi Company was not real well wishers of Kumaon and they would never provide justice to anyone. Harsh dev Joshi, Jaya Nand Joshi and Gada Dhar Joshi were in commanding top positions. Jaya Nand Joshi and Gada Dhar Joshi were from Auliya village.
  Joshi brothers gifted lands to their relatives and supporters on behalf of their puppet Pradyuman Chandra. The following were receivers of government favors as per inscriptions of 1781, 1782, 1784 respectively - Krishna Nand Joshi, Beniram Upreti, Revadhar Joshi and Balkrishna Joshi.
 
                 Marriage of Pradyuman Chandra
  When Pradyuman reached to Kumaon he was fourteen and a couple of months old teen aged boy. After some time, Harsh Dev Joshi arranged his marriage with a daughter of Manral caste from Kumaon. Manral were related to Katyuri Kings. Historians called her as ‘Kumaoni Rani’ or ‘Kumaoni wali’ queen. 
      That Kumaoni queen delivered son in 1784. He was named s Sudarshan Shah. Sudarshan Shah became Tehri Riyasat King n 1815. 


             
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 22/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -225   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Mohan Chandra becoming Active for Taking Kumaon back in Pradyuman Chandra Period

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 225

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                     There was in-flight in Garhwal Kingdom for crown among supporters of present King Jaya Kirti Shah and his step brothers Pradyuman Shah and Parakram Shah. There was mismanaged administration in Kumaon Kingdom under the so called rule of King Pradyuman Chandra.
            When Lalit Shah Army defeated Mohan Chandra, Mohan Chandra and his brother Lal Singh fled from Kumaon. They gathered in Rampur. Mohan Chandra requested help from ruler of Rampur Nabab Faizullakhan.  Getting information, Harsh Dev Joshi sent message to Nabab Faizullakhan not to help Mohan Chandra. In past Harsh Dev Joshi was defender of Nabab Faizullakhan family in Nazibabad when Nabab Faizullakhan was gone to Panipat for war. Nabab Faizullakhan assured Harsh Dev Joshi that he would not send his army to attack on Kumaon and would not help Mohan Chandra. Nabab Faizullakhan requested Harsh Dev Joshi to arrange money for living for Mohan Chandra. Harsh Dev Joshi accepted to pay pension for Mohan Chandra. Mohan Chandra refused to take pension.
            Frustrated by refusal of Nabab Faizullakhan for helping him, Mohan Chandra visited religious place Allahabad (Prayag). There he got chance to meet Naga Mahant. On that period, Naga Mahant used to keep Naga army. Naga used to be naked and they used to rub ash on their body. Naga used to have, swords and shield, bow and arrows. Mohan Chandra requested a couple of Naga Mahants to help him on attacking on Kumaon. Mohan Chandra assured that Naga would get wealth by looting prosperous Almora. Four Naga Akhada Mahant agreed to help Mohan Chandra.
          Mohan Chandra was supplied fourteen hundred fully armed Naga sages.
           1400 Naga entered Kumaon as pilgrims for Badrinath.  Those Naga reached at confluence of Kosi-Suval seven miles far from Almora. Harsh Dev came to know the reality. He put his army at Charlekh village. Harsh Dev Joshi sent gifts for Naga sages. But they refused to take gifts. They fought with Kumaon army on behalf of Mohan Chandra. Kumaon army killed around 700 Naga Sadhu. Balance Naga and Mohan Chandra ran away from Kumaon.
 The villagers got arms and ammunition, jewels, gold coins from those dead Naga.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 23/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -226   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Aspects of Group infightings, Conspiracy in Shrinagar influenced by Kumaon Kingdom ruled By Pradyuman Chandra

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 226

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
               Joshi brothers and their relatives made strategy for attaining administrative charge of Kumaon Kingdom in Kumaon. Joshi trapped Garhwal King Lalit Shah. Lalit Shah became ready to attack on Mohan Chandra that his son Pradyuman Shah becomes Kumaon Kingdom King. However, the conspiracy and group, lobbying for self interest, divisions also started in Garhwal Kingdom.
  Ghamand Singh the administrator of Dehradun killed Garhwal Kingdom Prime Minister Kripa Ram Dobhal in the court before the King Jaya Kirti Shah. The king fled from Shrinagar court and his in palace.
         Minyan Ghamand Singh captured all Garhwal kingdom ministers by his army brought from Dehradun. People of Shrinagar became afraid of the events.
            Garhwal King appointed Minyan Ghamand Singh prime minister in place of Kripa Ram Dobhal.
      Minya Ghamand Singh started more oppressions than Kripa Ram Dobhal. The army commander of Garhwal army in Kumaon Minyan Dhannu Gaddi made strategy to get rid of Minyan Ghamand Singh.  It is obvious that Pradyuman Chandra, Parakram Shah, Prempati Khanduri and Joshi brothers were involved in the strategy of Minyan Dhannu Gaddi.
  Uncle Vijaya Ram Negi and his nephew Ajabram Negi of Kanyur village of Chopdakot Patti of Chandpur region were commanders in Shrinagar Garhwal army. They were afraid that Minya Ghamand Singh would terminate their services from Shrinagar court.
             Ajabram went on leave to attend his sister marriage.  In Kanyur, Vijayaram Negi, Ajabram Negi, the deputy commanders from Shrinagar Baliya and Kewal Gaddi met Dhannu Gaddi and his deputy Lachaman who came Kanyur to attend marriage of Ajabram sister. They all decided that after marriage, there would be attack on Shrinagar.
   Dhannu Gaddi wrote letter to Ghamand Singh that Garhwal kingdom should send rupees five lakhs as salary for Garhwal army staying in Kumaon. Dhannu Gaddi threatened that non receiving of salary he would attack on Shrinagar. Before, Ghamand Singh would take steps, Dhannu Gaddi attacked on Shrinagar. Army of Dhannu Gaddi defeated army of Ghamand Singh. Ghamand Singh and his army ran away in night from Shrinagar.
  Compelling Ghamand Singh to run away from Shrinagar, Ajab Ram Negi became more powerful. Ajab ram demanded Jagir (revenue) of Salan (South Pauri Garhwal) from the King. Jaya Kirti Shah refused to offer Jagir of Salan to Ajab Ram. Ajab Ram provoke to commanders came from Kumaon to ask salaries from Garhwal King. Due to group infightings in Shrinagar among administration, Garhwal Kingdom had very weak financial situation.
        Ajab Ram sent Kisnu Butola to Parakram in Kumaon. Parakram accepted the condition of Ajab Ram as Jagirdar of Salan that Ajab Ram would kill King Jaya Kirti Shah. Ajab Ram surrounded Garhwal king palace with army in the name of order from Parakram. Ajab Ram kept conditions that the king would pay the salaries of Garhwal soldiers staying in Kumaon within three days. Ajab Ram was sure that by third day, army of Parakram would reach from Kumaon. The court poet Maularam Tomar got rupees ten thousand from the king to settle the situation in favor of Garhwal King. Maularam paid those rupees ten thousand to Kewal Gaddi and Baliya. Both came on the side of Garhwal King. Now, the conspiracy of Ajab Ram was diffused. Due to failure of their strategy, Ajab Ram, Vijaya ram and Dhannu Gaddi ran to Almora to Parakram Shah.


 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 24/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -227   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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  Attack on Shrinagar Garhwal by Garhwal Army from Almora Kumaon

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 227

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
   
 To get rid of Ghamand Singh from Shrinagar Dhannu Gaddi who was looking after the interest of Pradyuamn Shah in Almora attacked on Shrinagar. Ghamand Singh ran away from Shrinagar. Now, Ajabram and his uncle Vijay Ram wanted to dislodge Jaya Kirti Shah and wanted to crown Parakram Shah. Ajab Ram wanted Salan Jagir.
       Ajbaram called army from Kumaon to attack on Shrinagar Garhwal.  Jaya Kirti Shah’s court poet Maularam sent message the Sirmaur King Jagat Prakash for helping Garhwal King. Before Jagat Prakash reached Shrinagar with his army, Pradyuman Chandra and his brother Parakram Shah surrounded capital Shrinagar with their army from Kumaon. When Jagat Prakash reached near Shrinagar, Vijaya Ram and Garhwali and Kumaon army of Almora resisted Jagat Prakash in Kaproli. There was war in Kaproli. Army of Jagat Prakash killed Vijay Ram. Ghamand Singh who was now with Vijay ram was also killed. Jagat Prakash defeated Pradyuman Chandra and Parakram Shah. Pradyuman and Parakram ran to Kumaon.
      Jagat Prakash advised to Jaya Kirti Shah to attack on Kumaon and tilt the kingdom forever. Jagat Prakash showed his apprehension that Pradyuman and Parakram would attack on Garhwal again from Almora. Jagat Prakash was ready to go along with Jaya Kirti Shah to Kumaon.
  Ajab Ram (who was inclined to get rid of Jaya Kirti Shah) had affiliation with Parakram. Ajab Ram and other ministers advised Jaya Kirti Shah not come on the trap of Jagat Prakash. Ajab ram advised that jagat Prakash would ask salary for his army and then would grab Garhwal Kingdom from Jaya Kirti Shah.
  Jaya Kirti accepted the advice of his ministers. Jay Kirti Shah paid gifts for rupees one lakh, gem garland and Jagir of Dehradun to  Jagat Prakash.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 25/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -228   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Himalayan History of Joshiyana (Distress by Joshi brothers and Company) in Shrinagar Garhwal

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 228

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
            Sirmaur King Jgatprakash returned to Sirmaur from Shrinagar after taking gifts. After Jgatprakash returning to his home, Garhwal King Jaya Kirti Shah planned to pay religious visit and perform rituals at his family Goddess temple in Devalgarh. The Garhwal to ministers supporting Pradyuman Chandra and other conspirators against Jaya Kirti Shah informed the news of Jaya Kirti visiting Devalgarh to Kumaon King Pradyuman Chandra. These ministers or conspirators informed Pradyuman that that was the best time to attack on Garhwal King. It was sure that Jaya Kirti would have least armed force with him at the time of ritual religious performance. Devalgarh is four miles away from Shrinagar.
      Kumaoni army led by Jaya Nand Joshi, and Harsh Dev Joshi attacked on Jaya Kirti Shah in temple. Jaya Kirti Shah was shocked by the sudden attack. He could not organize his army and Jaya Kirti Shah had to flee from temple.
The attack was held on Navmi of Dahshara and Jaya Kirti Shah ran away on Vijaya Dashmi.
         Kumaoni army looted Garhwal Kingdom wealth lying in Devalgarh temple.
         The Garhwal ministers reached to Pradyuman. Pradyuman marched towards Shrinagar with armed force. The subject of nearby villages did not welcome Pradyuman. The subject was frustrated due to inter group revelries among Garhwal administrators and the oppressive methods applied by Pradyuman and party.
      Pradyuman or Joshi brothers asked to blaze the houses of supporters of Jaya Kirti Shah. There was distressful blaze in Shrinagar. This cruel oppression and distress is named as “Joshiyana’ in Garhwal. Many folktales are still told and heard about Joshiyana in Garhwal.   
 The armed forces of Joshi brothers looted Shrinagar and nearby villages with force.
Pradyuman Shah was there for three months. Then Pradyuman Shah returned to Kumaon.
 It seems that Jaya Kirti Shah ruled for three months after Pradyuman Shah returning to Kumaon. The last inscription of Jaya Kirti Shah is of 1786.
 There are two views about death of Jaya Kirti Shah. One view is that Joshi killed Jaya Kirti Shah fell ill and died with natural death.
   The queen of Pradyuman Chandra delivered son Sudarshan Shah in 1784. Pradyuman Chandra could not stay more in Shrinagar as there was danger for his heir in Almora, Kumaon. In that period Jaya Nand Joshi also died. Harsh Dev Joshi had to consolidate his position.
 As soon as Pradyuman left Shrinagar, Jaya Kirti Shah recaptured Shri Nagar. Garhwal kingdom was having same problem of administrators. Most probably, Jay Kirti Shah died in first part of 1786.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 25/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -228   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
 Notes on History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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  Parakram Shah as Mukhtyar or Representative of Pradyuman Chandra Shah in Kumaon

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 228

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
                 When Jaya Kirti Shah had to flee from Devalgarh due to attack of Joshi brothers, Pradyuman Chandra (presently Kumaon King) came to Shrinagar.
  Pradyuman sent his younger brother Parakram to Almora. Parakram Shah was representing Pradyuman in Kumaon. In 1780, Parakram was called to Almora from Shrinagar.
 Garhwal administrators as Ajab Ram Negi advised him to become Garhwal king in place of Jaya Kirti Shah. Parakram was also ambitious to take Kumaon Kingdom. However, Joshi brothers did not encourage him. Joshi brothers did not like Parakram Shah. Parakram Shah started making friends the supporters of Mohan Chandra (who was in exile) in Almora.  Parakram was administrating Kumaon kingdom. However, Parakram was proved as weak administrator and he was also not liked by the people.
   Parakram never wanted the Kumaon Kingdom. He was more interested in getting crown of Garhwal. When Pradyuman Chandra returned to Almora from Shrinagar, Parakram Shah started his journey to Shrinagar. Before, reaching Shrinagar by Parakram Shah, Jaya Kirti Shah recaptured Shrinagar Garhwal. As per advice of Parakram Shah, Ajab Ram started making strategy to dislodge Jaya Kirti Shah.
             Jaya Kirti Shah sent Dhani Ram Dobhal for getting army from Sirmaur. Parakram went to Almora for taking advices from Pradyuman Shah.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 27/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -230   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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                    History of Pradyuman Chandra as Garhwal King 
   
          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 230

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
             There is no agreement among historians for whether Garhwal King Jaya Kirti Shah died by natural death or conspirators killed Garhwal King. Jaya Kirti was eldest step brother of Pradyuman and Parakram.
       After the death of Jaya Kirti Shah, Ajab Ram and other selfish people looted the Kingdom wealth and then after sent the message of death to Almora. Pradyuman, Parakram and Harsh Dev Joshi came to Shrinagar Garhwal in 1786. Pradyuman Chandra took the oath of Garhwal King as Pradyuman Shah. Pradyuman Shah was puppet of Harsh Dev Joshi. Harsh Dev Joshi wanted that Pradyuman Shah become King of Garhwal too that Joshi could command both the territories.
               Parakram Shah aided by hi supporter wanted that he become Garhwal King.  Faujdar Ajab Ram was stern supporter of Parakram. Ajab Ram had his own small army. Ajab Ram was opponent of Harsh Dev Joshi. Harsh dev Joshi killed Ajab Ram through somebody. The Garhwali administrators and elites were in terror. They came to understanding that Harsh Dev Joshi was a cruel administrator and selfish too. Garhwal Kingdom administrators and elites came to conclusion that king maker Harsh Dev Joshi can’t be beneficial to the kingdom. They beat Harsh Dev Joshi and Harsh Dev Joshi had to flee Kumaon. Harsh Dev Joshi could not correct the mess in the Kumaon Kingdom administration.

                          Mohan Chandra becoming super Active
                     As soon as Pradyuman went to Shrinagar, Mohan Chandra (the ex Kumaon King in exile) became active for taking Kumaon kingdom. Mohan Chandra got the support of Tarai ruler Nand Ram. Mohan Chandra sent message for Parakram Shah in Shrinagar. Parakram Shah was annoyed by his elder brother becoming Garhwal King too. Parakram collected army for supporting to Mohan Chandra.
  Nand Ram aatacked on Kumaon from foothills of Kumaon and Mohan Chandra along with his brother Lal Singh attacked on Kumaon from Kali Kumaon side. The army reached to Naithanagarh of Dora Talla patti of Pali Pargana. The army of Parakram Shah also reached at Naithanagarh.
      Harsh Dev Joshi was there with army. Most probably Pradyuman Shah did not send Garhwal army to help Harsh Dev Joshi. Hundred of Kumaon soldiers were annoyed by behavior of Pradyuman Shah that though he was Kumaon King but his heart was for Garhwal. Such Kumaon patriotic soldiers deserted Harsh Dev Joshi.
  Mohan Chandra defeated Harsh Dev Joshi. Harsh Dev Joshi fled towards plains.
    Mohan Chandra took the administration of Kumaon Kingdom. However, the mess in Kumaon was deep that he could not correct the mess.
  Parakram declared himself as Garhwal King.  There was situation of civil war in Garhwal Kingdom.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 28/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -231   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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        History of Mohan Chandra Becoming Second Time the Kumaon King 

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 231

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
Second time rule of Mohan Chandra – 1786-1788
Inscriptions – 1786, 1787,1788
Contemporary Kings
Garhwal- Pradyuman Shah
Nepal (Kantipur or Kathmandu) - Gorakshadhis Ranbahadur Shah -1777-1799
 With the help of army of Parakram Shah, Mohan Chandra defeated the army of Harsh Dev who was representative of Pradyuman Shah (king of Kumaon and Garhwal).
  Mohan Chandra took Kumaon crown in 1786 again.

                 Friendly Treaty with Parakram Shah

           Mohan Chandra had friendly treaty with so called Garhwal King Parakram Shah. They both demarked the boundaries of Kumaon and Garhwal. However, there is no historical record in Garhwal that Parakram was king of Garhwal for a moment.
                New Taxes in Kumaon

                  Mohan Chandra won the Naithana Garh battle by hiring professional soldiers. Those soldiers were pursuing Mohan Chandra for their salaries. The treasury was empty. The administration was in total mess.
  Mohan Chandra collected tax (Manga Kar) from the subjects and rich people by suppression. Mohan Chandra collected money from Mara and Fadtyal group by force and tactful methods. By that money, Mohan Chandra paid the salaries of hired soldiers.
 
               Donations

 Mohan Chandra donated land for religious works
He donated land to Bageshwar temple thrice, Bhairav temple twice and Raghunath, Badrinath and Bhairavnath temple once.

              Treaty with Nepal King

         When there was unrest, civil war type situations in Kumaon and Garhwal, Nepal kingdom was emerging with one entity by winning small kingdoms of Nepal. There was fear of Nepali army terror everywhere in Nepal and the news of their terror was reaching to Kumaon too. Kumaon Kingdom wisely requested a friendly treaty with Nepal Kingdom.
         The friendly treaty was signed by Nepal King Gorkhadhis Ranbahadur Bahadurshah Shamsher Jang and Kumaon King Mohan Chandra on 13th January 1788 witnessed by deities as Lakshmi Naryan, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Kalika and Purvpeeth deities. It was called Dharmapatra or religious deeds. According to that deeds Nepal and Kumaon were friends and enemy of anyone would enemy of both.
                Resurgence of Harsh Dev Joshi

  Harsh Dev Joshi was always active in exile. In Badhpur, Joshi collected army of soldiers from Kumaon, Rohila and Badhapuri Rajput.
 Harsh dev Joshi marched towards Almora via Havalbag. Mohan Chandra came with his army. There was battle between two armies in Sitoli-Railkot. Harsh dev Joshi defeated Mohan Chandra, His army captured Mohan Chandra and his brother Lal Singh. Harsh dev Joshi pardoned Lal Singh.
  Mohan Chandra was taken towards Narayan Tiwari temple below Hari Dungari. There in small hut, Mohan Chandra was killed for his cruel deeds.
  Mahesh Chandra the son of Mohan Chandra ran away from Almora to Rampur.
            Now, Harsh Dev Joshi was the ruler of Kumaon. Harsh dev Joshi was aware that people would not accept a Brahmin as the King. 
  Harsh dev Joshi invited Pradyuman Shah to rule over Kumaon. However, Pradyuman Shah refused to come to Almora. Pradyuman was aware the plan of Harsh Dev Joshi. Harsh Dev Joshi ruled Kumaon without a king. 
 Harsh dev Joshi was now, in search of Rautela who would become Kumaon king.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 29/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -232   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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  • Karma: +22/-1
                  History of Kumaon King Shiv Chandra

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
      
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 232

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
 Ruling Period- 1788
                 Harsh Dev Joshi was fully aware that he was Brahmin and people would not accept him as a king. He was eager to find a Rautela (member from Chand family) for making Kumaon King. Harsh Dev Joshi found a Rautela named Shiv Singh. Harsh Dev Joshi declared him as descendent of King Udyan Chandra. Harsh Dev Joshi crowned Shiv Singh as Shiv Chandra the Kumaon King.
  Harsh Dev Joshi took initiated to correct the messed administration but failed miserably. The mess was in great mess.
          Just after some time of Shiv Chandra being crowned as Kumaon King, Lal Singh with the help of Nabab Faizulla Khan of Rampur attacked on Kumaon. There was battle between army of Lal singh and army of Harsh Dev Joshi at Dharamshila in Bhimtal. Gadadhar the army commander of Joshi was killed and Joshi army soldiers were killed. Harsh Dev Joshi, Shiv Chandra and other supporters ran to Garhwal for getting army. Lal Singh followed Harsh Dev Joshi and his supporter till Ulkagarh of Garhwal.

                    Battle of Ulkagarh

               In Ulkagarh, Harsh Dev Joshi collected armed force.  Pradyuman Shah the Garhwal King supported Harsh Dev Joshi to stop Lal Singh entering into Garhwal. Now, Harsh Dev Joshi defeated Lal Singh in Ulkagarh battle. Lal Singh had to run to Kumaon. In the mean time army of Pradyuman Shah also reached to Ulkagarh.
  Harsh dev Joshi and army of Garhwal followed Lal Singh till Chukam of Kumaon at the bank of Kosi.
  Lal Singh also requested Parakram Shah for help. The army of Parakram also reached to Chukam. Lal Singh defeated Harsh Dev Joshi.
       Harsh Dev Joshi ran to Shrinagar and took shelter under Pradyuamn Shah.
          Parakram and Lal Singh crowned Mahendra Chandra the son of Mohan Chandra as Kumaon King in 1788.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 30/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -233   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia;

 

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