Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 67104 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Review of Metal Sculpture Art in Chand Period in Kumaon 

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
       Characteristics of Chand Rule in Kumaon    
   
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 243

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
             There were hundreds of metal sculptures made or erected in Chand period. Hundreds of sculptures were looted by Muslim attackers and tens of sculptures were theft by smugglers.
               Metal craftsmen of Nepal became famous for making mixed metal sculpture in twelfth century and their fame was intact till nineteenth century.  Nepali metal craftsmen made many metal sculptures for Kumaon temples too. There is a Paunraja sculpture made of eight metals alloy in Katarmall temple. The height of sculpture is of 4’6”.  Paunraja is wearing a small Dhoti, upper garment, small cap and he is in Gyanmudra position shown by his left hand and right hand.
        Another type of Paunraja mixed metal sculpture was in Jageshwar temple. The sculpture was theft by smugglers in 1974 and was recovered from smugglers in Delhi in 1975. The height of this sculpture is four feet and weight is 112 kilograms.  The sculpture is supposed to be established by Purushottam Singh in twelfth century.
                                          Lost Sculptures from Kumaon
 Krishna Chandra Bhatt provides following information for thefts of sculptures from Kumaon –
Paunraja eight metal sculpture was theft in 1966-67
             The smugglers took away sculptures of Shiv, Parvati, Chamunda and Ganesh from Jageshwar Durga temple on 10th July 1967.
          The half kilogram silver lotus, gold Janeu (thread), forty kilogram silver sculpture of Trimall Chandra with gems were theft on 28th September 1968 from Jageshwar Jyotirling temple.
Six stone sculptures of Dandeshwar temple (near Jageshwar) were theft in 1967-68
In 1969-70, smugglers theft Ekmukhi Shivling and dancing Ganesha sculpture from Dandeshwar.
A Nanda Devi sculpture made by 200 gold coins was theft from nanda Devi temple of Almora in 1971.
             In 1972, the smugglers theft the Kali metal sculpture with valuable gems from Mahakali temple of Khaspadkhola.
On 6th April 1977, Panchdhatu sculpture of Aditya , gold Janeu and silver ritual vessels were smuggled by smugglers from Bridh Jageshwar temples.
On 19th April 1982, the Gun Aditya sculpture worth rupees forty lakhs was theft from  Rangod (Pali).
Smugglers theft Radha Krishna and Datatrey sculptures from Pinakeshwar temple in May 1982.
On 26th September 1982, Thieves theft Vishnu sculpture from Pumaun (Salam) temple.
In October 1982, Smugglers smuggled sculpture of Rinmoksheswar from Moksheswar temple.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 10/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
Kanti Kumar Nautiyal , Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun , Chaukhamba Prakash
Hema Uniyal Kumaon ke Mandir (Book and Cassette Disc)
Madan Jit Singh, Himalayan Arts
Krishna Chand Bhatt, Information about Thefts of Archeological Materials from Kumaon, Pahad
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -244   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History Review of Metal Sculpture Art in Chand Period in Kumaon; History Review of Metal Sculpture Art in Chand Period in Pithoragarh Kumaon; History Review of Metal Sculpture Art in Chand Period in Bageshwar Kumaon; History Review of Metal Sculpture Art in Chand Period in Champawat Kumaon; History Review of Metal Sculpture Art in Chand Period in Almora Kumaon; History Review of Metal Sculpture Art in Chand Period in Nainital Kumaon;  History Review of Metal Sculpture Art in Chand Period in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; History of theft of metal sculptures from Katarmall  temple, Kumaon; History of theft of metal sculptures from Jageshwar temple, Kumaon; History of theft of metal sculptures from Dandeshwar  temple, Kumaon; History of theft of metal sculptures from Nanda Devi temple, Kumaon; History of theft of metal sculptures from Khaspadkhola temple, Kumaon; History of theft of metal sculptures from Pinakeshwar temple, Kumaon; History of theft of metal sculptures from Pumaon (Salam) temple, Kumaon;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Kumaon in Chand Period

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
       Characteristics of Chand Rule in Kumaon    
   
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 243

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                             Origin of Aipan

             The rock wall painting tradition had been found in Kumaon from prehistoric time. Lakhu Udyar and Lwethap are famous prehistoric rock painting examples in Kumaon.
      Aipan is classic example of art of Kumaon. Aipan is derived from Sanskrit word ‘Alimpana’ that means to plaster or coat with. Other synonymous words for Aipan in India are Chauk Purana and ‘Alpana’. Some scholars state that ‘Aipan’ is derived from ‘Arpan’.
It seems that Aipan started from Katyuri period in Kumaon.
 Aipan is art decoration on ground, wall, paper and cloths by drawing of various geometric and other figures of god/goddesses or nature. 
The major raw materials for ‘Aipan’ are ochre or Geru and rice paste. Fir the object or ground is pasted by ochre and then the desired drawing is done by rice paste.
 There are different forms of Aipan – Sarswati Chauki, Chamunda Hast Chauki, etc. The women create Aipan in many auspicious occasions.

                         Wood Crafts
 The wood crafts were well developed in Kumaon from Katyuri period. The wood craftsmen used to carve drawing on Tun or Devdaru wood. The best artistic wood craft is seen on door of Bad Aditya temple of Katarmall.
 The wood crafts could also be seen on old Tibari, Chhajja, Jangla. The artists used to carve images of nature, plants, Purnkumbh, animals, god, goddesses and other Hindi cionic images on wood columns. 
 
             No drawing Art
 Chand kings did not sponsor drawing artists or painters. There are no paintings of Chand Kings and their armed or administrative ministers as found n Garhwal.

              Music and Dance
 
     Chand Kings followed Mogul culture and promoted Majlish culture where in night, dancers and musicians used to show their art. There were court dancers and court musicians. The Chnad Kings levied Tax as Bajniya on people for paying salaries to court dancers and musicians.
  King Vijay Chandra was addicted to music, songs, dance and wine.
King Udyot Chandra built an entertainment hall in his palace.
King Jagat Chandra was sponsor of gambling and the gambling players.
King Devi Chandra was famous for sponsoring artists of music, dance. He built an entertainment building too.
The administrators Manik and Puran Mal Gaida were great lovers of music and female dancers.
There were teachers to teach dance, music for queens and princesses.
 Kumaoni people also developed folk music and folk dance by their own.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 10/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
Kanti Kumar Nautiyal , Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun , Chaukhamba Prakash
Hema Uniyal Kumaon ke Mandir (Book and Cassette Disc)
Madan Jit Singh, Himalayan Arts
Krishna Chand Bhatt, Information about Thefts of Archeological Materials from Kumaon, Pahad
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -245   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Nainital Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Almora Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Champawat Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Bageshwar Kumaon in Chand Period; History review of Aipan, Wood Crafts, Paintings, Music-Dance in Pithoragarh Kumaon in Chand Period;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Kumaon

          (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
       Characteristics of Chand Rule in Kumaon    
   
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 245

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

        There were Brahmin scholars settled in Kartikeypur /Joshimath at the time of Katyuri Period. Chand Kings used to sponsor scholars.
   King Rudra Chandra- King Rudra Chandra was Sanskrit scholar who created Sanskrit classics as Usharagodiya Natika; Shyainik Shastram, Traivanik Dharam-Niyam and Yayati Charitram.Kashi Pundits appreciated Traivanik Dharam-Niyam and they had discussions on the book.
 In Shyainik Shastram, the name of creator is Shrikurmachaldhipati Rudradev.
The name of creator of Usharagodiya Natika is written Shrikurmagirivareshwar –Shrimatpratapvaritatamobhashkar Shrimat Rudra Chandra Dev.
            Hari Hiramani came to Kumaon from Bandhavgadh because of fame of Usharagodiya Natika. Hiramani copied Usharagodiya Natika in 1582 in Kumaon.
King Trimall Chandra- According to Kaushtubh Smirit by Anant Dev, king Tirumall Chandrd used to sponsor scholars.
Bajbahadur Chandra – King Bajbahadur Chandra had scholars in his court as Hiramani Joshi of Malaganv, Ramapati of Sarpaganv, astrologer Manorath Joshi of Bherang village.
Scholar Anant Dev- Anant Dev was son of scholar Apdev of Narmada region. Bajbahadur arranged Anant Dev studying in Kashi.
Influenced by Bajbahadur, Anant  Dev created a large Sanskrit classic Sriti Kuashtabh. This book describes Sanskar, Achar, Rajdharma, Dan, Utsarg, Pratishtha, Tithi and Sanvatsar in each part.
Anant Dev also created books as Prayshchit Deepika, Kalnirnayvindu, Agnihotra Prayog, Chaturmasasy Prayog, Antyeshti Paddhati, Nakshatrasatraprayog. Anat Dev wrote commentary on  Bhagvannamkaumadi, Bhagvadbhaktinirnay, Mathurasetu, Meemansha, Nyayprakash, Vakyabhedbhav and Devatatvavichar.
Honoring of scholars by Kumaon Kings- Udyot Chandra and Gyan Chandra honored scholars from other parts of India as Matiram, Bhushan, etc.
 Premnidhi Pant a Kumaoni Scholar in Kashi (1700-1760) – Premnidhi Pant was son of Umapati Pant of Kumaon. He settled in Kashi in middle of eighteenth century. Premnidhi Pant became famous for his Tantrik Vidya. Premnidhi wrote Prithwipremodaya (1737); Prayaschitpradip (1753), Ghritdan Paddhati, Prayogratna, Samayaram, commentary on Sharadatilak, commentary on Shivtandava, Kartviryasaparya,
 Premnidhi was titled by scholars as ,Tantraraj’. There is a book -commentary on ‘Sudarshana’became famous among Tantriks. It is said that the book was written by his third wife Pranmanjari. It is said that Pranmanjari created another book ‘Shrividyanityakarm’.
Vishweshwar Pandey – Visheshwar Pandey was Kumaon scholar and became famous in Kashi. He became famous at the age of thirty two. His father was Lakshmi Dhar Pandey of Patiya village near Almora. Lakshmidhar settled in Kashi.
 Vishweshar Pandey wrote Sanskrit classics as Kavya Arya Saptshati,  Rukmaniparinaya, commentary on Naishdhiya epic, Mandarmanjari (prose –poetry), Alankarkaustubh, Alankar kulpradip, commentary on Rasmanjari, Siddhant Sudhnidhi (Grmmar), Tarkkautuhal (Nyaya). Vishweshar Pandey expired at the age of thirty two.  It seems he lived before 1830.
Kalyanchandraodayakavya- A Poet wrote a poetry book Kalyanchandraodayakavya that praised the King Doti Kalyan Chandra
Commentries- Padmadev Pandey wrote commentaries on Raghuvansh and Saptashati in the period of King Jagat Chandra (1702-1720).

                             Manaskhand

             The various scholars wrote Sanskrit classic Manaskhand in Chand Kingdom time. It seems that the last part of Manaskhand was completed in Bajbahadur Chandra period.
             Though, it is said that Manaskhand is part of Skandpuran but no publishers (Mumbai, Lucknow and Gorakhpur) of Skandpuran included Manaskhand in Skandpuran. It is sure that Manaskhand written by various scholars at various periods is not part of Skandpuran.
  Manaskhand starts from the dialogues between Janamjey and Sut. Janamjey asks the road for Mansarovar. Sut replies and describes the places as Kurmachal (Kali Kumaon), Gind (Gindhiya River). Loha Bati River (Loha Ghat), Kurmshila parvat (Kanddev Mountain), Saryu, Darun, Jhankar Kshetra (jageshwar), Patal Bhuvneshwar, Ramganga, Baleshwar, Kaligiri confluence, Chaturdrast (Chaundas), Vyasashram (Vyans), Kalimu, Keal hills, Gauri hills, Mansarovar, Rawanhrid (rakshash Tal), origin of Saryu River, Khecharteerth (Khocharnath), Brahmkapali, Rameshwar, Rinmochan, Brahmsarovar, nanda Mountain, Viadyanath (Baijnath), Mallikadevi ( Maldevi of Baura Rau).
  The descriptions of geographical places show that the places are limited to places of Chand Kingdom. Therefore, it is sure that Manaskhand was created in Chand Period.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 13/1/2014
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
Kanti Kumar Nautiyal , Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun , Chaukhamba Prakash
Hema Uniyal Kumaon ke Mandir (Book and Cassette Disc)
Madan Jit Singh, Himalayan Arts
Krishna Chand Bhatt, Information about Thefts of Archeological Materials from Kumaon, Pahad
Gopinath Kaviraj, Kashi ki Sarswat –Sadhnana
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -246   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Pithoragarh Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Champawat Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Dwarhat Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Saryu valley Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Mansarovar region Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Kali Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Jageshwar Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Bageshwar Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Almora Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Nainital Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Kumaon, Uttarkahand; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Kumaon, Himalaya; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Kumaon, North India; History Review of Manaskhand, Scholars, Honoring of Scholars in Chand Kingdom Period, Kumaon, South Asia;


Bhishma Kukreti

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                   Fairs and Festivals of Almora (Old)
              Source- Badri Datt Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
                   Fairs and Festivals of Uttarakhand – Part 1
            Internet Presentation: Bhishma Kukreti

Pargana---------------Place-----------Name of Fair -----------Deity
Baramandal -------Almora -----------Janmastami -----------Krishna
Baramandal -------Almora------------Nandastami-----------Nanda Devi
Baramandal -------Almora-------------Dashahra-------------Ramchandra
Baramandal -------Devthal-----------Shiv Ratri--------------Shiva
Baramandal -------Gannath -------------Kartiki 4 -------------Shiva
Baramandal -------Gannath --------------Holi-------------------Shiva
Baramandal -------Kuvali-Kaligad--------Shravani Purnmasi—Badrinath
Chaugarkha--------Jagishwari---------------Vaishakhi ------------Shiva
Chaugarkha -------Jhankarsaim-------------Jhankarsaim-----------Local deity
Gangoli -------------Rameshwar Mandir -----Uttarayani ------------Shiva
Gangoli ------------- Rameshwar Mandir ---------Vaishakhi --------Shiva
Gangoli -------------Rameshwar Mandir -----------Kartiki ------------Shiva
Gangoli ------------- Dhaulnag ---------------------Ngaanchami------Dhaulnag
Gangoli ------------- Dhaulnag ---------------------Navratri Panchami -----Dhaulnag
Sor --------------------Moshtmano-------------------Ngapanchami-----------Local deity
Seera--------------Baleshwar Thal-------------------Vrish Sankranti ----------Shiv
Seera --------------Bhagling Devchula ---------------Nagpanchami-----------Bhagling
Seera----------------Bhgaling Devchula --------------Anat Chaturdashi – ---Bhagling
Kali Kumaon --------Narsing Mandir Fadka----------Vijaydashmi ---------Nrisingh Avtar
Kali Kumaon --------Chamdeval Gumdesh---------Vaishakh Chamdev ------------Local
Kali Kumaon --------Gadhmukteshwar -------------Kartiki Purnamasi -----------Shiva
Kali Kumaon --------Khilpati ------------------------Ashadh Purnamsi ----------Akhiltarinidevi
Kali Kumaon --------Risheshwar Mahadev, Lohaghat—Mahastami--------Shiva
Kali Kumaon --------Devidhura---------------Shravn Purnmasi---------------Barahidevi
Danpur------------------Bageshwar--------------Uttarayani-----------------------Shiv
Danpur------------------Ranchulakot--------------Nandastami-------------------Nandadevi
Pali Pachhaun----------Somnath , Giwad,------------Somnath----------------Shiva
Pali Pachhaun----------Shrithaneshwar -------------------Vaishakh
Pali Pachhaun----------Bhimandeshwar Dora-------------Vishwat Sankranti –Shiva
Pali Pachhaun----------Budhakedar ----------------------Kartiki Purnmasi -------Shiva
Pali Pachhaun----------Neeleshwar , Jhikiyasain----------Shivratri-----------------Shiva
Pali Pachhaun----------Mamladevi-----------------------Vishwat Sankranti-------Shiva
Pali Pachhaun----------Kapileshwar Mhadev--------Shivratri -----------------------Shiva
Askot ------------------Jaunljivi ---------------------------Kartik-------------------Tijarati Mela
Askot Laccher -----------------------------------------------Nainipatal




Copyright @ Shakti Prasad Pande, Almora
8/4/2014
Notes on Fairs and Festivals of Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Uttarkashi  Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Haridwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Fairs and Festivals of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Mid Himalaya; Fairs and Festivals of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalaya; Fairs and Festivals of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, North India; Fairs and Festivals of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, South Asia to be continued …

Bhishma Kukreti

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Shakambari Jayal (Juyal): The First Woman Historian of Uttarakhand
                     Historians of Uttarakhand -1
                                       Bhishma Kukreti

       Shakambari Jayal (Juyal) is first woman Historian of Uttarakhand. There is a long list of famous historians of Uttarakhand who were her disciple as Dr Pushpesh Pant, Dr Shekhar Pathak, Dr. Sunil Kumar, Dr. Dharampal Manral , Madan Chandra Bhatt and many more.
       Shakambari Jayal (Juyal) was niece of ex Prime Minister of Tehri Riyasat Chakra Dhar Juyal. Shakambari Juyal was born in 1924. She died in Jaipur (Rajasthan) at the age of 86. The forefather of Shakambari Juyal belonged to Pauri Garhwal and her father was settled in Dhakrani, Dehradun. . Her father Chandra Datt Juyal was a government officer in Almora. She was born after her parents returned from Shakmbhari Temple pilgrim, Saharanpur and they named her as Shakambhari. She took her basic education in Dehradun. Her two brothers Vidhudhar and Nalnidhar Juyal were IAS officers.
 Shakambari Jayal (Juyal) passed graduation and post graduate from Banaras Hindu University. She passed her M.A (History) in the subject- Medieval India (Madhyakalin Bharat). Dr Shakambari Jayal (Juyal) got her PhD under the eminent historian Dr Ramashankar Tripathi. Shakambari Jayal (Juyal) started her teaching carrier from Vasantan Degree College. Later on she was appointed as Assistant professor of DBS College Nainital. Later on she became professor at Government College Ranikhet and retired from there. Shakambari Juyal married with a Gujrati scholar Dr Gautam Dwivedi.
  Credit goes to Dr Shakambari Jayal (Juyal) for initiating history research in Nainital College. When Dr Juyal became head of department, she worked hard to make the library as research oriented library. She approached UGC for providing books and encyclopedias for the History libraries and got help from UGC.
  She also initiated to have history exhibition in Nainital and it was a successful history exhibition. Afterward, She also arranged two more History Exhibitions in Nainital. Dr Jayal (Juyal) initiated research in Kumaon and found many new unknown aspects of Kumaon archeology and history of Kumaon. She started ‘Kumaon Sangrahlaya’ in Nainital. Dr Shakmbari Jayal (Juyal) initiated various reseahces on History of Kumaon and also supported scholars as Prayag Joshi.
 Dr Shakambari Jayal (Juyal) was supporter of cultural history than Formal history, journalistic history, and archeological history.
 Dr Shakambari Jayal (Juyal) published many history articles in history journals. Her book ‘The Status of Women in the Epics’ was published in 1966. The book got very good comments from historians.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai 13/10/2014
                   Reference
Dr Madan Chandra Bhatt, 2011, Uttarakhand ki Pratham Mahila Itihaskar Dr Shakambari Jayal (Juyal), Shailvani Samarika, Kotdwara 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Relationship of Garhwal Kingdom with Gorkhas (Nepal) 

             Foreign Policy of Garhwal Kings in Pal /Shah Period -8
Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -37 

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -226     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -474 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

        Gorkhas (Nepal) captured Kumaon in 1790. Gorkhas were stronger than all Hill states as Garhwal and Himachal. Gorkhas were eager to spread their rule to North India. Garhwal King Pradyuma Shah could not take help of East India Company or East India Company could not help to Garhwal against Gorkha because it was engaged in conflict with Maratha and Tipu Sultan. Might be, Garhwal King was aware about repressive methods of East India Company in Awadh.
                East India Company had a business treaty with Nepal in 1801 and East India Company had two representatives in Kathmandu, Nepal.
 Garhwal tried to capture Garhwal through south Garhwal but could not win. Gorkha sent their representatives in Garhwal. Those representatives used to exploit Garhwal Kingdom. In September –October 1803, Gorkhas captured Garhwal.
           

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 6/11/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -475 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued


XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
XX
                                                           Swacch Bharat ! स्वच्छ भारत !

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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 कुमाऊ का संक्षिप्त इतिहास
=========================================

कुमाँऊ शब्द की उत्पत्ति कुर्मांचल से हुई है जिसका मतलब है कुर्मावतार (भगवान विष्णु का कछुआ रूपी अवतार) की धरती। कुमाँऊ मध्य हिमालय में स्थित है, इसके उत्तर में हिमालय, पूर्व में काली नदी, पश्चिम में गढ‌वाल और दक्षिण में मैदानी भाग। इस क्षेत्र में मुख्यतया ‘कत्यूरी’ और ‘चंद’ राजवंश के वंशजों द्धारा राज्य किया गया। उन्होंने इस क्षेत्र में कई मंदिरों का भी निर्माण किया जो आजकल सैलानियों (टूरिस्ट) के आकर्षण का केन्द्र भी हैं।

कुमाँऊ का पूर्व मध्ययुगीन इतिहास ‘कत्यूरी’ राजवंश का इतिहास ही है, जिन्होंने 7 वीं से 11 वीं शताब्दी तक राज्य किया। इनका राज्य कुमाँऊ, गढ‌वाल और पश्चिम नेपाल तक फैला हुआ था। अल्मोडाऊ शहर के नजदीक स्थित खुबसूरत जगह बैजनाथ इनकी राजधानी और कला का मुख्य केन्द्र था। इनके द्धारा भारी पत्थरों से निर्माण करवाये गये मंदिर वास्तुशिल्पीय कारीगरी की बेजोड‌ मिसाल थे। इन मंदिरों में से प्रमुख है ‘कटारमल का सूर्य मंदिर’ (अल्मोडा शहर के ठीक सामने, पूर्व के ओर की पहाडी पर स्थित)। 900 साल पूराना ये मंदिर अस्त होते ‘कत्यूरी’ साम्राज्य के वक्त बनवाया गया था।
कुमाँऊ में ‘कत्यूरी’ साम्राज्य के बाद पिथौरागढ‌ के ‘चंद’ राजवंश का प्रभाव रहा। जागेश्वर का प्रसिद्ध शिव मंदिर इन्ही के द्धारा बनवाया गया था, इसकी परिधि में छोटे बडेत कुल मिलाकर 164 मंदिर हैं।

ऐसा माना गया है कि ‘कोल’ शायद कुमाँऊ के मूल निवासी थे, द्रविडों से हारे जाने पर उनका कोई एक समुदाय बहुत पहले कुमाँऊ आकर बस गया। आज भी कुमाँऊ के शिल्पकार उन्हीं ‘कोल’ समुदाय के वंशज माने जाते हैं। बाद में ‘खस’ समुदाय के काफी लोग मध्य एशिया से आकर यहाँ के बहुत हिस्सों में बस गये। कुमाँऊ की ज्यादातर जनसंख्या इन्हीं ‘खस’ समुदाय की वंशज मानी जाती है। ऐसी कहावत है कि बाद में ‘कोल’ समुदाय के लोगों ने ‘खस’ समुदाय के सामने आत्मसमर्फण कर इनकी संस्कृति और रिवाज अपनाना शुरू कर दिया होगा। ‘खस’ समुदाय के बाद कुमाँऊ में ‘वैदिक आर्य’ समुदाय का आगमन हुआ। स्थानीय राजवंशों के इतिहास की शुरूआत के साथ ही यहाँ के ज्यादातर निवासी भारत के तमाम अलग अलग हिस्सों से आये ‘सवर्ण या ऊंची जात’ से प्रभावित होने लगे। आज के कुमाँऊ में ब्राह्मण, राजपूत, शिल्पकार, शाह (कभी अलग वर्ण माना जाता था) सभी जाति या वर्ण के लोग इसका हिस्सा हैं।

संक्षेप में, कुमाँऊ को जानने के लिये हमेशा निम्न जातियों या समुदाय का उल्लेख किया जायेगा – शोक्य या शोक, बंराजिस, थारू, बोक्स, शिल्पकार, सवर्ण, गोरखा, मुस्लिम, यूरोपियन (औपनिवेशिक युग के समय), बंगाली, पंजाबी (विभाजन के बाद आये) और तिब्बती (सन् 1960 के बाद)।

6वीं शताब्दी (ए.डी) से पहले - क्यूनीनदास या कूनीनदास
6वीं शताब्दी (ए.डी) के दौरान - खस, नंद और मौर्य। ऐसी मान्यता है बिंदुसार के शासन के वक्त खस समुदाय द्धारा की गई बगावत अशोक द्धारा दबा दी गई। उस वक्त पुरूष प्रधान शासन माना जाता है। 633-643 ए.डी के दौरान यूवान च्वांग (ह्वेन-टीसेंग) के कुमाँऊ के कुछ हिस्सों का भ्रमण किया और उसने स्त्री राज्य का भी उल्लेख किया। ऐसा माना जाता है कि यह गोविशाण (आज का काशीपूर) क्षेत्र रहा होगा। कुमाँऊ के कुछ हिस्सों में उस वक्त ‘पौरवों’ ने भी शासन किया होगा।
6वी से 12वी शताब्दी (ए.डी) - इस दौरान कत्यूरी वंश ने सारे कुमाँऊ में शासन किया। 1191 और 1223 के दौरान दोती (पश्चिम नेपाल) के मल्ल राजवंश के अशोका मल्ल और क्रचल्ला देव ने कुमाँऊ में आक्रमण किया। कत्यूरी वंश छोटी छोटी रियासतों में सीमित होकर रह गया।
12वी शताब्दी (ए.डी) से - चंद वंश के शासन की शुरूआत। चंद राजवंश ने पाली, अस्कोट, बारामंडल, सुई, दोती, कत्यूर द्धवाराहाट, गंगोलीहाट, लाखनपुर रियासतों में अधिकार कर अपने राज्य में मिला ली।
1261 – 1275 - थोहर चंद
1344 – 1374 या 1360 – 1378 - अभय चंद। कुछ ताम्रपत्र मिले जो चंद वंश के अलग अलग शासकों से संबन्धित थे लेकिन शासकों के नाम का पता नही चल पाया।
1374 – 1419 (ए.डी) - गरूड़ ज्ञानचंद
1437 – 1450 (ए.डी) - भारती चंद
1565 – 1597 (ए.डी) - रूद्र चंद
1597 – 1621 (ए.डी) - लक्ष्मी चंद। चंद शासकों के दौरान नये शहरों की स्थापना और इनका विकास भी हुआ जैसे रूद्रपुर, बाजपुर, काशीपुर।
1779 – 1786 (ए.डी) - कुमाँऊ के परमार राजकुमार, प्रद्धयुमन शाह ने प्रद्धयुमन चंद के नाम से राज्य किया और अंततः गोरखाओं के साथ खुरबुरा (देहरादून) के युद्ध में वीरगति को प्राप्त हुआ।
1788 – 1790 (ए.डी) - महेन्द्र सिंह चंद, ऐसा माना जाता है कि यह चंद वंश का अंतिम शासक था। जिसने राजबुंगा (चंपावत) से शासन किया लेकिन बाद में अल्मोडा। से किया।
1790 – 1815 (ए.डी) - कुमाँउ में गोरखाओं का राज्य रहा। गोरखाओं के निर्दयता और जुल्म से भरपूर शासन में चंद वंश के शासकों का पूरा ही नाश हो गया।
1814 – 1815 (ए.डी) - नेपाल युद्ध। ईस्ट इंडिया कम्पनी ने गोरखाओं को पराजित कर कुमाऊँ में राज्य करना शुरू किया।
यदपि ब्रिटिश राज्य गोरखाओं (जिसको गोरख्योल कहा जाता था) से कम निर्दयता पूर्ण और बेहतर था लेकिन फिर भी ये विदेशी राज्य था। लेकिन फिर भी ब्रिटिश राज्य के दौरान ही कुमाँऊ में प्रगति की शुरूआत भी हुई। इसके बाद, कुमाँऊ में भी लोग विदेशी राज्य के खिलाफ उठ खडे हुए।

जानकारी शेयर भी करें

By Manoj Bhatt Bageshwar.

Pawan Pathak

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बधाणगढ़ से नंदादेवी की प्रतिमा लाए थे चंद राजा
उत्तराखंड के हर क्षेत्र में पूजी जाती हैं
जब कमिश्नर ट्रेल की आंखों की रोशनी घटी

मल्ला महल (वर्तमान कचहरी) में जो नंदादेवी की मूर्तियां प्रतिष्ठित थीं उन्हें अंग्रेजों के शासनकाल के दौरान 1815 ई. के कुछ साल बाद में तत्कालीन कमिश्नर ट्रेल ने उद्योत चंद्रेश्वर मंदिर में रखवा दिया। किंवदंती यह भी है कि तत्कालीन कुमाऊं कमिश्नर ट्रेल जब हिमालय के नंदादेवी चोटी की तरफ गए तो उनकी आंखों की रोशनी अचानक काफी कम हो गई। बताया जाता है कि इसके बाद कुछ लोगों की सलाह पर उन्होंने अल्मोड़ा आकर नंदादेवी को वर्तमान मंदिर में स्थापित करवाया।
एक सूत्र में पिरोती है मां
त्तराखंड को एक सूत्र में पिरोने मां नंदा की बहुत महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका रही है।
पुराणों में हिमालय की पुत्री को नंदा बताया गया है, जिनका विवाह शिव से होता है। देवी भागवत में नंदा को शैलपुत्री के रूप में नौ दुर्गाओं में एक बताया गया है, जबकि भविष्य पुराण में उन्हें सीधे तौर पर दुर्गा कहा गया है। नंदादेवी के नाम से हिमालय की अनेक चोटियां हैं। इनमें नंदादेवी, नंदाकोट, नंदाघुंटी, नंदाखाट आदि चोटियां हैं। इसके अलावा नंदाकिनी, नंद केसरी आदि नदियों के नाम भी नंदा देवी के नाम से हैं।

चंद राजवंश तांत्रिक विधि से करते हैं पूजा
दीप जोशी
अल्मोड़ा। कुमाऊं अंचल में मां नंदा देवी की पूजा सैकड़ों सालों से की जाती रही है, लेकिन चंद शासकों के शासनकाल में इसे व्यापक स्वरूप मिला। 1670 ई. में कुमाऊं के चंद वंशीय शासक बाज बहादुर चंद बधाणगढ़ के किले से नंदादेवी की प्रतिमा को अल्मोड़ा लाए। इस प्रतिमा को उन्होंने अपने मल्ला महल (वर्तमान कलक्ट्रेट) में प्रतिष्ठित करके अपनी कुलदेवी के रूप में पूजना शुरू किया।
कत्यूरी, चंद और गढ़वाल के नरेश नंदा को कुल देवी के रूप में पूजते रहे। नंदा गढ़वाल और चंद राजाओं के राजकुल की बहन-बेटी के रूप में भी मानी जाती थी। एडकिंशन गजेटियर के मुताबिक 1670 ई. में बाज बहादुर चंद बधाणगढ़ से नंदादेवी की प्रतिमा अल्मोड़ा लाए और अपने मल्ला महल में प्रतिष्ठित की। जिस परिसर में वर्तमान नंदादेवी मंदिर स्थित है उस स्थान पर 1690-91 में तत्कालीन नरेश उद्योत चंद ने दो शिव मंदिर उद्योत चंद्रेश्वर और पार्वतेश्वर बनवाए। बाद में इन्हीं मूर्तियों को इन मंदिरों में प्रतिष्ठित कराया गया। चंद शासकों के काल की मूर्तियां अब कहां हैं इसके बारे में भी कोई स्पष्ट जानकारी नहीं है।
•1815 में मल्ला महल से नंदादेवी मंदिर में प्रतिष्ठित की थी मूर्ति
•कुल देवी के रूप में पूजते रहे चंद और कत्यूरी राजा मां नंदा को
गढ़वाल और चंद राजाओं के कुल की बहन बेटी के रूप में भी मानी जाती थी नंदा
नंदाष्टमी के अवसर पर अल्मोड़ा में नंदादेवी की पूजा तारा शक्ति के रूप में होती है। यह पूजा तांत्रिक विधि से होती है और चंद शासकों के वंशज ही इस पूजा को कराते हैं। स्व. राजा आनंद सिंह तंत्र विद्या में काफी पारंगत माने जाते थे। उनके निधन के बाद नंदादेवी की पूजा पद्धति में काफी परिवर्तन आ चुका है। आज भी चंद शासकों के वंशज नैनीताल के सांसद केसी सिंह बाबा और उनके परिवारजन नंदाष्टमी के मौके पर परंपरा के मुताबिक तांत्रिक पूजा करवाते हैं। यह पूजा तारा यंत्र के सामने होती है। तारा यंत्र राज परिवार अपने साथ लेकर आता है।

Source- http://epaper.amarujala.com/svww_zoomart.php?Artname=20150914a_005115011&ileft=110&itop=76&zoomRatio=130&AN=20150914a_005115011

 

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