Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 67837 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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              Predecessors and Successor of Nar Singh Katyuri

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 121A
 
    Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath (Uttarakhand, India) – 3A
          (Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1200 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti


               Predecessors of Nar (Jay) Singh Dev


            The list of Doti and Askot by Atkinson state fourteen names as predecessors of Jay (Nar) Singh dev
          The lists are as
Doti list of Katyuri kings ----------------------------------Askot List of Katyuri king
1-Shalinvahan Dev -----------------------------------1- Shalinvahan Dev (Probable period 850AD)
2-Shakti Vahan Dev-----------------------------------2-Sajay Dev
3-Hari Brahm Dev ------------------------------------3-Harihar Dev
4-Brahm Dev------------------------------------------4-Brahmdev
5- Vajra Dev --------------------------------------------5- Vajra Dev
6-Vikarmaditya Dev ----------------------------------6- Vikrma Jit Dev
7-Dharma Pal dev--------------------------------------7-Dharm Pal Dev
8- Nilpal Dev ---------------------------------------------8-Nilaypal Dev
9-Munjraj Dev -------------------------------------------9-Bhunjraj Dev
10-Bhoj Dev -----------------------------------------------BhojRaj Dev
11-Sumar Singh Dev ------------------------------------Samar Singh Dev
12-Ashal dev -------------------------------------------12- Asal Dev
13-Sarang Dev ----------------------------------------13-Sarang Dhar Dev
14-Nakul Dev -------------------------------------------14- Sali Nakul Dev

                      Successors of Nar (Jay) Dev Katyuri
The lists state the following names of successors of Nar (Jay) Singh Dev 
 Doti List ----------------------------------------Askot List
15- Jay Singh dev -----------------------------24- Jay Singh dev (Probable period 1000AD)
16- Anijal Dev ----------------------------------18-Asuk Dev
17-Vidyaraj Dev --------------------------------28-Vidhiraj Dev
18-Prithwishwar Dev -------------------------29-Prithwishar Dev
19-Chun (Gun) Pal Dev ------------------------23 Gunpati Dev
20- Asanti Devi -----------------------------------31-Asanti Dev
21-Asanti Dev--------------------------------------32-Asanti Dev
22-Kattar Mal Dev -------------------------------33-Kattar mal dev  (temple wall inscription 1080-1090)
 
                    Katar Mall Dev Katyuri (1080-1090)

         Katar Mall Dev built a Badaditya Mandir (Bigger or Greater Sun Temple) seven miles far from Almora. Today, this place is called Katar Ganv and temple is called Katar mal mandir.
 The Sun temple is built on Katyuri design. The Sun sculpture has Sun putting on Boot. The re scultptures of Shiva, Vishnu , Ganesh.
 The kings used to donate land for managing rituals in temples. There were Devcheliyan (female dancers) for dancing in temples.
This period is also known for building Sun temples in other parts of India too.
               Successors of Katar Mall dev
   A Katyuri brave man Veer Dev captured most of the Katyuri territory after or at the time of Katar Mall Dev.
 The successors of Katar Mall Dev became regional chieftains.
  The lists provide names of Katyuri regional chieftains who were successors of Katar Mall Dev as-
 Doti List ----------------------------------------Askot List
23- Singhmall Dev -------------------------34-Singh Dev
24-Fanimall Dev -----------------------------36-Fina Dev
25- Nifimall Dev-----------------------------37-Ran Kin Dev
26-Nilray Dev--------------------------------38- Nil Ray Dev
27- Vajrabahu dev--------------------------39- Vajrabahu Dev
28-Gaurang Dev ----------------------------40- Gaur dev
29- Shyamal Dev----------------------------41-Samil Dev
30-Hariraj Dev -------------------------------42-Itinraj Dev
31- Nilraj Dev ---------------------------------43-Nilkraj dev
32-Fatikshila Dev -----------------------------44-Udakshila Dev
33-Pithayraj ------------------------------------34-Pritam dev


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 6/9/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -121 A
 Asian Medieval History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri to be continued…
  (Oriental Medieval History (740-1200 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 121B
 
    Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath (Uttarakhand, India) – 2 B
          (Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1200 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti



                                         Territory of Katyuri Kingdom of 1000-1090 History Periods


       There are fewer records available for knowing the total are of Katyuri kingdom (Jay Singh Dev to Katar Mal Dev 1000-1090).
 The Katyuri kingdom was divided into district, the district was divided into Mandals (as tehseel or Mandal of today’s’ time); Madal was divided into Thakurai; Thakurai was divided into Gadh, Kot or Thokdaris. The in charge of Kot or Gadh were called Gadhpatti or Kotpati .
              Due to constant attacks of Mahmud Ghazni on north India, many army men were entering into Uttarakhand hills for shelters. The ambitious local persons were taking help of these emigrant armed men and establishing Thakurai.
                The different regions of Katyuri kingdom were based on geographical, linguistic, cultural, social and religious exclusivities.  There were exclusivities of each region from life style; dresses, even animals domestication and animals point of views too.
   Initially, the regional heads were either Katyuri or Khasas. The regional chieftains wee very important as they were capable to change the king too.
  The following main regions or Mandals (as today’s Tehseel) were there –

                             Tankan Mandal
  The north territory of Garhwal or Kedarbhumi  was called Tankan Region. The region is/was attached to Tibetan boundary. Each village of Neeti and Mana region used to be Gadh of Tankan region. Other Gadh were Kartikeypur, Tapovan, Parsari, Painkhanda, Khanda and Dashauli.

              Durmarg Mandal or Region

              Durmarg region was Mandakini valley. There was peace in the region. Therefore, many temples were built in the region/Mandal. Main Gadhs were Nagpur and Kandara.
 
              Badahat Mandal or Region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)

 The Badahat Mandal was extended from Yamuna- Bhagirathi and Bhagirathi- Bhilangana valleys.
The Gadhs of North-West Badahat:- Gadhtang, Jor, Biralta, Silgadh, Mungra, Sankari, Badkot, Todarkwara, Rami Gadhs. There were infighting of these Gdhs with Gadhs of Kinnaur and Sirmaur of Himachal Pradesh.
The Gadhs of West Badahat-  Udaypur, Kirtingar, Bangar, Chilla,Pratapnagar,, Bhardar, Bhilang Gadh.
Uppugadh was under Badahat region. Ramola Garh was in Mukheem.

  Rath-Chanth Mandal or Region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)
 
  Present Badhan, Chandpur, Chaund, Top, Ranigarh, Lohaba, Dhauna, Vangarh, Kanda, Gujdu, and Savli were main Gadh. Dewalgarh was also under Rath Region.

              Mal, Salan Mandal or Region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)

  The south of present Garhwal was called Salan or Mal Mandal.
Mahab Garh, Bagh, Ajmeer, Shri Guru, Mavakot, Gatkot, Bhairon garh, Ghughti, Badalpur, Laldhang, Chandi, Santur, Kola, Sher, Nanor, Nala Virbhadra, Mordhwaj, Kunjani, Ratan, Kuili, Bharpur, etc regions were under Salan or mal region.

                 Lakha Mandal of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)
     Sirmaur and Doon valley was under this region. Salmur, Kota, Sirmaur were main Gadh.


             Katyur Danpur Mandal or Region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)

  The region is in present Kumaun and main Gadh were Danpur, Harkot, Dhurkot, Kapkot, Karvipur,. Khasa were chieftains.

         Pali Mandal or Region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)

 The head quarter was Dwarhat. Dwarhat, Asurgadhi, Juniyagadhi, Dauralkot, Naithana, Manila were main Gadh of Pali Mandal.

             Bara Mandal or Region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)
  The bara Mandal was extended to the bank of Sual River. Vishaud, Khagmara, Faldakot, Dhaniyakot, Syunara, Tikhaun, Pankot, Raila, Parkot, Talla Kot, Malla Kot, Majkot, Budhlakot, were main Kot or forts. The Khasia chieftains were cruel.

                             Kota Mandal or Region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)

     Shitalhat, Batikhahi, Mahrudi, Parkot, Dhikuli, Lakhanpur, Kashipur, Govishan, Lohakot, were main Gadh of this Bhabhar region. The region was always disturbed by attacks from plains of kings or regional chieftains.
                   Kali Kumaon Mandal or region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)

  Domkot, Champawat, Kautol, Sui, Chamul, Chandi, Chhat, Baun, Son, Koyal, Kaida, Malua, were main Gadhs of this region.


             Gangoli Mandal or region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)
 
                Manikot, Gangolihat, Vankot, Jamankot, were main Gadh of this Mandal.

                Saur Mandal or Region of Katyuri Kingdom Period (1000-1090AD)

        Ucha, Bhat, Bailar, udaypur, Dungara, Sahaj, Babhuva, Devdhar and Duni were main Gadh of Saur Mandal.

      Seera Mandal or Region of Katyuri Kingdom Period (1000-1090AD)

 Didihat, Seerakot, were main Gadh. The fort of Seerakot was unwinnable.

  Askot Mandal or region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)

Askot had eighty forts or Gadh. It was also called Khaskot or Muskot.

      Bhot Mandal or region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090 AD)
  The Bhot mandal was divided into East Bhot region and west Bhot region.
Juhar or Jubar was in west Bhot region.
Darma, Vyans and Chaundas Gadh were under this region.
The rules of Katyuri kings were nominal on the chieftains of Bhot.

 Kalipar or Doti Mandal or Region of Katyuri Kingdom (1000-1090AD)

 The Doti (today’s Nepal) had main Gadhs as Itri, Devra, Gadhi Charail, Dandel, Tilari, Baitadi, Matiyala, Karala, Rajkot, Silgadhi, Talkot, Ramkot, Dillikot, Dulukot, Dailekhkot,. There are descriptions of Jurail, Dipail, Bajrail, Ajmir in folklores.

                    Subjects of Katyuri Kingdom of Indian, Himalayan Medieval Period (before 1090)


 The people were Khasa in Katyuri kingdom. Dr Katoch states that Katyuris were Khasa too.

                Shelters for Artists

   Katyuri kings used to respect art and artists. The temples of this period are proof that Katyuri respected and encouraged art and artists.

                        Arrival of External Brahmins and Rajput

     In past Brahmins and Rajputs used to settle in Uttrakhand from various parts of India but in scanty numbers.  In eleventh century onwards,  Rajputs and Brahmins arrived in mass. These external people exploited the local mass.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 7/9/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -121 C
 Asian Medieval History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri to be continued…
  (Oriental Medieval History (740-1200 AD to be continued…)
Xx                    xxx
Notes on Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Doti Nepal-Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Champawat Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Dwarhat, Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Bageshwar , Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Almora, Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Nainital, Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Chamoli Garhwal Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Rudraprayag, Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Uttarkashi Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Dehradun Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History; Geographical and Political Regions or Mandals of Haridwar, Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom in context Indian, Himalayan Medieval History…

Bhishma Kukreti

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  Niranjan Dev Katyuri King in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History 

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 136
 
      Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Imperialism of Karvipur (Uttarakhand, India) – 21

            (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)
          ( Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))- (740-1300 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                      Niranjan Dev Katyuri (1275-1300 AD)


             The ruling period of Niranjan Dev started in 1275 after Trilokpal Dev Katyuri.
            Historians call Niranjan Dev for his paying attention on defense. Lakshaman Pal Dev recaptured Doti. However, the successors of Krachalla were ruling over strategic territories as Jumla, Vyans, and Chaudas. It was essential for Katyuri kings to get back Jumla, Vyans, and Chaudas from Krachalla successors.
                    Establishing Askot Katyuri branch
              The Katyuri King lists state that Niranjan Dev asked his younger brother Abhaya Pal Dev for establishing a branch head quarter in Askot. Askot is still a strategic place from where there could be watch over the passages from Vyans-Chaudas to Brahmdev mandi; Khagmara to Baijnath. Before establishing new branch at Askot, a Khasa regional chieftain was the ruler of Askot under Katyuri supreme kingdom.
  From 1279 to British entered in Uttarakhand (1814), the successors of Abhaya Pal Dev Katyuri ruled over Askot. Abhaya Pal dev was younger brother. Therefore Abhaya Pal Dev was called ‘Rajwar’. The dynasty was called ‘Rajwar’. Before sixteenth century, the rulers of Askot were ruling the region under super rule of Doti and later on Rajwar ruled Askot under super rule of Chand of Kumaun.

                               Seera Rule

  The Seera region was very much important from defense strategic point of view. When Abhaya pal Dev established branch in Askot, Niranjan Dev captured the local rule of Seera from chieftain Bhakti Raut the grandson of Agdhi Raut. Niranjan Dev established his son Dheermall in Seera as ruler. Niranjan Dev made rules for future that before a prince take over the rule of Doti the prince had to rule over Seera. After establishing Doti as another capital, Niranjan Dev got the title as Maharaja’.
      The Katyuri rulers of Doti were called ‘Rainka Maharaja’. Katyuris ruled Doti till Gorkha invasion in 1790.
           Niranjan Dev ruled Manas Bhumi (Kumaon) from Doti and lost effective power in Kumaon region. Around 1290, Niranjan Dev dispatched his son Arjun Dev rule over Kumaon –south west of Dwarhat.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 8/9/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -137
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1300 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
Notes on History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History;  History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of  Dwarhat in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of Kumaon  in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of Seera  in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of  Kali Kumaon in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of Sui  in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of  Askot in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of Chaudas  in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of  Vyans in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of Syunara  in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of Danpur  in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of  Gangoli in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of Baramandal  in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History; History of Niranjan Dev Katyuri King of Faldakot  in Context Medieval Himalayan, India History 
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Arjun Dev Katyuri and His Successors
 
         (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 138
 
      Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Imperialism of Karvipur (Uttarakhand, India) – 22

           
          (Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))- (1236-1600 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
         
                   Maharaja Arjun Dev Katyuri (1290-1316) and his Successors 
   

               There is one inscription of 1307 of Arjun Dev is available. The said inscription suggests that Maharaja Arjun Dev ruled from 1290-1316 AD.
  The regional Khasa chieftain of Danpur became very powerful and Arjun Dev had to establish his capital in Dwarhat.
  Raja Sudhardev built a temple in Dwarhat in 1236.
 Raja Mandev Katyuri built temple in Dwarhat in 1337.
Raja Somdev Katyuri built temples in Dwarhat in 1348 and 1354.
Raja Nirnaypal Katyuri built temple in Syunara.
              There are inscriptions of regional kings of Gangoli (under Katyuri super rule) Raja Lingraj Dev, raja Hammerdev and queen Dharldei . The inscriptions of Hammerdev are of 1352 and 1365.
         
               Weakening Katyuri kingdom

 This period (1300-1400) saw weakening of Dwarhat Katyuri super rule over Danpur, Gangoli and Baramandal. The regional chieftains under Katyuri kings of Dwarhat became Kings themselves. Though, nominally, these regional chiefs were under Katyuri super rule.

              The Ruins of Dwarhat

 There are historical ruins available in Dwarhat, Dera.
The temples of Gujar Deval, Ratan deval, Kacheri, Mrityunjay, Kutumbudi, Bandeval, Badrinath, Maniyan of this region are said to be of twelfth and fourteenth centuries. There are water reservoirs (Naule) of this period in Dwarhat region. The Islamic attackers destroyed many temples and deity sculptures too. There are sculptures of Lakshmi, Ganga, Jamuna, Das Avtar of Vishnu, Shiv-Parvati, Shiv Ling, Sheshyasai Vishnu deities and goddesses.

                          List of Katyuri Kings and Regional chieftains (Mandalik) from 1275-1562

                        Baijnath Doti Katyuri Kingdom
Names----------------------------------------------Approximate Ruling Period 
Mharaja Niranjan dev ----------------------------- 1275-1300
Rajwar Abhaypal of Askot -------------------------1279-?
Rainka Dhir malla of Seera-------------------------- 1279-?
Raja Gurjar Dev of Dwarhat -------------------------1250-1290 (Inscription of 1257)
                      Baijnath-Dwarhat Katyuri Kingdom
 Maharaja Arjun Dev -----------------------------------1290-1310 (inscription of 1307)
Maharaja Sudhardev ----------------------- 1310-1337 (inscription of 1316)
Maharaja Mandev --------------------------1337-1348 (inscription of 1337)
Maharaja Somdev------------------------------1348-1368 (inscription of1348/57)
(mandlik) Raja Ramchandra Dev of Gangoli ------------1264-1284 (inscription of 1264)
Two anonymous n kings
Raja Lingrajdev  of Gangoli -------------------------------------1337-1350
Raja Hmammerdev of gangoli ----------------------------------1350-1370 (inscription of 1352/65)
Rani Dharaldei of Gangoli
Khasiya Rule -----------------------------------------------------1370-1420
Manikoti Chand --------------------------------------------------1340-?(inscription of 348)
Raja Niraypal dev of Khagmara ---------------------------------1340-?(inscription of 1348)
Raja Arjun Dev of Syunara -------------------------------------1300-? (Inscription of 1307)
Raja vir Singh dev of Vishaud -----------------------------------1300-?
There are no inscriptions available of Katyuri rulers after 1360. The Katyuris became regional chieftains after 1360.

                    Emergence of Khasa Rule (1370-1420)

          Around 1370, a Khasa Gadhpati captured region from aregional chieftain of Dwarhat Baijnath Katyuri.
In 1420, a Chandra vansi  king of Manikoti snatched the Gangoli regiona from Khasa king.
15 Khasa rulers ruled over Danpur from 1360-1560. There are names of Khasa chieftains –Kadadu and Parsi in inscriptions. Folklores illustrate the Khasa rulers as Kali, Gangu, Bagha, anandu, and their five brothers. Though weak but there was Katyuri rules over Baijnath, Visaud, Syunara, Lakhanpur, Pali Dwarhat.  Chanda King Kirati Chandra won the  Visaud, Syunara, Lakhanpur, Pali Dwarhat Kingdoms in fifteenth century and Rudra Chandra captured Baijnath in sixteenth century.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/9/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -139
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1300 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
Notes on Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings of Doti Nepal; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings of Sui; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings of Seera; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings and regional chieftains of Danpur; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings and regional chieftains of Dwarhat; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings and regional chieftains of Askot; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings and regional chieftains of Gangoli; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings and regional chieftains of Khagmara; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings and regional chieftains of Syunara; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings and regional chieftains of Visuad; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings and regional chieftains of Manasbhumi (Kumaon); Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings and regional chieftains of Baijnath; Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Kings and regional chieftains of Lakhanpur   

Bhishma Kukreti

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Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History


         (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 139
 
      Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath-Dwarhat- Karvipur (Uttarakhand, India) – 23

           
          (Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))- (1236-1790 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
       The Katyuri lost their kingdom in Baijnath by 1360. There are many historical and folklore evidences for the reasoning of fall, collapse, disintegration, crumbling of Katyuri rule in Baijnath-Dwarhat region. However, three  major reasons are more important for the fall, collapse of Katyuri rule from Dwarhat-Baijnath region.   

                       Shifting of Capital
  Initially the Katyuri capital was in Kartikeyapur (Joshimath region). It was a compulsion that Nar Singh Dev shifted the Katyuri capital at Baidnath Kartikeyapur (Baijnath).
               Baidnath/Baijnath Kartikeyapur was appropriate place as centrally located place to keep eyes on Kedarbhumi (Garhwal) and Manasbhumi (Kumaon).
         Before Krachalla attacked on Katyuris, the Chauhans captured Kedarbhumi (Garhwal). Katyuri kingdom was shrunk to Manasbhumi (Kumaon).
        Niranjan Dev shifted his capital to Doti (today-Nepal). Doti was far away from Baijnath and west Uttarakhand (today’s Garhwal, Haridwar, Dehradun, Saharanpur, and Bijnor). One of the reasons for fall of Katyuri imperialism was the shifting attention from super Garhwal region, Haridwar, Saharanpur, Bijnor to Doti.
                      No winnable Strategy to Control Regional ambitions
The regional governors or chieftains became kings of their own territories in western Uttarakhand.  The Katyuri kings of later period did not chalked out a winnable strategy for controlling regional chieftains.

                  Attacks by Muslim Invaders
                        There were continuous Muslim attacks on North India territories and Uttarakhand too from eleventh century till Mogul period.
  The Muslim ruler attacks affected political, social, religious culture of Uttarakhand in each decades from eleventh century till the British took over.
            Arrival of Chauhan warriors and Brahmins
        Due to Muslim attacks in North India, the Chauhan warriors took shelters in hills of Uttarakhand. Slowly they took over Thakurai or Gadh by displacing original Khasya. Along with Chauhans, Brahmins also came and they also took charge of religious and political culture.
  The Chauhans captured rules over Shivalik, Salan, Lakhamandal, Rath-Chanth Mandal and Dumg  mandal.
                 These Chauhans became famous as Jhikwan, Tulsara, Makrola, Parsara, Raut, Dhammada, Bisht, Aswal, Lohman Negi etc.
            Chauhan Gadhpati  of Garhwal, Lalkhamandal, Rath –Chanth were also badly affected due to Muslim attacks.
         
          The rule of Chauhans of Lakhamandal was extended Ambala, Saharanpur including part or total Haridwar, Dhad –Bhabhar of Saharanpur in south, Dehradun, Sirmaur, Jaunsar and hills nearby Jaunsar. It seems Chauhan had rule over Bhabhar of Garhwal.

  Rulers of Lakhamandal Region (Ravain Region of Dehradun) before and after thirteenth century

Unknown kings and successors ---------------------------1230-1250
Rana Devpal ---------------------------------------------------1250-1280
Chauhans or Bahuban of Ekchakra, Sarup, Karndev, Uddharan, Chandrasen, Suryasen, Devsen, 1280-1385
 Dumag naresh mangalsen  ----------------------------------------1353-1390
Ratansen----------------------------------------------------------------1390-1420

                       Attack by Iltutmish Mandavar (Haridwar)
                 Sultan Iltutmish attacked on Mandurgarh fort of Shivalik region of Uttarakhand in 1227. This place is recognized as Mandavar or and hills of Chandi.
 The minister of Razia Begham took shelter in Sirmaur hills.
                  Attack by Balban
Balban the army chief of Sultan Nasiruddin attacked foot hills of Shivalik region in 1250
 
             Looting by Subedar of Meerut
   The Subedar of Meerut looted the region Haridwar (Mayapur) and Rurki in 1254. Th region was under Rana Devpalof Lakhamandal.
                                          Killing People by Sultan Nasiruddin 
                In 1254, Balban campaigned with army for wining Badaun, Sambhal etc. The army reached by crossing Ganga at Chandi Ghat (Haridwar) and reached to Ram Ganga bank. There was resistance from local chieftain in Tanklavali.  A Muslim army commander Ijjauddin Darmashi was killed at Tanklavali. Sultan Nasiruddin order for killing innocent people. Thousands of people were killed.
           Destruction of Lakhamandal by Balban
           The hakim of Awadh Kutgalkhan took shelter under Rana Devpal at Santur after defeat from Sultan Nasiruddin in 1256. Nasiruddin sent his chief Balban to Lakhamandal. Balban destructed Lakhamandal. Balban killed thousands and thousands Hindus with cruelty.  The killing is one the cruel most killings of Uttarakhand by Muslim rulers.

               Attacks on Uttarakhand by Successors of Changej Khan

             In 1305, the successors of Changej Khan -Alibeg and Tartak attacked India. These blood thirsty reached Shivalik region of Uttarakhand and spread in Yamuna valley. People ran towards east of Ganga. Howevver, the Muslim invaders reached there too and looted, destructed villages.
              The successors of Changej Khan -Alibeg and Tartak destroyed Saharanpur, Haridwar, lakhamandal and Bhabhar of Uttarakhand.
      Destruction by Mohammad Bin Tughlaq

          The campaign of Mohammad bin Tughlaq destroyed eastern Kedarbhumi (east Garhwal) and west Manas  Bhumi (Kumaon  ) in 1338.
                Delhi Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq sent army of laksh of cavaliers and armed force to capture central of Himalaya. The attack was on central parts of Kumaon and Garhwal.  They were there in Himalaya for two months and showed their cruelty.  When the army of Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq was returning it was rainy season. The army got epidemic. People killed army that was caught in river bank by stones. A few armed men reached back to Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq. Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq insulted them and killed them in Delhi.
           Howver, there was destruction of armed forces, wealth, materials, people and power of Katyuri king of Dwarhat-Baijnath and king of Devalgarh.

 ### Read more about Attack by Muslim Sultans in next chapter 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/9/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -140
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-11790 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
Notes on Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of Kumaon  in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  ofNorth India  in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of Almora in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of Oriental region  in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of South Asian region in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of Bageshwar  in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Collapse or fall of Katyuri Kingdoms of Dwarhat-Baijnath  of Bhabhar Kumaon in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History;

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Timur/Taimur Lang Attacks on Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History

         (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 139
 

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                         Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane in Haridwar (1399)

                 Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane captured Delhi on 17th December 1398.
            In Samarkand, there were popular stories and sayings available about gold dust mines and musk deer of Kedarbhumi and Manasbhumi (Today’s Garhwal and Kumaon). Timur Lang/Tamerlane/Taimur Lang attacked Shivalik and Himalayan foothills after finishing cruelest ever loots in west North India for gold mines and musk deer. On 13th January, 1399, his army reached to Gangadwar or Haridwar. Baccharaj (Bahruj) was king of Shivalik and Salan including Bhabhar region of Uttarakhand.  Initially, the armed forces of Baccharaj tried to stop attack of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane by boat. The armed force of Baccharaj did not get success in stopping Taimur’s attack. Then the armed force of Baccharaj tried stopping the army of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane at Chandi Ghat (Haridwar). The Hindu army chief Shekha (Shekhar) surrounded his armed force around Timur army and killed dozens   soldiers of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane. However, at last, the soldiers of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane killed Shekha (Shikhar0 and his soldiers brutally.
  On night of 13th January and 14th January 1399, the soldiers of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane captured all men, women and children and killed those resisted. The Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane army looted wealth and domestic animals.
           After three days, there was bloody fight between the soldiers of Baccharaj and other kings at Mohandaraa at foot hills of Shivalik. Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane and his army killed and captured thousands of men-women and children. They looted wealth, food grains and domestic animals and started back to Samarkand. While going back with lakhs of captive human and animals, food grains and wealth Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane had to face resistance at a pass from Ratansen the king of Lakhamandal, Saharanpur and Ambala-Sirmaur. However, Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane defeated Ratansen. Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane army killed thousands of people and looted food grains, domestic animals and wealth. There was epidemic due to decomposition of dead human bodies in all area wherever Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane and his army marched. 
  The whole region of Shivalik foot hills and Lakhamandal became human less. There was destruction of crops and loot of food grains by Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane army. Thus, there was famine in the region.
  In sixty year (1938 and 1399), there were two cruel most attacks on Uttarakhand by Tuglak army and Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane on Uttarakhand. These attacks created poverty in the area for many centuries.
                               Ground for Rise of Chand Imperialism
               The poor living conditions among people created ground for rise of Chand Imperialism in Kumaon region.   

                 Ground for Rise of Panwar Dynasty in Garhwal
 The attacks of Tuglak and Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane on Kedarbhumi (Garhwal) created ground for Panwar rule in Garhwal

          The Rulers of Uttarakhand at the time of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane Attacks
                 Kedarbhumi or Garhwal at the time of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane Attacks
Lakhamandal – Ratansen 1390-1420
Doon Bhabhar, Haridwar, three Salan and Garhwal Bhabhar – Bahuruj (Baccharaj) and Shridhar 1380-140


                           Manasbhumi or Kumaon Region at the time of Timur/Taimur Lang/Tamerlane Attacks

Katyur Danpur – Raut king Kadadu 1360-
Succssors of Kadadu Parsi, Kali, Gangu -1410
Kali Kumaon – Gyaan Chand 1367-1420



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/9/2013
References-
Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10 , Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India ,Volume 13 page 52 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -140
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-11790 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
Notes on Timur/Taimur Attack on Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Chandighat , Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Haridwar Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Doon Bhabahr Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Garhwal Bhabhar Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Salan, Garhwal Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Mohandarra Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Lakhamandal Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attack on Chakrata region, Uttarakhand in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attacks on North India in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attacks on India in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Timur/Taimur Attacks on South Asian region in Context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History;

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Mandalik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History part-1

         (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 141
 

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                             Mandalik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla

              Krachalla (1208-1223) was succors of Ashokchalla (1160-1209).  His inscription at Kartikeyapur (Joshimath) of 1223 provides information about his characteristics and various political scenes.
                Shri Chandra Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain
  The information about Shri Chandra Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain of Krachalla is taken from inscription of Indradev. It seems that Shri Chandra Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain was an ambitious Katyuri youth. Shri Chandra Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain took the advantage of defeat of Lakshamanpal Dev Katyuri and became regional chieftain of attacker Krachalla.  There is reference of Chandra Dev afterwards.

                Shri Jeehal Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain

              It seems that Jeehal Dev or Jahal Dev was son of Thapuva Raut. There are mentions of Jeehal Dev on Ganai and Baijnath temple inscriptions. Ganai Gadhpati Baichhal Dev could not pacify the rebelling acts of Thapuva Raut and Jeehal Dev and Baichhal Dev had to take shelter in Sui fort.
 It is obvious that when Lakshamanpal Dev restructured his strategy and got command he might have punish Jeehal Dev.
 From 1360-1560, Kadadu, Parsi raut, Kali Raut, Bagha Raut and Anandu Raut ruled over Baijnath – Danpur.
                 Shri Jahad Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain

        There were Khasa chieftains in Danpur, Seera, Sor, Askot, Ramgad-Kota, Domkot etc. It is difficult to guess about the territory of Chieftain Jahad Dev. Dr Dabral suggests that Jahad dev was chieftain of Sora region.
The following other chieftains of Sora are
1-Johad Dev
2-Kadakil
3-Kakil
4-Chanari
5-Harak
6- Arki
7-Sagti

                 Moosa Dev a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain

  It seems Moosa Dev and Moosa Saun of Kaila Dungri (folklore by Oakley and Gairola) are same. According to folklore, Moosa saun was son of Narayan and Rikhola Devi. 
     Moosaa Saun killed a crucial dacoit Panchu. Saun people came from Doti to Kali Kumaon. There is still a Saun patti in Kumaon in the name of Saun Thakur.  The thakurai or rule of Moosa Saun was in Kali Kumaon. However, it is difficult to know exactness about Moosa Dev Saun. Chim, Kishan and Maid Saun etc were his successors in Saun Patti. The ruins of Saunkot fort are still there in Kaila Dhunga.
 
 Shri Aniladitya Raut or Rawut a Mandlik or Regional Chieftain

 In thirteen century, there were two Raut –Thakurai in east manasbhumi or Kumaon- Seera (Didihat) and Domkot. It is evident that in 1229, Niranjan dev dismissed Raut chieftains and appointed his prince Dhirmall as chieftain. In 1581 Purushottam Pant captured the capital of Harimall Katyuri.
 The inscription of Krachalla describes the chieftain as Adhi/Aghi. By this method, many historians suggest that Adhi/Aghi was Aniladitya Raut.
From 1223- 1279 three kings or chieftains ruled on Seera-Adhi raut, Bhishma Raut and Bhakti Raut.  Dhirmall took over rule from Bhakti raut. It means Adhi raut was contemporary of   Aniladitya Dev Raut.
  Seera was at strategic place and there were twocapitals of Seera –Didihat and Batyuli (Thal).

            Khasa Raut chieftains of Seera (1223-1279)

 1-Adhi or Aniladitya Raut
2-Bhishma Raut
3- Bhakti raut

            Mall or Katyuri Kunwar Mall Rulers of Seera from 1279-1410

1-Dhirmall
2-Jagti Malla
3-Kura Mall
4-Ripu Mall first
5- Bhupati Mall
6- Bharti Mall
7-Dat mall
8-Anand mall
9- Raj mall
10- Kalyan mall
11-Jurwan mall
12-Arjun Malla
 The inscriptions of following Mall rulers are available
Name ------------------------------------------------Approximate Period
13- Ripu Mall Second --------------------------1410-1420
14-Bali Narayan Mall-----------------------------1420-1430
15-Anand Mall -------------------------------------1430-1440
16-Sansar Mall --------------------------------1440-1443
17-Kalyan Mall second -----------------------1443-1453
21- Nag Mall -------------------------------------1453-1461
 The Baseda Rajput Dungar from Doti killed Nag mall in 1461 and became ruler of Seera
                            Basera kings of Seera from 1461-1520
1-Dungar
2-Madan
3-Raising
Then again Mall Rainka Raym Mall captured Seera rule in 1520

Rainka was title for Mall given by Katyuri kings and Mall were Katyuri.
               Mall Rainka of Seera from 1520-1581
1-Ray Mall Rainka------------1520-1540
2-Shobha Mall Rainka -----------1540-1560
3-Hari Mall Rainka -------------1560-1581
 King Rudra Chandra captured Seera kingdom from Hari Mall.
The region under seera were Askot, Darrma, Johar .

                   Chieftains of Gangoli
 Krachalla did not appoint any chieftains for Gangoli. The chieftain of Katyuri king was appointed as chieftain by Krachalla (1208-1223).

            Katyuri kings of Gangoli from 1250-1310

 The chieftains of Ganoli were from Katyuri family.
Ram Chandra Dev – In 1264,Ram Chandra Dev built a Janhvi water reservoir (Naula) and Templein in Gangolihat.

Hammeer Dev- Two inscriptions of Hammeer Dev are available. The inscriptions suggest there were 6-7 kings of Gangoli from 1250-1350. There are Lingrajdev, Dharaldei names on inscriptions of Hammerdev.
                 Khasa Rule over Gangoli (1370-1420)

The Khasa kings ruled over Gangoli from 1370-1420. There was mess and cruelty in the time period from 1350-1420 in Gangoli.

                Rule of Manikoti Chand on Gangoli

 A Mankoti army man from Doti captured Gangoli administration from Khasa king. They used to have name ending Chand. However, there was no relation of Manikoti Chand with Chand of Kali Kumaon ruler. 
   The inscriptions provide following Manikoti Chand rulers of Gangoli from 1610
1-Initiator of Manikoti dynasty over Gangoli
2-Karam Chand
3-Shital Chand
4-Brahm Chand
5-Hingul Chand
6-Punip Chand
7-Ani Chand
8-Narayan Chand
9-Unknown
10- Prithvi Chand
  Upreti the prime minster killed Karam Chand by deceptive method while Karam Chand was on hunting. The queen took help of Pant. Pant helped the queen and crowned Shital Chand as king of Gangoli. From that period there were two power centers –Upreti and Pant in Gangoli.
 In 1563, Narayn chand had to accept the over rule of Kalyan Chand the king of Kali Kumaon.
Prithvi Chand respected and donated scholars. He was ruler till 1610 or later stage up to 1620. In 1620, The Kali Kumaoni king Lakshman Chand took over Gangoli directly under his rule.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/9/2013
References-
Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10 , Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -142
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-11790 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
Notes on Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Domkot of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Gangoli of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Seera of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Saun Patti of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of Seerakot of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of  Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of  Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan , Uttarakhand Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of  Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Kumaoni Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of  Krachalla in context North Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Regional Chieftains of  Krachalla in context Asian  Himalayan Middle Age History;     

Bhishma Kukreti

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Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History part-2
   
         (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 142
 

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                             Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla

              Krachalla (1208-1223) was succors of Ashokchalla (1160-1209).  His inscription at Kartikeyapur (Joshimath) of 1223 provides information about his characteristics and various political scenes.

        Jay Singh (1210-1225) Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla

                The historians have opinion that Jay Singh was heir of Purushottam Singh. The period of Jay Singh the Mandlik or regional chieftain of Krachalla is supposed be from 1210-1225AD.
 The rule territory of jay Singh was Chakrawal region (Charal Patti). The capital of Khadag Singh the heir of Jay Singh was Champawat Garh. Due to Ashokchalla, predecessors of Jay Singh got the territory. When Katyuri king Lakshaman Pal Dev recaptured Doti, Jay Singh became sub ruler under Lakshaman Pal Dev.
  Bhatt Narayan: Bhatt Narayan was scholar and priest of Baleshwar temple. Krachalla donated him land in foot hills of Kandev hills. Bhatt Narayan or his father was emigrants of Bengal. The Bengali Brahmins started migrating in Uttarakhand from 810 or before.  It is said that Bhatt Narayan was Tantrik, learned astrologer, Shakunshastra expert and Sanskrit poet of prose-poetry style.

Khadag Singh – The folklore describe Khadag Singh as the heir of Jay Singh. The Thokdars of small Gadh were his Khaykar (sub rulers). The folklore describe the following territorial Thaokdars as Khaykar (sub rulers) of Khadag Singh-
1-The predecessors of Baichhal Dev (Ballaldev) of Sui
2-Hyunraj Mahra of Kotligarh Domkot
3- Bagh Chandra, Thor Chandra and his brothers
4-Most probable, Moosadev Saun of Saun Patti.

            Shri Ballal Dev Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla

                  It seems that Baichhal Dev Katyuri and Ballal Dev is same person. He was ruler of Sui. According to Atkinson, the predecessors of Ballal Dev were Dhamdev, Brahmdev or Virdev.
                   In past, the rulers of Sui had enmity with Khas chieftains of Kotligarh-Domkot.

        Hari raj Raut king Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla

 Perhaps Hari Raj Raut and Hyunraj Mahra are same. Hyunraj Mahra was ruler of Kotligarh Domkot adjascent to Sui.
The rulers of Kotligarh were cruel and used to have tilak of human blood on daily basis. The believed that they were heirs of Hidamba-Bidamba rakshash .

  Shri Vinay Chandra, Shri Vadya Chandra Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla

 Most probably, Krachalla appointed Vinaya Chandra and Vadya Chandra as administrators of north and south Ludhiya River valley.  Vinay Chandra was founding member of Chand dynasty in Kumaon. Vadya Chandra or Bagh Chandra or Bhag Chandra was nephew of Vinay Chandra.
  Vinay Chandra expired in 1226. Thorchandra became chieftain after his father death. Thorchandra and Bhag Chandra ruled the territory from 1226-1233.

Thor Chandra and Bhag Chandra used to fight with their neighbors and were de-famous for oppressing their subjects. Khadg Sing was also cruel and used to oppress subject. Brahma Dev the successor of Baichhal dev killed Thor Chandra and Hyunraj Mahar killed Bagh Chanra. Mhara hung the head of Bagh Chandra in Jhali –Malitemple. No recordis available of Khadag Singh from here.
  Hyunraj mahar captured the territories of Khadg Singh and Chandra rulers.
The following Khasa rulers ruled over Kali Kumaon after Hyunraj from Champawat fort-
Name ----------Years of Rule
1-Beejad -------------------21
2-Jeejad --------------------7
3-Jajad------------------------19
4-Jad ---------------------------9
5-Kalu----------------------- 17
6-Kalsu-------------------------11
7-Jhalu--------------------------20
8-Malu ----------------------------8
9-Guna----------------------------19
10-Beeda------------------------------9
11- Nagu------------------------------19
12-Bhagu---------------------------11
13-Jaipal-----------------------------16
14-Sonpal------------------------------12
15-Indru-----------------------------------15
Total years ----------------------------213







Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 13/9/2013
References-
Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -143
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-11790 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
Notes on Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Middle Age History; Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan, Charal Patti, Kumaon Middle Age History; Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan, Champawat  Middle Age History; Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan , Sui Middle Age History; Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan Kotli Garh , Kumaon Middle Age History; Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan, Domkot Kumaon  Middle Age History; Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan, Saun patti Kumaon  Middle Age History; Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan, Jhali Mali temple, Kumaon  Middle Age History; Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan, Ludhiya River Valley Kumaon  Middle Age History; Mandlik or Regional Chieftains of Krachalla in context Indian Himalayan, Gum Desh patti Kumaon  Middle Age History;

Bhishma Kukreti

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 List of Katyuri kings of Doti, Askot, Sora, Pali in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Kumaon Middle Age History
 
   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 143
 

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

  List of Katyuri Kings of Doti in Context Indian, Himalayan, Kumaoni Middle Age History

                Part -1,
             The predecessors of Katyuri kings of Doti

1-Shalinvahan Dev
2-Shaktivahan Dev
3-Harivarma Dev
4-Brahm Dev
5-Vajra Dev
6-Vikarmaditya
7-Dharam Pla
8-Nilpal
9-Munjraj
10-Bhojdev
11-Samarsingh
12-Asaldev
13-Sarangyadev
14-Nakuldev
15-Jaisinghdev
16-Anjal Dev
17-Vidyaraj
18-Prithwishwar
19-Chunpal
20-Asantidev
21-Asantidev
22-Kattarmalldev
23-Singhmalldev
24-Fanimalldev
25-Nifimall
26-Nilayram
27-Vajravahudev
28-Gauramgdev
29-Siyamall
30-Ilrajdev
31-Nilyagyadev
32-Fataksilraj
33-Dhamdev
34-Brahmdev
35-Trilokpaldev

                                          Part-2
            Katyuri Rainka and Rainkamall Kings of Doti and Seera in context Indian, Himalayan, Kumaoni Middle Age History
 

1-Niranjandev
2-Dhirmall
3-Jagtimall
4-Kurumall
5-Ripumall (1st)
6-Bhupatimall
7-Bhartimall
8-Datmall
9-Anandmall
10-Rajmall
 11-Kalyanmall (1st)
12-Jurvanmall
13-Arjunmall
14-Balinarayanmall
15-Ripumall (2nd)
16-Anandmall
17- Kalyanmall (2nd)
18- Nagmalla (after his death in 1461, Doti king took title ‘Sahi’)

           Part-3
Sahi Maharaja Rainka Katyuri Kings of Doti in context Indian, Himalayan, Kumaoni Middle Age History
1-Arjunsahi (1461)
2-Bhupatisingh
3-Harisahi
4-Ramsahi
5-Pabarsahi
6-Rudrasahi
7-Vikramsahi
8-Mandhatasahi
9-Raghunathsahi
10-Harisahi
11-Krishnasahi
12-Deepsahi
13-Vishnusahi
14-Pradipsahi
15-Hansdhwajsahi

           Katyuir Rulers of Askot in context Indian, Himalayan, Kumaoni Middle Age History

                         Part -1
The predecessors of Katyuri Rajwar of Askot in context Indian, Himalayan, Kumaoni Middle Age History
1-Shalivahandev
2-Sanjay
3-Kumar
4-Harithari
5-Brahmdev
6-Sak
7-Vrajdev
8-Branjay
9-Vikramajit
10-Dharmapal
11-Sarangdhar
12-Nilaypal
13-Bhojraj
14-Tinaypal
15-Bhujrajdev
16-Samsi
17-Asal
18-Asauk
19-Sarang
20-Naj
21-Kamjay
22-salinkul
23-Granpati
24-Jaysinghdev
25-Sankshwar
26-Saneshwar
27-Krasididhya
28-Vidhiraj
29-Prithwishwar
30-Balakdev
31-Asanti
32-Basanti
33-Kattarmall
34-sita Dev
35-Sindh
36-Kina
37-Rankina
38-Milray
39-Vajrabahu
40-Gaur
41-sanwal
42-Itinraj
43-Tilangraj
44-Udakshila
45-Pritamdev
46-Dhamdev
47-Brahmdev
48-Trilokpal
                Part -2
The Katyuri Rajwar of Askot in context Indian, Himalayan, Kumaoni Middle Age History after 1279

1-Abhaypal (1279)
2-Nirbhaypal
3-Bhartipal
4-Bhaironpal
5-Bhupal
6-Ratanpal
7-Shankhpal
8-Shyampal
9-Saipal
10-Surajanpal
11-Bhujaypal
12-Bhartipal (inscription 1394)
13-Sutatipal
14-Acchapal
15-Trilokpal (inscription 1421)
16-Surpal
17-Jagatipal
18-Pirojpal
19-Raypal
20-Mahendrapal
21-Jaintpal
22-Veervarpal
23-Amarsipal
24-Bramhaypal
25-Uccharpal
26-Vijaypal
27-Mahendrapal
28-bahadurpal
29-Pushkarpal




### Read Katyuri king list of Pali in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 14/9/2013
References-
Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson , History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -144
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-11790 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
Notes on List of Katyuri kings of Doti, Askot, Sora,Pali in Context Indian, Himalayan , Kumaoni Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Doti, Askot, Sora,Pali in Context Indian, Himalayan , Pithoragarh Kumaoni Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Doti, Askot, Sora,Pali in Context Indian, Himalayan , Champawat , Kumaoni Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Doti, Askot, Sora,Pali in Context Indian, Himalayan , Kumaoni Bageshwar Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Doti, Askot, Sora,Pali in Context Indian, Himalayan , Kumaon Dwarhat Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Doti, Askot, Sora,Pali in Context Indian, Himalayan , Kumaon Almora Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Doti, Askot, Sora,Pali in Context Indian, Himalayan , Kumaoni Nainital Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Doti, Askot, Sora,Pali in Context Indian, Himalayan , Kumaon Udham Singh Nagar  Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Doti, Askot, Sora,Pali in Context Indian, Himalayan , Kumaon Uttarakhand  Middle Age History;

Bhishma Kukreti

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List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Kumaon Middle Age History
 
   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 144
 

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                Pali Pachhaun Region

           Pali Pachhaun region of Kumaon is in between Katyur, Baramandal, Faldakot, Kota and Garhwal.
The hill ranges are Jaurasi, Drongiri, Manila, Nagarjun and Gujud Danda
The rivers in this region are Ramganga, Binau and Gagas.
 The main centers are Ganai, Mansi, Bhikyasain.
The main temples of Pali Pachhaun region are Budha Kedar, Bibhandashwar, Thaneshwar, Chitreshwar of Shaivya cult;  Naryan, Nagarjun, Badrinath (1105 AD)of Vaishnav cult and Shitala, Vaishnavi, Durga, Maniladevi, Bhuvneshwari, Naithana and Agnidevi of Shakt sect.

    The following Katyuri kings are found in Pali Pachhaun list-
1-Asantidev
2-Basantidev
3-Gaurangdev
4-Siyamalldev
5-Fenavray
6-Keshavray
7-Ajabray
8-Gajbray

 Gajb Ray had two sons. Pritamdev was younger one.
The son of Pritamdev was Dhamdev.
Initially, Dhmadev resided in Patlidun (Garhwal region). But later on his successors settled in Manasbhumi (Kumaon) in Chand dynasty period. The chronological name of successor of Dhamdev was  Bhavdev .
The elder son of Gajabray was Sujandev
Sarangdev was son of Sujandev. Veerandev was elder son of Sarangdev and younger son of Sarangdev was Bgadev.
Surdev was son; Bhavdev was grandson; grandsons were Palandev and Prit Gusain of Veerendev. Pithu Gusain had two sons Japu Gusain and Sarang Gusain.

The name of Sarangdev is carved in Tamadhaun devi temple inscription (1420).  His sons were Bhavan Singh (successors are Manral of Tamadhaun) and Dharmsingh (Manral of Kahedgaon).
 The Chand kings neither destroyed Katyuris not provided chances to grow them. The Chand kings and families used get marry with daughters of Katyuris but never married their daughters with Katyuris.
Manural or Manral are Katyuri king successors or family successors and this caste people are now scattered in Almora district.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 16/9/2013
References-
Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937,Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -145
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
Notes on List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Chaukot-Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Sainmanur-Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Chachneti-Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Udaypur-Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Bhatal Gaonv-Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Hat- Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Kahed Gaon-Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Tamadhaun-Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Bhikyasain-Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Almora-Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Chaukhatiya Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Patharkhola -Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Munrasiddh-Kumaon Middle Age History; List of Katyuri kings of Pali Pachhaun in Context Indian, Himalayan, and Ganai- Kumaon Middle Age History;


 

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