Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 68846 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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            History of Sad End of Sovereign Kumaon Kingdom

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
      
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 233

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

              History repeats itself because nobody learns from History. Indian Kings never learned from History and foreigners ruled India. Politicians never learned from History and Indian political establishment is in danger. Kumaon and Garhwal faced adversary due to inter-rivalries among administrators and Kings. Garhwal and Kumaon had to pay heavy price by attack from Nepal.

                       Mahesh Chandra as Kumaon King (1788-1790)
          Ruling period of Mahesh Chandra – 1788-1790 (fifteen month)
Contemporary Kings
Garhwal- Pradyuman Shah (1786-1804)
Nepal- Gorkhadhis Ranbahadur
  Mahesh Chandra was crowned on Kumaon Kingdom around last part of 1788 and in February Gorakha captured Kumaon.
  Lal Singh defeated the army of Harsh Dev and Pradyuman Shah in Chukam. Harsh Dev ran away to Garhwal. Lal Singh, Parakram Shah and Mahesh Chandra the son Mohan Chandra with a reasonable army reached to Almora. Parakram would have sit on the crown. However, Parakram Shah took gift of rupees forty thousand and handed over the crown to Mahesh Chandra.

                          Suppression of Joshi

 Lal Singh took charge of all highest position of Deewan and Bakshis. He appointed his own trusted men on other important positions. Joshis were culprits in disestablishing Mohan Chandra.  Lal Singh suppressed Joshis and threw away from Kumaon. Many Joshis were put in jails. Many Joshis were hung as punishment. Lal Singh captured properties of many Joshi families.

                  Harsh Dev Joshi becoming Activate

  Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah awarded Harsh Dev Joshi the Jagir of Padyulsyun. However, due to terror of Parakram Shah, Harsh Dev Joshi had to leave Garhwal. No record is available about Shiv Chandra a small time Kumaon King. Harsh dev Josh reached Bareli and took shelter under Subedar Mirza Menhadi Ali beg. Beg was regional commander of Awadh ruler. Harsh Dev Joshi wanted to collect Army.
  Awadh ruler came for hunting in Tarai near Haldwani in 1789. Lal Singh met Awadh ruler. Lal Singh requested Awadh ruler to provide protection to Kumaon King Mahesh Chandra. In return of protection from Awadh ruler, Lal Singh handed over Tarai to Awadh. Now, order from Awadh ruler, Mirza Menhadi Ali Beg did not help Harsh Dev Joshi to collect army.
         Harsh Dev Joshi was in Bareli. Before,  January 1790, Gorakha army of Nepal Kingdom attacked on Karnali, Doti, Dailekh, Baitdi kingdoms 9today in Nepal) and captured all Katyuri kingdoms in kali valley till the border of Chand Kingdom or Kumaon Kingdom.   Kumaon Kingdom was in west of Kali River.
            Harsh Dev Joshi thought of taking benefits from the opportunity. Nepal King Ran Bahadur was ambitious King. He was aware the weakness of Kumaon and wanted to take over Kumaon Kingdom. Nepal King sent a letter through his Kaji Jagjit Pande to Harsh Dev Joshi mentioning that if Harsh Dev Joshi help Nepal Kingdom at the time of Nepal army attacking on Kumaon, Nepal King would offer Harsh Dev Joshi a highest position. Harsh Dev Joshi offered all secretes of Kumaon to Nepal King.
 Though, two years back Nepal King had a religious treaty (dharm patra)  with Kumaon King Mohan Chandra.

         
             Attack by Gorakha Army on Kumaon
         Ran Bahadur sent his Gorakha army led by Jagjit Pande, Sardar Amar Singh Thapa, Captain Goliya, Captain ranvir Khatri, Subba Jognarayan Mall, Subba Faud Singh, Shurbir Khatri etc to attack on Kumaon on 30th January 1790.
  The Gorakha army crossed Kali River and departed two battalions to capture Sor and Bishung Patti. As soon as people came to know the news of attack from Gorakha army the situation became perplexed and everywhere there was confusion due to terror of Gorakha army. 
   Mahesh Chanra collected the warriors from people and along with his permanent army marched towards Gangoli. Mahesh Chandra attacked on Gorakha army suddenly and defeated Gorakha army. Gorakha army had to run towards kali Kumaon where Amar Singh Thapa was ready. Lal Singh reached with his army to Gautada  (Katolgarh) Kali Kumaon. Amar Singh Thapa attacked on army of Lal Singh and defeated army led by Lal Singh. Lal Singh had to run to Tarai.
     Winning in Gangoli, Mahesh Chandra started marching with speed to help his uncle Lal Singh. When Mahesh Chandra came to know about deafet of Lal Singh and his running to Tarai, Mahesh Chandra also ran to Kota Tarai without fighting the battle. Lal Singh met Mahesh Chandra in Kota.
               Now, there was no resistance for Gorakha army. Gorakha army marched towards Almora. Gorakha army defeated a small Kumaon army in Almora.
             On 1st February 1790, Gorakha army entered in Almora. Harsh dev Joshi was with Nepali commander Jagjit Pande.  Harsh Dev Joshi and his men provided all help to Gorakha army. Nepal captured Kumaon Kingdom very easily.
      Joshis were against Mahesh Chandra and they welcomed Nepali army. Gorakha commanders appointed Joshis of Jhinjhad, Danya, Kalin, Oliyaganv, and Galli as administers (Kamdar) of Kumaon. Other caste people were also appointed administrators. Pant of Gangoli, Uprada, Syunarkot and Khunt also got administrative post in Gorakha rule. Chaudhari of Dwara got positions too.
      Gorakha commanders took help of Kumaon Brahmins for rituals and medical aids. Gorakha appointed Kumaon strong youth into Nepali army.  Kumaoni people showed their flexibility and started living smoothly under Nepali governance.
        Harsh dev was satisfied to see Mahesh Chandra and Lal Singh out of Kumaon.  Gorakhas rulers used to provide respect to Joshi and used to take his advice time to time.

 
                      Attack of Gorakha army on Garhwal

                  In 1790, Nepal was ruling on Kumaon.  Now, Nepal King wanted to capture Garhwal Kingdom. Harsh Dev Joshi helped Gorakha army for chalking out the strategy. However, no Garhwali became ready to deceive own motherland.
  Gorakhas army was divided into many parts to attack on Garhwal though various places. However, Garhwal army defeated Gorakha army everywhere due to unity.

                 Nepal Attacking on Tibet

             In summer of 1791, Nepal King sent his army led by Nayab Bahadur Shah to attack on Tibet. China came to help Tibet and sent huge army to attack on Nepal in 1792.


                            Mahesh Chandra becoming Active

         When Nepal arm forces were busy in attacking on Garhwal, Mahesh Chandra and his uncle Lal Singh were busy to consolidate their positions.
              He marched with tiny army towards Almora. However, Nepal army defeated Mahesh Chandra in Badakhedi. Mahesh Chandra had to run towards Tarai and took shelter in Kilpuri. He established his head quarter in Kilpuri
      He once again attacked on Gorakha though Kali-Kumaon road. Mara group in Kumaon was now against Mahesh Chandra as now they accepted Nepal rule over Kumaon.

              Nepali army in Shrinagar
   Amar Singh Thapa reached Shrinagar with a small army in Shrinagar. There was treaty between Nepal Kingdom and Garhwal Kingdom.
 Gorakha commander informed to Garhwal King that they are appointing Harsh Dev Joshi as in charge of west of Kali river. Prince Parakram Shah informed Amar Singh Thapa about traitor, deceiving nature of Harsh Dev Joshi.
  Amar Singh Thapa arrested Harsh Dev Joshi and put him in Jail. Amar Singh Thapa and Jagjit Pande informed Harsh Dev Joshi that he had to visit Nepal for proving his loyalty before Nepal King.
 Harsh dev Joshi had to go to Nepal with Nepali armed force. One day, they reached to Gangoli . Harsh dev escaped from the camp of Nepal armed force. He reached to Johar. Johar was not under Nepal.
                       Harsh Dev Joshi hid there in Johar. Johar elites informed Lal Singh and Mahesh Chandra about Harsh Dev Joshi being in Johar.
          Lal Singh sent his one of relatives Padama Singh with soldiers to arrest Harsh Dev Joshi. Johar people handed over Joshi to Padma Singh. On the path, Harsh Dev Joshi advised Padma Singh that since Padma Singh was direct descendent of Chand dynasty he was supposed to be Kumaon King. Harsh Dev Joshi promised Padma Singh for making him King. Simple hearted Padma Singh freed Harsh Dev Joshi. Harsh Dev and Padma Singh reached to Shrinagar. Garhwal King refused to help Harsh Dev Joshi. Padma Singh returned to Tarai. Harsh dev Joshi stayed in Shrinagar for some time.

                         Last Try by Mahesh Chandra

            With the help of soldiers of defeated Nabab Gulam Mohammad Khan of Rampur, Mahesh Chandra and Lal Singh attacked on Kumaon. Amar Singh Thapa defeated Mahesh Chandra and captured Kilpuri fort.
     Lal Singh met Awadh ruler to attack on Tarai where Nepal army captured the territory. Awadh attacked on Tarai of Kumaon to get rid of Nepal army. British had relationship with Awadh and commercial relationship with Nepal governments. British mediated to stop war. 
 This was the end of sovereign Kumaon Kingdom.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 31/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -234   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia; History of Sad End of Sovereign Kumaon Kingdom; History of Sad End of Sovereign Kumaon Kingdom (including Pithoragarh); History of Sad End of Sovereign Kumaon Kingdom (including Nainital); History of Sad End of Sovereign Kumaon Kingdom (including Almora); History of Sad End of Sovereign Kumaon Kingdom (including Bageshwar); History of Sad End of Sovereign Kumaon Kingdom (including Champawat); History of Sad End of Sovereign Kumaon Kingdom (including Almora); History of Sad End of Sovereign Kumaon Kingdom (including Udham Singh Nagar);


Bhishma Kukreti

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   History aspects of Characteristics of Chand/Chandra Kings Administration
 
          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
      
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 234

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti


                         The King was Owner of Land
        As per custom, the King was owner of land, kingdom, forest, minerals and all properties of the Kingdom.
              The King would take appropriate decision to distribute the kingdom property and wealth. The King was customary authorized to award, reward, punish and could provide death sentence to anybody. All these rights were till he was King. Before being king or after thrown out as King he did not have those rights of the King.
         Initially when Chand Kings were ruler of small territory, they were called ‘Raja’. Initially, their territory or fortes was called ‘Rajbunga’. Even when Chandra or Chand kings were under they used to have title of ‘Maharaja’. In inscriptions, Gyan Chandra’s title was ‘Raja’ in 1389 and in 1418, he his title was “Rajdhiraj’.
               The title of Bharti Chandra was ‘Maharaja’ in 1477 and under the title of Doti Kalyan Chandra was ‘Mahadhiraj’ in 1733.
 Anant Dev called Bajbahadur and his predecessors as ‘Nripati’. Shah Jahan called Bajbahadur as “Jagirdar of Kumaon’.

              Ministers of Cabinet in Chand Kingdom

 Broadly, there were three layers of cabinet ministers or administrators
1-Religious administrators – Pauranik Guru, Purohit and Dharmadhikari
2-King family – Maharajkumar (crowned prince), Lala or Gusain (younger princes)
3-Public and Defense Administrators- Deewan, Bakshi, Bisht, Bajir, Mukhtyar were as today’s secretary of deputy ministers. There were Lekhiya, Faujdar, Sradar, adhikari, Bhandari, Musahib and other administrative officers.
King used to take advices from Guru, Maharajkumar, Mukhtar, Deewan, Bakshi, Faujdar, Lekhwar and Hakim of Mal.

Mukhtyar or Mukhtar- Mukhtar was chief minister of the King.
Deewan, Bakshi and Bisht (Bajeer) - These administrative positions were important positions under Mogul Emperor and were copied in Kumaon too. Bakshi was minister for defense and economic establishments. Bajir was mainly related to general administration. Many times, same person was incharge of both the positions as Harsh Dev was Bajir and Bakshi in deep Chandra period.
           There was no clarity about the duties and responsibilities of these posts. Depending upon the situation, a person used to interfere in other administrator’s area.
 Lekhyari or daftari- He was as Chief Director of court. Under him other record officers were appointed. There were administrators (sahayak lekhwar) for each Pargana (region). Initially, Ratangali Bhatt and Sahu of Dwarhat were lekhwar. In later stage, Adhikari (caste) were lekhwar. However, after the capital was shifted to Almora, Chaudhari of Jwalamukhi took posts of Lekhwar from Sahu caste people.
 Kalamdan - The important orders from the Kings were communicated from Kalamdan office. ‘kalamdan office used to be under Bajir. Bajir was responsible for ‘kalamdan’. The King used to sign on inscriptions. The king used to sign on order only after bajir would give pen to the King (it was a type of formal advice from Bajir). The king only used the ink from official inkpot.  The key of ‘Kalamdan’ used to be with Bajir.
**Read more about administrators in Chand Kingdom on Chapter -235

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 1/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -235   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
   History aspects of Characteristics of Chand/Chandra Kings Administration; History aspects of Characteristics of Chand/Chandra Kings Administration in Udham Singh Nagar; History aspects of Characteristics of Chand/Chandra Kings Administration in Nainital; History aspects of Characteristics of Chand/Chandra Kings Administration in Almora; History aspects of Characteristics of Chand/Chandra Kings Administration in Champawat; History aspects of Characteristics of Chand/Chandra Kings Administration in Bageshwar; History aspects of Characteristics of Chand/Chandra Kings Administration in Pithoragarh; History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia;


Bhishma Kukreti

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History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty in Kumaon Kingdom


          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
      
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 235

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                        Faujdar of Kiledar in Chand Dynasty in Kumaon Kingdom

             Faujdar means regional defense commander of a Pargana. Faujdar used to have a small permanent armed force. Initially in Champawat, men from Karki, Bora, Tadagi and Chaudhri families were Faujdar of Chand Kings.
     In later stage, Rautela (from Chand family) were appointed as Faujdar of won territory.
  Faujdar or Kiledar words were taken from Muslim and Mogul Empire style of administration.

          Other Governing Employees in Chand Rule
            There were no exclusive departments to look after defense, offense, justice, internal security and administration. Depending upon the choice of King, the work was handed over to any minister.
               Purushottam Pant led the winning battle of Seera. He was called ‘Parshdon me Sharvshreshth’ or the best among ministers. The army commanders Shiv Dev Joshi is described as ‘Kumaun ka Seerdar Seev Dev Bisht’. Now, Bisht is Rajput caste. However, initially Bisht word was derived from Vishishth or exclusive or the best.
     The government used to pay regular salaries to Rasoiya (Cook); Rasoi Daroga (police officer of Kitchen); Musahab and Rajcheliyan (maid servants) of palace. Rasoi Daroga had to taste food before cook and the king before the King start taking meal.
       Shakti Gusain divided administrative officers into Srdar, Faujdar and Negi as Manger, Supervisors and workers. Sardar were regional head of administration. Faujdar used to look after defense services and Negi were working class in administration. Negi used to get salary and Dasture (customery grains from village).
  The administrator of Mal 9Bhabhar and Tarai) was designated as Mal Sardar. There were no fixed rules for salary, promotion and pension. 
 Chakar, Chopdar, Khavas, Khavasan were different low cadre servants. Nakkarchi, Mirasi and Bhand were for entertaining the King and other elites.
 Vakil were ambassadors sent to neighboring countries, Mogul court. Valik used to inform the current situation of other country.

                 Sayana, Budha, Thokdar

        Sayana, Budha or Thokdar were to collect revenue taxes.
 The tax collectors in Pali and Baramandal were called ‘Sayana’
 The tax collectors in Kali Kumaon, Johar and Darma were called Budha.
The tax collectors in the regions were called Thokdar.
 Usually, Budha, Sayana and Thokdar were authorized to use their flags and drums to announce their arrival.
 The Kumaon Kings used to take advices from Budha of Kali Kumaon at critical situations as appointing heir for the Kingdom.
Mara and Fadtyal groups were among sayana, Budha and Thokdar.
 By law, sayana, Budha and Thokdar were supposed to cooperate and help Kingdom regional or national army.
Budha, sayana used to collect tax as ‘Sayanachari either in form of money or materials. These tax collectors used to collect specific additional tax as per King announcement. Villagers used to work free on specific works as in marriage or festive time in the family of Sayana, Thokdar or Budha.
 Initially there were four Sayana from Katyuri family in Pali. Bajbahadur appointed Sanvaliya Bisht and Bangari Raut as Sayana. These Bisht and Bangar Raut deceived their motherland (Garhwal) from Kumaon King Bajbhadur.
 In Kali Kumaon, there were eight Budha those were from Tadagi, Kharku, Bora and Chaudhri families.
 Sayana, Budha or Thokdar were authorized to appoint village chief (Padhan). After appointment, Padhan used to pay tribute to sayana in form of lamb meat (thigh portion) , milk, ghee, maize and gifts in the marriage time of Sayana, Budha or Thokdar.

                  Ritual Performing Class

          There were Guru, Pauranik and Dharmadhikary types of positions for religious ritual performers.
        The Brahmin scholars as Joshi from Jhinjhad; Pande from Shimalt; Pande from Devliya or Mandoliya were appointed on such positions. These were called ‘Chauthani’. Later on Tiwari caste was also included.
   For Tantrik performances, the Brahmins from Bangal or Maghad were called.
Pauranik Brahmins used to tell the religious stories etc.
 Purohit used to perform Karmkand religious rituals.
 Dharmadhikari were to provide decision of religious matter a s repent etc. Dharmadhikari used to looking after management of temples and Sanskrit schools. Dharmadhikari used to administrate caste system in the Kingdom.

 
 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 2/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -236   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty in Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty in Bhabhar –Tarai of Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty  in Pithoragarh of Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty  in Champawat of Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty  in Bageshwar of Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty  in of Nainital Kumaon Kingdom; History aspects of General Administration in Chand Dynasty  in Almora  of Kumaon Kingdom;

Bhishma Kukreti

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        History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
      
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 236

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                      Salary Payment System
              The Highest cadre employees were provided Jagir (a few villages or region who used to pay tax to officers). Kumaon kingdom used to pay in cash to their officers as ‘Rojina’ as daily allowances etc.
   Many officers were provided village families who used to provide grains etc to officers. Th employees used to collect salary from Pragana officer against order or Rukka.
  Shakti Gusain fixed some villages whose tax was fixed for court employees.

                   Capitals of Chand Kings

       Abhay Chandra captured Champawat from Khasiya Raut in 1361 and established capital as Champawat.Bhishma Chandra planned to shift capital to Khagmarakot. Balo Kalyan Chandra shifted capital to Khagmarakot in1533. H e built a palace near Nail Pokhara. Slowly, forts, other palaces, court buildings, temples and individual houses were built there. Champawat was sub capital for fifty years. Later on the capital was shifted to Almora to defend Mal territory. From the beginning till 1790, Almora saw many murders of kings and administrators due to infighting among various groups.

                          Court
  The court or parliament used to be in a portion of palace. The princes, ministers, record keepers, army commanders, regional commanders or tax collectors used to be present in court. The king used to hear the matter and used to provide decision.
  In evening court was transformed into entertaining place or Majlish. Pauranik and Guru used to preach religious preaching. Dances, singer, and poets or scholars used to participate there for various activities. Elites and high cadre employees used to be there. Poets and artists used to show their arts for rewards from the King.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 3/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -237   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including Udham Singh Nagar region ; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including Nainital region;  History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including Almora region; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including  Champawat region; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including  Bageshwar region; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including  Dwarhat region; History of Feature of Court Administration in Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon Kingdom including  Pithoragarh region; History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia; 
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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           History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
      
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 237

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                              Land Management

 
                        In Kumaon and Garhwal, there were two basic castes –Bitth and Shilpkar. Bitth (touchable or upper caste) were owners of land but Shilpkar did not have ownership on land. Among Bitth, there were two basic caste systems- Rajput and Brahmin. There were sub castes among Brahmin and Rajput. They converted hill land into agriculture purpose. It took many centuries.  These villages were called That or Thati (derived from Dharti). Farmers had customary ownership on agriculture and non state forest too. The King was not authorizes to dislodge the ownership till the farmer is paying state tax or there is accusation of traitor on farmer.  Farmer is also not permitted to sell the village land.

                              Land Owners
             
     The King was sole owner of land of Kumaon. The king had authority to award land to religious person or army man who showed bravery in the war. The king could take land in three situations
1-Sankalp or Vishnupriti- the King could award land for temple, priests or scholars.
2- As Raut- If a person showed bravery in protecting Kingdom interest the king used to award land to soldiers as ‘Raut’.Later on the descdents of such families were called Rawat.
3-Jagir- the King used to provide villages or regions to his ministers, court workers in place of cash salaries. These Jagir holders used to get grains from farmers who used to do farming.
 The King could change the ownership of Jagir or Raut but not the land awarded to temples or religious means (Vishnupriti).

             Thatwan or Landownership

  The land owner or farmer used to be called Thatwan.
Later on when a Rajput or Khasia or Brahmin was awarded land was called Garkha. The land owner under Vishnu Priti was also called Thatwan. The old owner or Thatwan was called Kadimi and would go under new Thatwan.
           Both type of Thatwan had to pay tax. There used to be clear instruction on inscriptions for tax heaven for land under Vishnupriti.
  Thatwan was free to farm on his own land. However, Thatwan was not supposed to leave land or deny tax payment. Land tax collection was much disciplined and the state used to auction land in case of non tax payment from Thatwan. The Thatwan had to apply for leaving the land by offering a stone and a rupee.

                         New Thatwan

               New Thatwan was not authorized to dislodge ownership of farmers. New Thatwan used to keep one third of land for himself. The old Thatwan was called Khaykar of Thatwan. Khaykar had to pay tax to Thatwan instead of state officers. Thatwan used to pay tax directly to state revenue officers.
 The Khaykar had to serve Thatwan for various works. If Khyakan wanted to settle other places he was free to do so.
 Thatwan and Khaykar used to provide alnd to othe farmers for farming and such farmers were   called ‘Sirtan’. Sirtan had to offer grains on every crops to Thatwan or Khaykar and was supposed to serve too.
                Thatwan or Khaykar were free to make owners to their son in law or Dharmputra by taking permission from the state authorities or king. Khaykar or Thatwan were free to mortgage their land.

                    Records of Land

     There was system of record keeping of land owners with land details in capital and head quarters of Pargana. However, the record keeping system had many flaws. There was tax on each village for the salries of Lekhwar or record keepers.

                Partition of Land

      The partition was done by ‘Sautiya Bant’ or Bhair bant system that is still exists in Uttarakhand. Elder brother used to get an addition farm as ‘Jithali’
If wives are common the sons were also called Common (Sajhi).
Amon Brahmins and Rajput the children from authorized marriages were to get ownership of land and children from ‘Kam Asal’ wife (children from Keeping wife, Dhanti, Widow, Shilpkar or Bandi ) were not authorized to get ownership. In some caste of Rajput, all children used to get ownership. There were societies of some caste, where daughters used to get ownership after death of parents.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 5/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -238   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom;           History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Pithoragarh; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Champawat; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Bageshwar; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Almora; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Nainital; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Bhabhar; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Tarai; History Analysis of Land Management in Chand Kings Period in Kumaon Kingdom including Udham Singh Nagar; History of Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Champawat Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Nainital Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Almora Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Himalaya; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, North India; History of Kumaon, Himalaya, South Asia; 

Bhishma Kukreti

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A Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Kumaon
          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
      
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 238

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                         Land Use
                From the beginning the agriculture process in Uttarakhand had been specific than plains of India.
                      In India especially in medieval period the soil classification was designed for tax purpose. In Kumaon too, the soil or land was classified as per fertility (unit patho –ser –mano etc). In Kumaon, the land was measured by how much seed is sown in a particular land. Still, the past system of measuring land exists in rural Uttarakhand of hills.  According to seed sowing capacity the land was taxed.
             No Support for Land Fertility Enhancement
 Atkinson, Ram Datt Tripathi , B.D Pandey and Dabral are main historians of Kumaon. This author did not find any details about that Kings from Chand dynasty were interested in increasing fertility of land under their rule.
                 If at all, the agriculture land was developed it was because of people and not by administrative acts of the Kings.
            This author did not find any rough paragraph in the history books of above writers about Chand kings or administration acting anything about organic fertilizers.
                No research orientation for new seeds
           This author did not find any particular evidence that Chand kings had any system for seed productivity development.

              Sinchai Bhagwan Bharose or Rain depending Irrigation

             There is no evidence found that there was any support from kingdom for developing irrigation. Barring Tarai –Bhabhar region, there is no mention in history write ups about canal making in Chand kingdom.

                       Milk Producing Animals 
    Chand kings were interested in taking tax on milk producing animals but there is no mention on history books that Chand kings supported milk production.

                            Horticulture

 Barring a couple of Kings as Udyot Chandra, no king shown interest in horticulture development. Udyot Chandra (1678-1698) developed mango gardens in Bhabhar –Tarai region.
 
                     Forest Produces

   The Chand kings used to levy taxes on forest produces but there is no record that Chand kings supported growth of medicinal plants or forestry for people’s benefits or for enhancing exports. No doubt, there was state income from forests and forest produces.
   Farmers were afraid of increasing agriculture produce as King’s administration used to levy ore and more tax.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 6/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -239   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
A Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Pithoragarh Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Champawat Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Bageshwar Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Almora Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Nainital Kumaon; Historical Perspective on  Support for Agriculture Development from Chand Kings in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Milk production increase from Chand Kings in Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for Forest produces Development from Chand Kings in Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for medicinal plants growth from Chand Kings in Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for irrigation Development in hills from Chand Kings in Kumaon; Historical Perspective on No Support for trade Development from Chand Kings in Kumaon;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon


          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
      
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 239

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                Taxation in Chand Dynasty Rule
              According to folk sayings, there were 68 taxes in Chand Dynasty period in Kumaon – 36 Rakam or taxes, 32 Kalam or payables. However, the records for tax or payables are on for nineteen taxes.
  The receivables or taxes could be divided into main four divisions –
1-Land tax- Land tax was called ‘Sirti’, ‘Rakam’ or ‘Mamla’ and was payable only on cash. The tax payable to state store by grains was called ‘Baikar’. If instead of grains the cash was paid it was called ‘Kut’. Baikar was paid in form of rice or wheat only and not coarse grains.
         The original tax names in Kaintura regime got changed time to time and were influenced by Mogul court nomenclature.
2-People Cause Tax- The tax were - ‘Katak’ for army salary, Sanga tax on river; ‘Jhuliya’ for river bridges; ‘Khani-Khapini’ for court laborers; ‘Manga’ tax was for contingency on the kingdom.
3- Salary for Court employees- There were taxes as Kaminchari or Sayanachari for salary for regional administrators; ‘Garkha-Negichari’ for low cadre state employees; ‘Sahu’ tax for court employees, ‘Rntgali’ for record keeping emplyess.
4- Tax pr payable for King family- Such taxes were –‘Ghodiyalo’ for king horses; ‘Kiryalo’ for dogs; ‘Bhukdiya’ for ostlers; ‘Bajniya’ for court dancers.
                             Other types of taxes
 Najarana- When any person used to meet King, queen or prince, the person was supposed to pay a tribute as Bhent or Najarana.
Bhent – When the King or King family went for roaming in any region, the court emplyess used to collect ‘Bhent ‘ (gifts) from villagers.
Ghee Kar – The family was supposed to pay Ghee Kar on each milking animal.
Bhag- Bhag was the name of tax on Water-Mills (Gharat)
Tand Kar- The weavers were taxed as Tand kar.
Charai Kar- It was atax on those who used to come with their animals for grazing in Bhabhar.
Mund kar – it was additional tax on each family members.
Chulh Kar – This was tax on each family.
 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 4/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -240   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Pithoragarh Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Champawat Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Bageshwar Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Almora Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Nainital Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Bhabhar Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Tarai Kumaon; History Review of Taxation and Revenue in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon, Himalaya;


Bhishma Kukreti

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  • Karma: +22/-1
History Review of Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
      
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 240

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                      Mineralogy in Chand Kingdoms


                   Till medieval period, the perception in plains about Garhwal and Kumaon was that both the regions are full of gold and other mineral mines. Many small time rulers from planes attacked on Kumaon and Garhwal for gold mines.
    There were mines of iron, copper in Kumaon. Glass, , graphite, alums, Shilajit , sulfur , gypsum , lime were main minerals.
 No state support was there for developing mining technology. Therefore, the mining was dependent on old methods of techniques. The entry gate and inside path used to be so small that the miner could not stand up. There were old and low productive methods for smelting and melting the oars.
               Kings used to give mines on contract to mine contractors. The average state annual income from mines was rupees eight to ten thousands.
 The Dhunar used to collect gold from Ramganga sand. Such Dhunar used to earn one forth of a rupee from collecting gold dust from sands.

                                   Income from Forest

   There were various altitude types of trees, bush and plants in Kumaon.
Sal, Khair (Catechue), Dhak , bamboo, Kukath , Pine, Devdau,wood was in good demand in planes.
Kumaon was having demand for mediciaml plants. Besides, there was good demand for fibrous products.
 There was also good demand for wild animals as export.
            Kings used to give forests to contractors on contract. Contractors used to export the forest produces and used to pay Chungi or tax at check gate. Contractors were free to cut any tree under his contractual forests.  The government servants wee corrupt at Check gate at contractors used to avoid tax to the government.
 Bhabhar was main source of income from forest produces.
         Villagers have right on the village forests.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 8/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -241   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Bhabhar Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Tarai Kumaon; History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Nainital Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Almora Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Champawat Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Bageshwar Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Pithoragarh Kumaon; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon (Uttarakhand); South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon, Himalaya; South Asian History Review Minerals and Forest Management in Chand Dynasty Rule over Kumaon, North India;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Kumaon

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
      
                     (History of Panwar Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 241

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                Water Resource in Chand Period in Kumaon

                  There are hundreds of rivers and rivulets in Kumaon. Barring small rivulets no big rivers were used for irrigation not only in Chand regime but today time too. Small rivulets are more beneficial than bigger rivers. Small rivulets were used for irrigation by canals and for uses of water mill or turbine.
 Chand king supported canal making in Bhabhar and Tarai but not in hills.
Kumaon kings used to levy tax on water mills. There was tax on Dhunar for catching fishes caught in rivers, lakes or ponds.

                          Craftsmanship

        Local Craftsmanship developed in Kumaon instead of support from Kingdoms.
People used to produce clothing by themselves for their tiny needs.
Common people used to spin cotton and wool through Takli spinning wheel and used to make thread. The woolen thread was handed over to Koli (weavers) to make clothes through Chan, Ranch or Kargha (hand driven weaving machine).
           Danpur, Johar, Vyans, Chaudans, Darma and Askot were famous for woolen clothing and dressings. The woolen cloth makers used to import wool from Tibet or from Bhotiyas of today’s Pithoragarh. Woolen craftsmen from Danpur, Johar, Vyans, Chaudans, Darma and Askot used tp produce fine Kaline, Galeecha, Chogta, Thulma, Dumkar and these items were sold in markets Brahmandi, Bareli, Rampur and Lucknow. The later period Chand Kings started laving Tand taxes on weavers.
           Maximum people used to wear clothing as sheets of fibers from hemp and other fibers from plants as Bhimal. Single Sheet was the only way of dressing for majority of people. Bhangela (blanket from hemp), Kambal (woolen blanket) was also used for covering in night or in day.
               There was no major development in dressing techniques or dress making technique from Kaintura period till British took over Kumaon.

                        Utensils in Chand Kingdoms

         Majority of people were dependent on mud utensils, wood utensils or stone utensils. Metal utensils were luxury. No doubt, iron smiths or Lwar of village used to make iron appliances, copper smith or Tamta used to make metal appliances and utensils.
 Askot was famous for wood utensil making. Almora and Shringar was famous for copper vessels. The iron swords, Khang, Khunkri, Bhale, arrows were produced in Almora.
 The Satpura or Satbaduva tree was used for making paper. This paper was exported too to Tibet and planes. Kingdom orders were written on this tree paper besides copper inscriptions.
  In history and folklores, there is no mention of support for developing craftsmanship by Chand Kings.
 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 8/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -242   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Bhabhar-Tarai Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Nainital Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Almora Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Champawat Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Bageshwar Kumaon; History Aspects of Water and Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Pithoragarh Kumaon; History Aspects of  woolen Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Askot Kumaon; History Aspects of woolen Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Johar Kumaon; History Aspects of  Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Dorma, Vyans, Chaudans, Danpur Kumaon; History Aspects of wooden Craftsmanship Management in Chand Period in Askot Kumaon;

Bhishma Kukreti

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  • Posts: 18,409
  • Karma: +22/-1
History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Kumaon

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
       Characteristics of Chand Rule in Kumaon    
   
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 241

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti


                Sculptures of Kumaon in Chand  Period

           Kumaon also followed Indian custom that initially people used to worship images and later became idolaters.
  There were sculptures in medieval temples of Champawat, Lakhnapur Patan, Baijnath, Dwarhat, Almora, Katarmal, Jageshwar, Bageshwar, Rameshwar, Gangolihat, Nainital, Bhimtal, Vinsar etc. Muslim looters destroyed many valuable sculptures whenever they attacked Kumaon. English administrators also took many sculptures. The thieves did harm to sculptures of Kumaon too.
          Lesser numbers of sculptures than what were erected are left now. These sculptures are from seventh century to thirteenth century. The sculptures after fourteenth century are not so artful as used to be in past.
              The stone used on these sculptures are local and are blue or sandy structure.  It is believed that the stones were from nearby areas of temples. There were families of sculptors at Jageshwar, Champawat, Katarmall, Bageshwar, Dwarhat, Baijnath and it was family traditions of sculptors to carve sculptures from stone. The similarities among older sculptures of eleventh century and later stage sculptures (seventeenth century) shows that the sculptors had traditional families and were engaged in this business for many centuries. From art point of view, the standard felled down in later stage temples and sculpture.
       
                    Shiva Cult Sculpture from initial Stage till twelfth century

The initial stage sculptures are in the line of Lakuleesh Shivlinga custom. Phallus sculpture is the characteristics of initial sculptures. There is influence of    Lakulish sects on initial stone carving arts in Kumaon. There are carvings of Shiva, Shiv Parvati, Shiv Mukh, Panchmukh on Linga.
                       Sun Stone Sculptures

 Boot wearing Sun sculptors were found in Kashmir too as found in Kumaon. Sun deity is worshipped as Aditya, Badaditya, Gunaaditya, Suryanarayan etc.
  The Sun sculptures from second century to twelfth century are found in Joshimath, Shrinagar, Gopeshwar, Dwarhat, Baijntha, Belar, Pavai (Gangoli), Rakam (Kali-Kumaon), Naini (Chagarkha), and Jageshwar. There a few Sun sculptures with seven horses pulling chariot.

                 Vishnu Cult Sculpture
         From seventh century onwards sculptures related to Vaishnava cult were also found in Uttarakhand. The sculptures of Barah incarnation of Vishnu, Narsingh, Trimukhi Vishnu and Trimukhi Narsingh of seventh century are also found.

             Other deity cult sculpture
  There are Har Gauri , Mahishmardini, Vakratund Ganesh, Kartikey , Durga sculptures made after seventh century onwards are also important examples of sculpture art of this period.

               Influence of Art Culture from other Parts of India

      Uttarakhand was famous for religious place and the promoters of all sects used to visit Uttarakhand. Those promoters built temples or donated for temple building process. Therefore, at all stage, the art from other parts of India continuously influencing Uttarakhand arts. The influence pattern on Uttarakhand temples and sculpture art still exist.
 The auras of sculpture of Kushan period are simple. The ornamentation of aura of sculptures started from Gupta period.
 Showing the naked form of upper part of woman sculpture started from Kushan period.
 In Gupta period, the ornamentation of Vishnu also started. From this period, showing the weapon in hands of deity or goddesses also started. Small sculptures of other deities near the feet of Vishnu or Shiva to show the supremacy of Vaishnava or Shaivya sects, especially Vaishnava sect also started in Gupta period and was present till fourteenth century.
           The stone sculptures in Uttarakhand of Gupta period are carved from brown sandy stone, blue or green stones. The black paste was painted to make sculpture black.
              The sculpture of Mahishamardani and Garud are made by mud, Babad, lakh and cotton. There are fine wires inside the sculptures. Since, the sculptures are painted by black paste, the sculptures look like black stone sculptures.
 Many Ganesha sculptures on top of temples are made by mud.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 8/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
Kanti Kumar Nautiyal , Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun , Chaukhamba Prakash
Hema Uniyal Kumaon ke Mandir (Book and Cassette Disc)
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -242   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Pithoragarh Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Champawat Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Bageshwar Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Almora Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Nainital Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Gangoli Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Kali Kumaon Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Jageshwar Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Dwarhat Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Katarmall Kumaon; History Review of Stone Sculpture-Fine Arts in Chand Dynasty Period in Bhimtal Kumaon;

 

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