Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 66431 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Characteristics of Gyan Chandra /Gyanchand a Champawat, Kumaon King of Middle Age Himalayan Indian King


 (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 154

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

               The folklore state Gyanchandra as ‘Champawat ka Raja Guru Gyanchandra’.  Here, ‘Guru’ word does not mean a learned person but ‘Guru Ghantal’ that means cunning, user of Mantra-Tantra and having deceptive character.
     Guru Gyanchandra used to take pleasures from Sheep-fight, wrestling, archery competition, sword competition etc.  The wrestlers from plains used to visit Champawat and Gyanchandra used to arrange fights between his wrestlers and wrestlers from outside.   
      It seems that over all still Gyanchandra used to pay tribute to Doti Katyuri king. In late stage, Gyanchandra took title of ‘Maharaja’ (means free king).
                 Folklores declare that Gyanchandra was cruel king. Thorchandra and others used to exploit the sub rulers and people. Same was the case with Gyanchandra.
Gyanchandra had an army of spy.  As soon as spies used to inform him, Gyanchandra used punish people without listening them.
      Gyanchandra used to punish his own officers and used to punish family members of his officers as Gyanchandra punished his commander Nalu and his family.

    One of folklore states that when people came to Gyanchandra for relief from his taxes, he sent his army to suppress the demand.  Gyanchandra burnt the village of people’s leader Kunjipal. Gyanchandra lured Kirtipal the brother Kunjipal by money and land and Kirtipal killed his own brother Kunjipal.  Wife of Kunjipal was pregnant when Kunjipal was killed by his brother Kirtipal. Wife of Kunjipal had to hide for many years for her child protection. When as per promise by Gyanchandra, Kirtipal went to get his reward from Gyanchandra; the king left man eater dogs on Kirtipal. Kirtipal jumped into river for saving his life from dogs.
           In his young age Kshetrapal son of Kunjipal led the people (Praja-subject) cause. Kshetrapal attacked on palace of Gyanchandra. There were hundreds of soldiers to protect the palace. Kshetrapal killed all soldiers and king Gyanchandra. Kshetrapal took the head of his father that was hung in palace by Gyanchandra for so many years.  Folklore states that Kshetrapal also took forcefully Lilawati the daughter of Gyanchandra and made him his wife.
          The king was so cruel and indifferent to his subjects that his own people killed Gyanchandra.    Gyanchandra was killed by his subject in 1419 or 1420AD.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 25/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -155
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx xxx
Notes on Characteristics of Gyan Chandra /Gyanchand a Champawat, Kumaon King of Middle Age Himalayan Indian King;  Characteristics of Chand dynasty kings of Medieval Age Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Champawat, Kumaon; Characteristics of Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Jaspur, Kumaon; Characteristics of Chand dynasty kings of Ashadhgarh, Dada gaon, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Khetikhan, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Gudamagal Ganv, Kumaon; Characteristics of Chand dynasty kings of Bhabhar, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Madhuva ki Mal, Kumaon; Characteristics of Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Bahedi, Kumaon; Characteristics of Chand dynasty kings of Kicchha, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Chorgaliya, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Bankheda, Kumaon; Characteristics of Chand dynasty kings of Thakurdwara Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Characteristics of Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of kamlekh ganv  Champawat Kumaon; Characteristics of Medieval Age History of Katehar/Katehr; History of Sambahl; Medieval Age History aspects of Delhi Sultanate nearby region of Kumaon; Medieval Age History of Taj-ul Mulk entering Kumaon;  History of Khijr Khan at the time of Kumaoni king Gyan Chand of Medieval Age

Bhishma Kukreti

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Chand King Hariharchandra and Hantya of innocent people killed by Guru Gyanchandra
 
(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 155

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
                          Atkinson and other suggest that king Gyanchandra /Gyan Chand expired around April 1420. However, at the end of his life and after his death there were many deaths in Gyanchandra/Gyan Chand family.
  The following family members were prominent in Gaynchandra /Gyan Chand time.
Name -----------Inscription Date ---------Rule period as per ‘A’ list ------Atkinson View ----Dabral View
Hariharchandra---------1397------------------1419-20---------------------------------1419-------------No
Bharatchandra------------1397-----------------No-----------------------------------------No ----------------No
Dhyan or Udyanchandra------1444----------1420-21---------------------------------1420-21----------1420-21
Atmachandra-------------------------------------1421-22-----------------------------------1421-22---------No
Harishchandra--------------------1444------------1422-23------------------------------1422-23------------142-23
Vikramchandra-------------------1423--------------1423-37---------------------------1423-37--------------1423-37
 The above figure clearly suggests that the inscription period of Hariharchandra and Bharatchandra are when they both were prince.
   According to Atkinson, Uddyan Chandra or Dhyanchand repented for the sinful works of Gyanchandra/Gyan Chand.
There is one inscription that suggests that Atmachandra did not rule.
आसीत् श्रीज्ञानचन्द्रस्त्रिभुवनविजयी तत्सुतो ध्यानचन्द्रः
तत्पुत्रो  धर्मचन्द्रस्तदनुसम्भवः श्रीहरिश्चन्द्रभूपः
त्रैलोक्यख्यातकीर्तिः सकलबुधनुततत्सुतो श्री प्रतापः
मायायां दानधारां धरतिसुरतरुभारतीचन्द्र्नामाः
(   U.P. Historical Society, December 1942)

The above inscription suggests following dates

Gyanchandra -1367-1420
Dhyan (Udyan) Chandra 1420-22
Dhyan Chandra had two sons Dharm Chandra (?) and Harishchandra (1422-23)
Harishachandra had two sons Vikram Chandra and Harishchandra
Vikramchandra (son of Harishchandra) ruled from 1423-1434
Kali Kalyanchandra (son of Vikramchandra) ruled from 1434-1468
After kali Kalyan Chand son of Pratap Chandra ruled from 1444-45 or 1468-1499
There is inscription of kunvar Dhanya Chandra the son of Pratapchandr of 1445.

                 It is believed that Hantya a ritual of innocent people killed by Gyanchandra was performed by Dhyan Chandra.  Hantya a ritual is performed to satisfy the unsatisfactory souls of those who are killed or expire by unnatural means.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 25/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -156
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx xxx

Bhishma Kukreti

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Dhyanchandra /Dhyan Chand or Udyanchandra: The Chand King that extended Chand Kingdom 

                (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 156

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                  King Dhyanchand/Dhyan Chandra (Udyan Chandra) (1420-1422 AD)

                  The Bhartichandra inscription (144) states that Dhyanchandra (whose name is Udyan Chandra in lists) ruled Champawat after demise of his father Gyan Chandra.
                   Dhyan Chandra performed repent rituals (Hantya) for those people who were harassed or killed by his father Gyan Chandra.
                   Dhyan Chandra did not take any tax from the subject for one year. Chand king Dhyan Chandra used to offer help to needy ones.
                           Dhyan Chandra repaired the Baleshwar Shiv temple and invited a Gujrati Brahman Sukhdev the son of Shri Chandra Tewadi for establishing the daily rituals. Shri Cahnd Tewadi felt it as insult and he migrated to Baramandal.

                               Extension of Chand Kingdom by Dhyan Chandra
   
        Dhyan Chandra won the territories from Padyar ruler of Chaugrakha ; ruler of Mahrudi and ruler of Bisaud adjacent to Champawat.

         In the time of Dhyan Chandra, Manikoti was ruler of Gangoli and Doti king was ruler of Seera, Sora, Askot, Johar and Darma. Vyas and Chaudas territories were under ruler of Jumal. Syunara and Lakhanpur were separately ruled by Katyuri rulers.Khati or Kathi was the ruler of Faldakot. Khasiya king was ruler of Ramgad and Kota.
 The Chand kingdom was in between of Kali River to Kosi and Suwal Rivers.
 Ram Datt Jyotirvid writes that a Katyuri ruler married his daughter with Dhyan Chandra. However, there is not historical record to support the statement. It is stated by Ramdatt that Katyuri ruler offered ‘ De,Assi, Chalsi and Ragod regions as dowry to Dhyan Chandra.

Dhyan Chandra could not complete the repair of Baleshwar Shiv temple and expired in 1422.

           Harish Chandra (1422-1423)

                 After death of Dhyan Chandra, his younger son Harish Chandra took over the rule but he also expired in 1423. Dhyan Chandra had elder son Dharma Chandra but Dharma Chandra did not get the kingdom. There is inscription of Dharma Chandra (1429 or 1419?)

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 25/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -157
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx xxx
History of Chand Kings of Champawat, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of Chand Kings of Chaugarkha, Champawat, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of Chand Kings of Mahrudi, Champawat, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of Chand Kings of  Bisaud, Champawat, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Doti Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of Seera,  Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Sota, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Askot, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Johar, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Darma, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Vyas, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Chaudas, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Jumal, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Syunara, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Lakhanpaur, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Faldakot, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Ramgad, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Kota, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Baleshwar region, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  De region, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Assi region, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Chalsi region Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age; History of  Rangod region Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Middle Age…

Bhishma Kukreti

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Great going sir.... I am following posts under this topic
Thank you sir 1

Bhishma Kukreti

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Vikramchandra / Vikram Chandra: The Chand King of Champawat, Himalayan Indian Middle Age King

                (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 157

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 The ruling period of Chand King Vikram Chandra is same in the list ‘A’ and Atkinson.
Ruling time for Chand King of Champawat, Kumaon is 1423-1437 AD.
There are four inscriptions of Champawat King Vikram Chandra available- 1422, 1424, 1433 and 1434 AD.
 Dr Dabral suggested ruling period of Vikram Chand from 1423-1434.
Dabral states that since there is inscription of his heir Kalyan Chandra for 1434 it is obvious that Vikram Chand ruler was till 1434.
                 Completing Repent for Sins of Gyan Chandra

               It was believed in Chand family that due to suppression sins and cruelty by Gyan Chandra, the Chandra or Chand king family was suffering.  Dhyan Chandra (Udyanchand) the son of Gyan Chand started works for repenting by repairing Baleshwar temple. However, Dhyan Chandra expired before completion of Baleshwar temple repair works.   Vikram Chandra completed the temple repair works. Vikram Chandra also donated land to Kunj Sharma and Maheshwari Brahmins.  Vikram Chandra carved his details on the Baleshwar temple copper inscription of Krachalla on July 1423.
The witness of above inscription about donation land to above Brahmins were Madhu Sejyal, Prabhu, Vishnu, Jamadgni, Veer Singh Gambhari, Jailu Bathyal,. Rudrasharma was writer. Raiku.. and Ram Partni were craftsmen to carve writing on copper plate. The work was done in Patanveesi kachhari.
  In 1424, Vikram Chandra donated land to Kulomnai Pande for repenting rituals.


                Destruction of Katehar /Katehr and Kumaon by Delhi Sultan Mubarak Shah
                Though the Chand kings tried to repent the sins of Gyanchandra by ritual means the problems of Kumaon did not end.
                In 1423, Delhi Sultan Mubarak Shah (1421-1434) entered Katehar/Katehr with huge army.  Knowing the news of Mubarak Shah the people of Mal /Bhabhar of Kumaon were disturbed.  Sultan returned by looting Kumaon Bhabhar and Katehar and tribute from local rulers.
     In November 1424, Delhi Sultan Mubarak campaigned again for looting Katehar/Katehr. The Sultan army crossed Ganga and entered hills of Kumaon. The Sultan army stayed there for awhile till summer started. Later on Army reached to Mal or Bhabhar through coming to Rahab the bank of Ram Ganga. It is clear that Delhi Sultan army might have looted Kumaoni hill region. It is suggested that Vikram Chandra might have offered tribute to Delhi Sultan.
 
                 Battle with Brahmdev Katyuri by Vikram Chandra

                            There is a folklore that states that the Lakhanpur Katuri ruler Brahmdev was on tour of Bhabhar –Tarai , Vikram Chandra attacked on territory of Brahmdev Katyuri.  Brahmdev Katyuri fought with Vikram Chandra and won the battle. This was start of tussles between Katyuri rulers and Chand ruler. In second battle Brahmdev and Dhamdev were killed after their brave fight. (This Dhamdev was different than Dhamdev who fought with Thorahcndra in Javadi Sera).  Till date, people of Katyur Plai worshipped Brahmdev and Dhamdev for their patriotic deeds for saving Katuri honor.
   There is one inscription of Dharma Chandra (1429 or 1419?). However, there is no details abaout Dharmadev.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 30/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi , Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -158
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx xxx

Notes on History of Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Delhi Sultan Mubarak Shah attack on Katehar (Rohilkhand)  Middle Age; History of Delhi Sultan Mubarak Shah attacking on Kumaon in Middle Age; History of Delhi Sultan Mubarak Shah attacking on Tarai of Kumaon in Middle Age; History of Delhi Sultan Mubarak Shah attacking on Kumaon in Middle Age; History of Delhi Sultan Mubarak Shah attacking on Bhabhar ,Kumaon in Middle Age; History of Delhi Sultan Mubarak Shah attacking on Kumaon at the time of Vikram Chandra in Middle Age; History aspects of Katehar; History Aspects of Rohilkhand of Middle Age ; History of Champawat  of Middle Age;

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Kali Kalyan Chandra: a Cruel Chand King of Champawat, Kumaon

                (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 158

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 The ruling time of Kali Kalyan Chandra is 1434-1468.
There are following inscriptions and evidences are available for Kali Kalyan Chandra.
List ‘A’ states the ruling period of Kali Kalyan Chandra as 1542-1551AD
‘B’ and ‘C’ lists state the period as 1446-1464AD
The following copper inscriptions are found about Kali Kalayn Chandra
Balishwar (Champawat) inscription of 1434 AD
Three inscriptions of Dandagaon 1440
Two inscriptions of Dandagaon 1461AD
One inscriptions of Dandagaon 1468 AD
Two other inscriptions are of 1450 and 1468.

              Suppression or oppression by Kali Kalyan Chandra
   Kali Kalyan Chandra was supposed to be a cruel king of Champawat.
              People were dissatisfied by oppressive methods of Kali Kalyan Chandra. Kali Kalyan Chandra was unable to control on his instant emotions. Under emotional imbalance, Kalyan Chandra used to place hard orders or used to forget what was right and what was wrong.

            Atkinson and Pande provided stories about Shaud Karayat helping Bharti Chandra to dislodge kingdom of Vikram Chandra.  The story seems to be of Kali Kalyan Chandra because the inscriptions of Bharti Chandra refer Shaud Karayat.

                   Revolt by Nephew Bharti Chandra
                An ambitious Bharti Chandra the nephew of Kali Kalyan Chandra revolted against his uncle. Bharti Chandra took help of Khasa brave man as Shaud Karayat. King Kali Kalyan Chandra buried live son of Shaud Karayat into wall.
              It seems that nephew of Kalyan Chandra -Bharti Chandra became free ruler of Bishung Patti, a portion of Sor region and ruled there till Kalyan Chandra was alive. The time of revolt of Bharti Chandra would fit 1444.
   Furar had eight copper inscriptions obtained from Shiv Datt Bisht. Two inscriptions are of Harishchandra (1461) and Pratapchandra (1461). Both Harishchnadra and Pratapchandra are not related with Chand king Harishchandra (1422-1423) or Pratapchandra the father of Bhartichandra.

  Bharti Chandra became Champawat king after death of Kali Kalyan Chandra in 1468AD


.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 1/10/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi , Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -159
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Bharti Chandra an Opportunist and Ambitious Chand King of Champawat Kumaon, Himalayan Indian Middle Age


                (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 159

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
 There are two types of rule period of Bharti Chandra. One is when he revolted against his uncle Kali Kalyan Chandra and became ruler of small region and other when he took over rule of Champawat after death of his uncle. 
First period of Bharti Chandra is 1444-1455 and other is 1468-1499.
 Bharti Chandra revolted against his uncle Kali Kalyan Chandra and ruled small territory. Later on Bharti Chandra handed over this territory to his son Ratan Chandra (1445-1468).
        Inscriptions of Bharti Chandra are of -1444, 1445, 1449, 1450, 1451, 1455, 1469, 1475, 1499.
           There are disputes for two copper inscriptions of Bharti Chandra Asargaon of Askholiya Pandit those are of 1382 and 1397. Because it is impossible Bharti Chandra ruled for more than hundred years.
  Pundit Nitya Nand Mishra read Maharaja Bharti Chandra in the inscriptions of years 1455 AD.
                    Anant Dev the court poet of King Baj Bahadur Chandra (Chand King of later era) did not mention about Bharti Chandra as Chand dynasty king.
         In 1944, Bharti Chandra captured Bishung Patti from his uncle. 

             Guerilla Attacks by Bharti Chandra on Seera and Sora region

     The elder brother of Katyuri kingdom king used to rule from Doti and other family members or younger brothers used to rule in Seera and Sora region of Kumaon.
  There were infightings among Katyuri family rulers from 1445-1450. The younger prince Nagmall Katyuri of Seera region captured the Doti Kingdom from his elder brother Arjundev. Definitely, there were rival groups among administrative staff of Katyuri rulers. Arjundev with his family members and supporters ran from Doti to Champawat and took shelters from Champawat King Kali Kalyan Chandra. Kali Kalayn Chandra was already in trouble from his nephew Bharti Chandra.
 Bharti Chandra started guerilla attacks on Sora and Sera regions of Nagmall ruled regions. Dhanyachandra brother of Bharti Chandra, Shaud Karayat and his supporters used to provide support to Bharti Chandra.

                             Attack on Doti by Bharti Chandra

             The subject of Champawat was against kali Kalyan Chandra. Therefore, Bharti Chandra got rebels easily. With Old Chim saun and other rebel force, Bharti Chandra started campaign to attack on Doti. According to Hudkya folklore, Bharti Chandra and his son Ratan Chandra marched from Sui, Gangolighat, and Pithoragarh and reached to Jhulaghat. From Jhulaghat the army of Bharti Chandra crossed Kali Ganga and reached to  Sora.
 According to Atkinson, Bharti Chandra camped at bali Chaukad at the bank of Kali River. From here, Bharti Chandra used to attack through guerilla means on Doti for twelve years.
 In the absence of Bharti Chandra, his son Ratan Chandra ruled on Kali Kumaon. With the help of Paik Maid Son of Sonkot,  ruler of Katehar and his son , Bharti Chandra created huge army and attacked on Nagmall. Nagmall was defeated. From that time, Chandra kingdom got real free rule over Champawat. From that day, Chand kings became Maharaja and Chand kings did not have to pay tribute to Katyuri kings (Doti). Doti was still free.
             In fact, the campaigns of Bhartichandra against Doti were always as guerilla attacks

                 Territories under Bharti Chandra

  The territories of Chand kingdom was increased by Bharti Chandra. Klayn Chandra was also ruler of Kali Kumaon till 1468. Only after death of Kali Kalyan Chandra, Bharti Chandra got rule of complete Kali Kumaon.
 It seems when Kali Kalyan Chandra was alive, Bharti Chandra had Sui-Bishang, Badakot, Danya, Chaukoli, Jageshwar, and origin of Sual River and some eastern part were under him.


## Read about Rule of Ratan Chandra and second Rule by Bharti Chandra in next chapter …
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 2/10/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi , Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -160
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Ratan Chandra: First King Who Started Land Revenue Management in Kumaon


            (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 160

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                              Ratan Chandra (1455-1468)


         Ratan Chandra a Chand king is credited for initiating land revenue management first time in Kumaoni history. Ratan Chandra was son of Bharti Chandra. Bharti Chandra was nephew of King Kali Kalyan Chandra.
 There are two views for Ratan Chandra ruling period. Atkinson states that Ratan Chandra ruled from 1450-1488. The list ‘A’ provides the information that Ratan Chandra ruled from 1461-1488.
                      The inscription of Bharti Chandra 9father of rattan Chandra) of 1451 declares Ratan Chandra as prince. The first copper inscription of Ratan Chandra is of 1455. There are no inscriptions of Bharti Chandra available from 1455-1468. Other inscriptions of Bharti Chandra are available from 1469-1499.
Therefore, Dr Dabral suggests that the ruling period of Ratan Chandra is from 1455-1468. After the death of Ratan Chandra, Bharti Chandra took again the rule of Champawat till 1499. Since, Bharti Chandra was old, his grandson Kirati Chandra used to look after administration.

                           Donation by Ratan Chandra

                    When Ratan Chandra and his father won the battle of Doti, got Chaugrkha territory and later on full authority to rule by his father, Ratan Chandra got honor. People and other smaller rulers started respecting Ratan Chandra. Jageshwar temple was under his Raut (rule).  Ratan Chandra believed the blessing of Jageshwar temple for his success.  Ratan Chandra performed rituals in Jageshwar and donated villages to Jageshwar temple.
          Land Revenue Management

         After getting ‘Raut’ (administration) by his father, Ratan Chandra started travelling in his ruled territory.  Ratan Chandra started fixing rules for tax levies from farmers. It is said that it was first initiation of fixing land tax levies rules from farmers.

            Second War with Doti
                        By many attacks on Doti king Nagmall by Bharti Chand, Nagmall was defeated but his power was intact. It was also decided that Chand kings would not pay tribute to Doti Katyuri king.
 To regain power on Chand Kingdom in Champawat, Doti king Nagmall attacked on Kali Kumaon.  Rattan Chandra took huge army and the army and exile Doti king Arjun Dev with him and defended attack of Nagmall then Doti King.
               Ratan Chandra defeated Nagmall and in the battle Nagmall was killed. Arjun Dev took over again rule of Doti kingdom.
 Arjun Dev started Doti rule as Arjunshahi and from that time, the Doti kings were called as Shahi Kings.

                        Capturing smaller territories by Ratan Chandra

           There were smaller rulers nearby Doti kingdom. Jagarnath Bhatt was ruler of Jumla, Kharkasingh Mahra was ruler of Bajang (dr Dabral wrote Bhujan) and Shorsingh Mahra was ruler of Thal. Ratan Chandra terrorized them and they accepted over rule of Ratan Chandra. These rulers accepted to send every year the tributes of Horse1; Kasturi veena-1; Baj -1 and Arrow-bow-1. On that period, such types of tribute were symbols of accepting over rule by smaller or weak kings.
  The rulers of above three territories paid tribute regularly to Chand Kings till Gorkha entered in the scene.
The list of Bajang rulers is available –
1-Raja Uttam Singh
2- Raja Raghunath Singh
3- Raja Shivraj Singh
4- Raja Indra Singh
5- Raja Ratna Singh
6- Raja Mahendra
7- Raja Gajraj Singh was alive till 1850 AD


              Sheltering five families by Ratan Chandra

                 Ratan Chandra brought five Rajput families from Doti or across Kali River and provided them land in his territories. These families are Soradi, Deupa, Parchuda, Paderu and Chiral. From scial aspects, these families were equal to Chand caste.

                Capturing Sor territory

                 Ratan Chandra extended his territory. Ratan Chandra captured Sor in 1468 but after his death in 1468, Sor became free from Chand king.  The Bom family (related to Katyuri king family) were the rulers of Udaypurkot .
The following names of Bam kings are available
1-Karakil Bam
2-Kakil Bam
3-Chanari bam
4-Arki bam
5-Gyani Bam
6-Shakti bam
7-Vijay Bam
8-Hari bam
Ratan Chandra might have expired in 1468. 


 







Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 3/10/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -161
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Kumaon, History of Champawat Kumaon, History of Doti Nepal, History of Bajang Nepal, History of Sor Kumaon, History of Kali Kumaon, History of Jageshwar Kumaon, History of Chaugarkha Kumaon, History of Sari Kumaon, History of Udaypur Kumaon,

Bhishma Kukreti

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                     Folklores from  Bharati Chandra Period 

            (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 161

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                        Atkinson refers and so other historians a couple of folklores or folk sayings from the time of Bharati Chandra (1444-1455 and 1468-1499).
           Bharati Chandra revolted against his uncle and handed over the rule to his son Ratan Chandra and he himself was busy in guerilla attacks on Doti. However, when his son Ratan Chandra expired, Bharati Chand took over rule but his grandson Kirati Chand used to look after administration.
                    Sor territory becoming free

         Sor was a subsidy territory of Doti .Rattan Chand won the territory of Sor or Soryali from Katyuris (Head quarter Doti) in 1468 but died just after capturing the territory. Brahm Katyuri of Sor declared his territory free from Chand rule. 

                                       Folklore about winning by whip

                   Doti king attacked on Kali Kumaon that was under Chand king Bharati Chand.  Bharati Chand was ready to defend the territory. A saint came there and advised Bharati Chand not to go with army. Instead the saint Nagnath gave a whip to army commander of Bharati Chand to defend the Doti army.
 The army chief won the battle in defending Doti army and there was huge loss of Doti army.  Nagnath became the advisor of Bharati Chand.
  However, there is no evidence for proving the folklore.
There is second folklore about Nagnath too. As per advice of Nagnath , Kirati Chand or Kirit Chand (son of Bharati Chand) won a couple of Thokdari.

        Jaidan Kiral in Bam kingdom (Sora or Soriyali Kingdom)
              There was a kingdom officer Shri Jaindan of Kirigaon village of Baldiya patti. He used to look after land revenues.
 Jaindan was strict and faithful officer. He searched and did research on lands of people and exposed the people who were hiding their land. He compiled the record. People were unhappy about search and compilation of records by Shri Jaindan.
  Once, Jaidan was away from his home. The people spread the rumor to his wife that  Jiadain is died. The people who did not want to pay tax they advised wife of Jaidain that she should burn (Sati) with the land records. Wife of Jaidain died by accepting Sati (to die by burning herself) ritual with land records.
  मरी गयो जैन्दो जलाई हालि बै
जसि जसि सोरयाल कूनी तसि तसि भै
(Jaidain died and records were burnt. Whatever Soryalpeople say it happens true and Jiadan died after records were destroyed)
It is said that Jaidain died as soon he learnt the incident of his wife burning herself with land records.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 4/10/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -162
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Kirati Chand: The Cruelest Chand king infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 162

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                       Kirati Chand or Kirti Chandra (1499-1506)

The list ‘A’ of Chand kings states that Kirati Chandra or Kirti Chand ruled from 1488-1503. Chand Kings List ‘A’ describes him Kiratichandra and ‘B’ and C’ lists describe him as Kirtichandra.
Atkinson suggests the ruling period of Kirati Chandra or Kirti Chand is from 1488-1503.
There is inscription of Kirati Chandra or Kirti Chand dated 16th December, 1505 and the inscription of his son Pratap Chandra is of 1510. Therefore, Dr Dabral states that Kirti Chandra or Kirati Chand ruled from 1499-1506 or a year above.

                        Chand Kingdom Extension

  Soon, Kirti Chand or Kirati Chandra succeeded the kingdom from his grandfather Bharati Chandra; Kirati Chand started extending Chand kingdom.

Bramandal Campaign- There was dozens of small Gadhi or Thokdari in Baramandal. Katyuri family members or Khasa Thokdar (chieftains) used to rule over Barmandal (subsidy of Katyuri kingdom). Bisaud a smaller kingdom or Gadhi was on the east bank of Sual River, and Syunara a smaller kingdom was on the west bank of Sual River. As per rock inscription of 1348 Niraypal Katyuri was chieftain of Biasaud in 1348 and as per temple inscription of 1307, Arjundev Katyuri was chieftain of Syunari. 
  In 1421, Dhyan Chand won over Bisaud, Chaugarkha and Mahrudi regions.  Dhyan Chandra in 1421, invited Gujrati Brahmin Sukhdev as priest for Baleshwar temple worshipping. Shri Chandra the father od Sukhdev felt insulted and he reached to Khagmarakot the capital of Syunara kingdom. There he met chieftain of Syunara.
       Shrichandra the astrologer told to Syunara king or chieftain that very soon somebody would snatch Khagmarakot. The Syunara chieftain donated   Khagmarakot to Brahmin Shrichandra and shifted his capital to Syunarakot.  Seeing opportunity, the Bisaud chieftain captured Khagmarakot and villages under Khagmarakot. At the same time, Chand king captured Biasuad.
 Kirati Chandra captured Bisaud and dispatched away the chieftain of Bisaud.
        Immediately after winning Bisaud, Kirti Chandra won over the territory of Syunara. 
  After winning Syunara, Kirati Chand progressed to win over Tikhun ruled by a Khasa chieftain. However, Kirati Chandra failed in first attempt to capture Tikhunkot the capital of Tikhun. Kirati Chandra took help a Tikhun traitor Chilwal who blocked the water supply to Tikhunkot. Due to cutting of water supply for Tikhunkot (fort), the Tikhun chieftain ran away from there. Kirati got right over Tikhun region. Kirti Chand awarded Thokdari for many villages to Chilwal the traitor of Tikhun.

                         Cruelest Human Slaughtering

               When Kirati Chandra won over Syunarakot or fort of Syunara, the Syunara chieftain ran away towards Borarau. However, the Syunara king army resisted Kirti Chand. Syunara army killed the frontier infantry of Kirati Chandra or Kirti Chand. However, this resistance did not stop Kirti Chand for winning over present regions of Almora, Ranikhet and west of Almora-Ranikhet.
  Kiratichandra or Kirti Chand ordered to kill people of village under newly won territory. Kaida and Buara army commanders accepted the order in literal form and killed or slaughtered the people of territory in between Kosi and Gagas Rivers.  This bloodbath by cruel soldiers of Kirati Chand was equal to as Muslim rulers did in Katehar.
 Kirti Chandra rewarded Kaida and Borau commanders and awarded them Kaidaro and Borarau Patti as Jagir.
An Unknown Katyuri King-
                    Bhikiyasain is at the confluence of Gagas and Ramganga. Pali Katyuri family branch used to rule over this territory from thirteenth century.  Lakhanpur was the capital of confluence of Ramganga and Gagas rivers.  This Lakhanpur is different than Lakhnapur near Badachina of Brahmdev. Kiratichandra attacked on this territory ruled by Katyuri family. The Katyuri ruler sent message to Kiratichandra that he was vacating the fort and Kiratichandra should treat the subject as his subject and Kiratichandra was free to rule on this territory.
 The Katyuri king ran away from Lakhnapur Kot (fort) and built a small fort in Salt. Katyuri ruled peacefully in Salt for many centuries without interference of Chand kings.
Human Slaughtering in Faldakot- After getting win over eastern part of West Ramganga River, Kiratichandra attacked on Faldakot. Khati a family tree heir of Katyuri used to rule over Faldakot. The Faldakot Khati king was killed in first attack by Kiratichandra. The army and subject of Khati kingdom (Faldakot) fought with Kiratichandra’s army with courage. The subject and army of Faldakot failed the attack of Kiratichand.
                  Kiratichandra attacked second time with more force. Kirati Chandra won over the fort of Faldakot. Kiratichandra ordered his army commanders who were from Mara, Khadayat and Dhek caste Rajput to slaughter the people of Faldakot. Mara, Khadayat and Dhek commanders took order seriously and killed innocent people of Faldakot. It is said that army commanders of Kirti Chandra beheaded people of Faldakot as man cuts crops.
  Kirati Chandra awarded Faldakot territories among Mara, Khadayat and Dhek army commanders. 
Attack on Kota-Kotauli- After winning over above territories Kirti Chandra campaigned for winning Kota and Kotauli.
 The chieftains and subject did not dare to fight back with cruelest ever army of Kumaoni kings. Kirti Chandra captured Kota-Kotauli with ease.
Kirati Chandra returned from Kota-Kotauli to Champawat via Dyani Rau. Kirti Chandra appointed governors for looking after the administration.
Kiratipur Chauki- After the above campaign, Kirti Chandra visited Mal. At this time there was peace in Bhabhar –Tarai Mal due to infighting among Delhi Sultan heirs. Now again, the people started residing in the area (which was once barren due to frequent attacks from governors of Delhi Sultan). Kiratichandr established a Chauki near Jaspur. It was called Kiratipur Chauki or police station or army check post.
 

## Read about attack of Kiratichandra on Garhwal territories in chapter -163

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 5/10/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -163
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on the Cruelest Chand king infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering; the Cruelest Chand king of Champawat infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering; the Cruelest Chand king of Faldakot infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering; the Cruelest Chand king of Almora infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering; the Cruelest Chand king of Ranikhet infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering; the Cruelest Chand king of Bhikyasain infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering; the Cruelest Chand king of Bisaud infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering; the Cruelest Chand king of Syunara infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering; the Cruelest Chand king of Kaidaro and  Burarau regions infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering; the Cruelest Chand king of Kota-Kotauli infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering; the Cruelest Chand king of Jaspur infamous for Cruel Human Slaughtering;

 

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