Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 68297 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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   Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in The rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar

   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 173

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
  From Akbar to Rohila’s attack, there were two parts of Kumaon Tarai/terai or foot hills.
1-The Terai/Foot hills of Kumaon under Mogul
2-Kumaon Terai/Foot hills under Chand Kings as Jagirdar
              The foot hills of Kumaon or part of today’s Udham Singh Nagar near Nainital foot hills were under Akbar or Mogul regime. Mogul used to call it Kumaon Jila or Kumaon Sarkar. Mogul divided Kumaon Sarkar or Jila into twenty one sub divisions (Mahalon). On the Akbar period the value of Kumaon Sarkar was Rs. (Dam) 20, 21,885.
S.N. --Name in Akbar Period ----------------Present Name
1---- Aodan ----------------------------------------Khedi ki Tarai
2-Bhuksi -----------------------------------------Buksad and Rudrapur
3—Bhaksa
4-Bastara
5- Panchotar
6-Bhakendewar
7-Bhakti
8-Bhuri
9-Ratila
10-Chhatki
11-Jakram
12-Jarda
13-Jaon
14-Choli
15-Sahajgarh-----------Jaspur
16-Gajarpur------------Gadarpur
17-Dwarkot ---------------Thakurdwara
18-Malwada----------------Mal tarai
19-Malla Chaud -----------------Bhabhar portion
20-Seeta Chaud ---------------- Bhabhar portion
21-Kamus ------------------------- Bhabhar portion
                        Jagir under Rudra Chandra in Akbar Period

            The Jagir in Terai Bhabhar for Rudra Chandra (provided by Akbar) was divided into five subdivisions of Mahal or Patti. Due to its huge length it was called Chaurasi mal. Due to its taxation value for nine lakh rupees it was also called Naulakhiya Mal.  The Patti were –
S.N. --Name in Akbar Period ----------------Present Name
1-Sahajgir------------------------------------------Jaspur
2-Kota----------------------------------------------Kashipur
3-Mundiya--------------------------------------Bajpur
4-Gadarpur ------------------------------------Gadarpur
5-Buksad-----------------------------------------Rudrapur  and Kilpuri
6-Bakhsi--------------------------------------Nakmata
7-Chhinki------------------------------------------Sarbana

                 Establishing Rudrapur
  Chand King Rudra Chandra established a town Rudrapur in Terai. Rudra Chandra appointed officers in each Pargana. One officer was Kashinath. Kashinath established Kashipur town. In later stage, Kota Pargana was joined into Kashipur.
 The boundary of Terai Kumaon was from west of Sharada and east of Pali Rivers and in north border was Bhabhar. South was under Mogul rule.
 
                 Building a Palace by Rudra Chandra in Almora

   Rudra Chandra got chance to see the palace of Mogul. Impressed by palace of mogul, Rudra Chandra built a palace for him. Rudra Chandra built temples of Devi and Bhairav in place of his parental palace.
          Due to getting plains of Kumaon as Jagir from Mogul Akbar, Chand kings did not have problems of outside attacks in Bhabhar and Terai of Kumaon till 1760.
 Now, Chand kingdom had rule all over Manas Bhumi or present Kumaon. 
  Chand kingdom saw a golden period in Rudra Chandra period. The Chand kingdom was strong now.
Now, new acts from Chand kings were also initiated. Chand King sent those in exile who were opposing them Chand awarded to those who were blind supporters of Chand kingdom.
 Attacking Doti (Katyuri) and Garhwal kingdom without any sound reasons at any time also started from Rudra Chandra period.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 27/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -174   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History aspects of Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of today’s Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Khedi ki Terai, Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Buksad, Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Rudrapur Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Jaspur Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Gadarpur Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Thakurdwara Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Mal Terai Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Bhabhar Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Kashipur, Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Bajpur, Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Kilpuri, Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Nakmata, Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Sarbana, Kumaon Foothills (Terai) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Kumaon Foothills (Terai) , now part of Uttarakhand )Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar; History aspects of Kumaon Foothills (Terai), (North India  ) Administration in the rule of Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Attack on Badhan Garh, Garhwal by Rudra Chandra a Kumaoni king contemporary to Akbar

 (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 174

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

             There were many important Garhis on the eastern border of Garhwal kingdom touching Chand kingdom.  There used to be Garhwal army in those Garhi. Chand king who had captured almost whole Kumaon was in his rule extension mood. That means that Balram Shah the Guardian of Garhwal king Man shah was aware about extension mood of Rudra Chandra.
       Sukhaldev Katyuri king was ruler of Katyur, Garud, and Baijnath   (a small portion of Manasbhumi or Kumaon).
             Due to power of Chand king Garhwal king and Sukhaldev had friendship treaty. For attacking on Garhwal for Rudra Chandra, the road from Baijnath –Garud was simpler road.  Badhan Garh of Garhwal kingdom was on the border of Kumaon and Garhwal kingdoms. By capturing Badhan Garh it was easy for Rudra Chandra to capture Pindar valley of Garhwal kingdom. From Pindar valley, the road was from Garhwal capital Shri Nagar. Therefore, to capture Garhwal capital Shrinagar, it was essential to capture Badhan Garh.
Rudra Chandra ordered Purushoattam Pant to capture Badhan Garh.  Knowing the future attack by Chand king on Garhwal, the Garhwal king and Katyuri ruler Sukhaldev had friendly treaty. It was sure that Chand army had to pass through Katyuri region.  Balram Shah sent a platoon at Gwaldam and also arranged army at hills of Badhan region. Purushottam Pant with army marched towards Garhwal via Katyuri region and Sukhaldev could not resist.  However, when army of Pant passed ahead towards Garhwal, Sukhaldev cut the ammunition and food.
                         Battle of Gwaldam
             Around 1590-91 (Though Walton states the year 1581), there was fierce battle between armed forces of Chand king and Garhwal king. 
         A Padyar Rajput killed Purushottam Pant. Padyar Rajput reached with head of Purushottam Pant and Garhwal king rewarded Padyar Rajput that land through which Padyar Rajput came with head of Purushottam Pant. As soon as Commander Purushottam Pant was killed the Chand army ran away to Almora.
                         Killing of Sukhaldev

          When Purushottam Pant was killed and the attack on Garhwal was failed Chand King Rudra Chandra decided to destroy Sukhaldev Katyuri.  Chand army destroyed Katyuri region and poisoned Sukhaldev and his family members.  Garhwali king did not help Katyuri ruler Sukhaldev.
     Rudra Chandra was just to punish Katyuri ruler Sukhaldev. In the mean time Rautu an old Gram Pradhan (village council chief) of Rudra Chandra came and he suggested freeing Sukhaldev. Rautu promised that after six month, Rautu will come with Sukhaldev in court of Chand king.  After some time, Rudra Chandra asked Sukhaldev to attend court but he refused to do so. Again Rudra Chandra army attacked on Katyuri region and destroyed. The battle was fought in Baijnath. Sukhaldev was killed in this battle. Rautu was also killed. Rudra Chandra exiled family members of Sukhaldev. Now, it was the end of Katyuri kingdom from Manasbhumi or Kumaon forever.
  The reason for Garhwal king not helping Sukhaldev is not known.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 28/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -175   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Medieval History of Kumaon; Medieval History of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Medieval History of Bageshwar, Kumaon; Medieval History of Baijnath, Kumaon; Medieval History of Garud, Kumaon; Medieval History of Champawat Kumaon; Medieval History of Nainital, Kumaon; Medieval History of Almora, Kumaon; Medieval History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Medieval History of Kumaon, Himalaya ; Medieval History of Kumaon, North India ; Medieval History of Kumaon, South Asia ;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Kumaon King contemporary to Akbar

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 175

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

  Sanskrit Promotion in the rule of Rudra Chandra the Kumaon King contemporary to Akbar

            Rudra Chandra promoted Sanskrit by sheltering Sanskrit scholars and Sanskrit ritual pundits. Rudra Chandra the Kumaon King contemporary to Akbar did arrange Sanskrit education in his territory. It is said that at the time of Rudra Chandra the Kumaon King contemporary to Akbar, the Sanskrit scholars and astrologers of Kumaon or Manasbhumi were competent to compete Sanskrit scholars of Banaras and Kashmir.
                 Rudra Chandra the Kumaon King contemporary to Akbar wrote four Sanskrit books. The book ‘Usharagodaya’ a drama written by Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar) was published by Sampurnanand Sanskrit University Banaras.  ‘Shyainikshastra’ written by Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar) was published by Asiatic Society Kolkata.  There are four hundred Shlokas in ‘Shyainikshastra’. ‘Shyainikshastra’ written by Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar) is about the techniques of hunting.  The other Sanskrit literature ‘Yayati Charitam’ and ‘Traivnikdharmanirnay’ written by Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar) are still unpublished.
 There were tens of Sanskrit scholars in Manasbhumi or Kumaon at the time of Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar).
   Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar) built new temples and repaired various old temples as Jageshwar, Kedareshwar . No Chand king is equal to Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar) in terms of scholar, prosperity and kingdom extension. Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar) is called “Harsh- Shiladitya’ of Kumaon.
     
                 General Administration of Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar)

            Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar) is also remembered for his new taxation system on land in Kumaon.  His son who was blind by birth Shakti Gusain helped his father in revenue management. His chief administrators were Joshi of Silkhola and Bisht.
                         The salary for court employees were not paid by cash but from the income from fixed villages.   Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar) invented new tax as ‘Bakhudiya kar’. This tax was for managing court horses and horse riders.
  Prosperity in the rule of Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar)
                 In the history of Chand dynasty in Kumaon the rule of Rudra Chandra (a Kumaoni King contemporary to Akbar) was the most prosperous period.
       There were discussions in Indian plains about prosperity in Kumaon and Garhwal in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
 A European trader William Finch visited India from 1608-161. William Finch described that there was a very strong king Rodaro (Rudra Chandra) crossing gangues and it was in hills. His capital was Kumau(Kumaon). The length of his kingdom is ‘Char sau kosh’ and width is slightly lesser than length.  His kingdom grows food grains in huge quantity.  People grow low heighted, strong, agile Goonth or   Bhotiya horses. The king had huge artillery and lesser elephant and horse cavalry.  The border of this king was touching China (Tibet).
  A Farista described (1923) about a very prosperous hill kingdom naming Kumaon but that kingdom seems to be Garhwal kingdom. Farista wrote that there are five kingdoms in north (of Mogul kingdom)- Kuch, Jammu, Nagarkot, Kumaon and Bhimbhar. The kingdom of Kumaon was huge. The people get gold dust from land.  There are mines of copper and the borders touch Tibet. In south the border touches Sambhal. The numbers of artillery force (including horse and elephant cavalry) is 80,000. The Delhi King respected the king. His revenue is huge. They did not touch their ancestor money. It is believed that the king who used his forefather’s wealth that king would be poor. Therefore the wealth of 56 Rajkosh are intact.
          However, the above descriptions by Farista tally with Mahipat Shah of Garhwal kingdom the 54th king in Pawar dynasty. From the past time, there were mines of copper and other metal in Garhwal than Kumaon. The gold was extracted from sand of Gang and Yamuna bank from old time in Garhwal. 
 The description was on exaggerated side. Due to perception for being highly prosperous zones, the kings from plains used to attack on Uttarakhand.
 The last inscription of Rudra Chandra is of 1597. It seems that Rudra Chandra died in 1597.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 29/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -176   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Kumaon King Contemporary to Akbar; History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Pithoragarh, Kumaon King Contemporary to Akbar; History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Champawat, Kumaon King Contemporary to Akbar; History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Nainital, Kumaon King Contemporary to Akbar; History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Almora, Kumaon King Contemporary to Akbar; History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Ranikhet Kumaon King Contemporary to Akbar; History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Bageshwar , Kumaon King Contemporary to Akbar; History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Jageshwar Kumaon King Contemporary to Akbar; History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Udham Singh nagar, Kumaon King Contemporary to Akbar; History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Kumaon King of North india Contemporary to Akbar ;History notes on Characteristics of General Administrations of Rudra Chandra the Kumaon King  (South Asia) Contemporary to Akbar
Notes on Medieval History of Kumaon; Medieval History of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Medieval History of Bageshwar, Kumaon; Medieval History of Baijnath, Kumaon; Medieval History of Garud, Kumaon; Medieval History of Champawat Kumaon; Medieval History of Nainital, Kumaon; Medieval History of Almora, Kumaon; Medieval History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Medieval History of Kumaon, Himalaya; Medieval History of Kumaon, North India ; Medieval History of Kumaon, South Asia ;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Lakshmi Chand /Lakshman Chandra a Kumaoni King Contemporary to Jahangir

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 176

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
 
       Lakshmi Chandra is described in different records as Jahangirnama, Manoday, Smritikaustabh by Lakhmi Chand, Lakshman Chandra or Lakshmi Chandra.
Rudra Chandra the father of Lakshman Chandra ruled from 1565-1597 AD
 His ruling is from 1597-1621
Contemporary to Lakshman Chandra –
Delhi – Akbar (1556-1605
Delhi Jahangir – 1605-1627
Garhwal – Manshah 1591-1611
Garhwal- Shyam Shah 1611-1625 and death in 1631
Inscriptions of Lakshman Chandra available -1602, 1605 and 1616 AD
              Shakti Gusain was elder son of Rudra Chandra but he was blind by birth. Therefore Lakshman Chandra got crown.
                         Attacks on Garhwal by Lakshman Chandra


                Rudra Chandra attacked on Garhwal in 1591 and got defeat. In this battle, Purushottam or Purkhu Pant was killed.  Rudra Chandra was alive till 1597. Lakshman Chandra took vow to win over Garhwal Kingdom.
  Garhwali Kings established Garhi to protect from Kumaoni attacks. These Garhis were at Badhan, Chandpur, Chaud, Top, Rani, Lohaba, Dhauna, Van, Kanda, Gujadu, Paino etc.
                 According to Atkinson, Rahul, Pande and Viashnav; Lakshman Chandra attacked on Garhwal. A Garhwali traitor Surju Dangwal had friendship with Kumaoni king Rudra Chandra and Lakshman Chandra.  Surju Dangwal was in way, spy of Kumaoni king.  The Garhwali king Balram Shah died just before the attack of Rudra Chandra on Garhwal. Surju Dangwal took shelter in Kumaon court. When successor of Balram Shah Man Shah took over the Garhwal regime he called all his Jameendar or chieftains to capital. When Man Shah came to know that Surju Dangwal is n Kumaon he sent message for him to come back to Garhwal.
          Surju Dangwal did not attend Man Shah Court.  Now, Man Shah sent message to Kumaoni king to send Surju Dangwal to Garhwal.  Kumaoni king Lakshman Chandra cautioned Garhwali king that if Garhwali king would insist on calling Surju he (Kumaoni King) would attack on Garhwal.  Lakshman Chandra attacked on Garhwal. It seems that first time, Lakshman Chandra attacked on Garhwal in 1597.
  Lakshman Chandra attacked on Garhwal for seven times. Each time, Lakshman Chandra got defeat from Garhwali king and his army.  Every time, Lakshman Chandra used to start his campaign from ‘Rajbungi’ a fort near Garhwali border. Due to repeated defeats to Lakshman Chandra, local people started calling ‘Rajbungi’ as ‘Syalbungi’. Syal or fox is a symbol of coward and cunning character.
          On the seventh time, Lakshman Chandra attacked Paino Garh of Garhwal. According to Poet Bharat, now, Garhwali king vowed to teach lesion to Lakshman Chandra. Man Shah took huge army for defeating Lakshman Chandra. King man Shah sent his two army commanders Nandi and Bhringi to defeat Kumaoni King Lakshman Chandra. 
              At Paino Garh, Garhwali army killed maximum soldiers of Lakshman Chandra. There were a few soldiers alive with Lakshman Chandra. The defeated army and Lakshman Chandra ran from Paino Garh. Garhwali army ran after Kumaoni king.  Kumaoni king sat inside a Pinus and soldiers kept rugs on Pinnus.  The carriers of Pinus farmers used to speak,”  Papi Raj apu lai chore ki char bhaajnau chh, hmalai dukh deeno chh.” (The sinful king is running as thief and he is giving pain to us). The defeated king lakshman Chandra could not do anything against these farmers.  By any means, Lakshman Chandra reached to Almora.
                        Attack of Garhwali king on Champawat

              After analysis the writings of Attikinson, Rahul, Pandey, Manoday by Bharat poet, Raturi and folklores of Himalaya, Dr Dabral states that Garhwali king attacked Kumaon from two sides. One army marched towards south Kumaon that is Bhabhar and mal. Second army led by Garhwali king Man Shah marched from north via Gwaldam or Gairsain to Baijnath, Bageshwar, Rameshwar, Lohughat to Champawat.
   It is said that there was fierce war between Garhwali and Kumaoni army for seven days in Champawat. Thousands of soldiers from both sides were killed there.
  Lakshman Chandra ran away from battle field. In this awkward circumstance, the queen of Lakshman Chandra had to lead her army and she fought the battle for many days. At the end, Man Shah defeated Kumaoni king.  At the end queen of Lakshman Chandra had to hand over Surju Dangwal to Garhwal king Man Shah.
 Man Shah returned to Garhwal.
   It seems the battles between Garhwali king and Kumaoni were not to capture other’s kingdom but to show the supremacy on each other.





Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 30/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -177   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Medieval History of Kumaon; Medieval History of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Medieval History of Bageshwar, Kumaon; Medieval History of Baijnath, Kumaon; Medieval History of Garud, Kumaon; Medieval History of Champawat Kumaon; Medieval History of Nainital, Kumaon; Medieval History of Almora, Kumaon; Medieval History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Medieval History of Kumaon, Himalaya; Medieval History of Kumaon, North India; Medieval History of Kumaon, South Asia; History aspects of Lakshman Chandra a Kumaoni King Contemporary to Jahangir; History aspects of Kumaon Lakshman Chandra attacking on Garhwal; History aspects of Rajbungi as ‘Syalbungi’; History aspects of Garhwal king man Shah attacking on Champawat , Kumaon; Lakshmi Chand /Lakshman Chandra a Champawat , Kumaon King Contemporary to Jahangir ; Lakshmi Chand /Lakshman Chandra a Pithoragarh  , Kumaon King Contemporary to Jahangir ; ; Lakshmi Chand /Lakshman Chandra a  Bageshwar , Kumaon King Contemporary to Jahangir ; ; Lakshmi Chand /Lakshman Chandra a  Nainital , Kumaon King Contemporary to Jahangir ; ; Lakshmi Chand /Lakshman Chandra a  Almora, Kumaon King Contemporary to Jahangir ; ; Lakshmi Chand /Lakshman Chandra a  Udham Singh Nagar , Kumaon King Contemporary to Jahangir ;

Bhishma Kukreti

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          Starting of Khantduva or Bhail-Bhailo festival by King Lakshmi Chandra

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 177

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

           Mantra Accomplishment (Mantra Sadhana) by Lakshmi Chandra
            Lakshaman Chandra /Lakhmi Chand or Lakshmi Chandra got Kumaoni /Champawat crown in 1597. Most probably Lakhmi Chandra attacked on Garhwal in 1597 just after his taking over the rule. There were seven attacks on Garhwal kingdom by Lakhmi Chandra or Lakshmi Chandra. It means his seventh attack on Garhwal was in 1602 as according to folklore, Man Shah the Garhwal king reached Champawat in 1602 AD. Lakshmi Chandra was humiliated by Man Shah.

      Lakshmi Chandra or Lakshman Chandra started accomplishing Mantra Sadhana from 1602 to 1605.
             It is said that the ‘Pinus’ carrier farmer said that if King would have have been religious he would have not seen so embarrassing position.  The sarcastic remarks by Pinus carrier affected Lakshman Chandra.  He called his court Guru and told him that he was becoming Sanyasi and ready to hand over kingdom to other.   Guru told to the king Lakshmi Chandra to wait for one year. Guru brought black magic from a Guru of  Bengal. The Mantra was given to Lakshmi Chandra.
          In the mean time, Lakshman Chandra built three Shiva temples as Lakshmeshwar temples in Almora and Bageshwar.  King Lakshmi Chandra donated land to temples of Bageshwar, Jageshwar, and other places.
  Now, King Lakshmi Chandra was sure that he would win over Garhwal due to Mantra power. King Lakshmi Chandra made strategy to attack on Garhwal eighth time. He ordered to keep dry grass on hills of Kumaon from bordering region of Garhwal till Almora that as soon as he won Garhwal there should be fire on Grass on all hills. His idea was that as soon as he won the Garhwal kingdom the fire from one hill to other hill would inform his winning Garhwal.
       It is most certain that when on Ashwin Sankranti  , Lakshmi Chandra attacked on Garhwal and looted the bordering villages of Kumaon l the people burnt grass in each hill and this way information reached to Almora where grass were burnt too.  From that day, people celebrate ‘Khantduva’ festival on Ashwin Sankranti day in evening by burning grass piles.
People in night dance with following folk song –
Bhail Bhailo ji , Bhailo Khantduva
Gaida ki jeet , khntad ki har
Gaida pado shyol, khantad pado bhel
               Gaida Bisht was Kumaoni army commander who was migrated from Garhwal. Khantud Singh was a Garhwali Garhi army in charge. Gaida killed Khatad Singh. It was a very small win by Kumaoni king over Garhwal. However, the King magnified it as if he had won whole Garhwal.
        It is still a discussion point that it was a Viajyoutsav (festival of win) for Kumaoni king and people and the name of festival is on the name of Garhwali commander. It might be that initially the name would be Gaida-Khantuduva but in later stage the name Gaida name was forgotten.
Today, Bhail Bhailo is also celebrated in Garhwal on after eleventh day of Deepawali. With changed words –
Bhail Bhailo ji , Bhailo Khantduva
Gai  ki jeet , khntad ki har
Gai pado shyol, khantad pado bhel
The day was Ashwin Sankranti of 1605, when Lakshmi Chandra attacked Garhwal eighth time.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 31/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -178   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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              King Lakshmi Chandra visiting Jahangir Court

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 178

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                Commerce with Tibet in Lakshmi Chandra Regime
           
          After capturing Johar and Darma regions, Chand kingdom had territory bordering Tibet too.  Kumaoni King Lakshmi Chandra settled the border line between Chand Kingdom and Tibet kingdom. Manasbhumi King Lakhmi Chand /Lakshmi Chandra also reviewed the working of Bhotiya traders trading with Tibet.  It seems that Lakshmi Chandra levied new taxes on Bhotiya traders for trades between Tibet and Kumaon.
 
                     Plague in India in Badshah Jahangir Period
        In 1616, a deadly plague occurred in Punjab. The plague spread Kashmir, Ganga-Yamuna doab and other parts of India. The disease was there for eight years and lakhs of people died due to plague. Jahangir writes that the disease was unknown till date.
 There is no record or folklore about spread of plague in Garhwal and Kumaon of that time.
                         Control over Sor and Establishing Pithoragarh
                    Kumaoni King contemporary to Badshah Jahangir captured Sor territory from Katyuri family around 1620.
                  The chief politicians of Sor, Sukhram Karki and Peer Gusain started influencing Kumaoni King Lakshmi Chandra the contemporary of Badshah Jahangir. They came to Almora. Peer Gusain was far relative of Chand family. Piru Gusain was given charge of land management and land revenue by Kumaoni king contemporary to Badshah Jahangir.  Analysing the geaographical situation, Piru Gusain or Prithwi Raj Gusain founded a fort as Prithvigarh in Sor region and the city is now called as Pithoragarh (now a district head quarter). 
  Later on Vinayak Bhatt also joined Piru Gusain and Sukhram Karki to influence Kumaoni King Lakshmi Chandra.
       
                        King Lakshmi Chandra in Jahangir Court
                    Rudra Chandra became the Jagirdar of plains of Kumaon -Chaurasi Mal under Mogul rule. Rudra Chandra was also free King for hill region of Kumaon. It was necessary for Lakshmi Chandra to renew his Jagir under Jahangir the Mogul King.
          Jahangir described about Lakshmi Chandra in his autobiography Jahangirnama. Badshah Jahangir writes that Lakshmi Chandra requested him to send son of Aitamaduddaula for receiving Lakshmi Chandra. Jahangir sent Shahpur to receive Lakshmi Chandra. Lakshmi Chandra presented him before Jahangir in 1612 in Shahi camp. Lakshmi Chandra brought various rare gifts from hills as Pahadi horses, hunter  birds, musk inside intestine of deer, deer skin, Khadga, Katar of Hills etc. Jahangir wrote that Lakshmi Chandra was very rich king among other hill kings. Jahangir wrote that there were gold mines in Kumaon.
 Lakshmi Chandra spent at least ten days in capital or Badshahi camp. Jahangir offered gift of hundred horses and an elephant to Lakshmi Chandra. Jahangir wrote that his Akbar offered gift of two hundred horses to Rudra Chandra the father of Lakshmi Chandra. Jahangir gifted Khilaten and gem carved knife to Lakshmi Chandra and his brothers. Jahangir renewed the Jagir of Bhabhar or Chaurasi Mal to Lakshmi Chandra.
 Though Lakshmi Chandra was independent King for Hills of Kumaon but was under Mogul for Chaurasi Mal. The Jahangirnama shows that Lakshmi Chandra used to send his representative to Jahangir and used to send gifts.
 According to Jahangirnama, in 1620, Lakshmi Chandra sent gift for Jahangir most probably with his brother as representative. The gifts for Jahangir from Lakshmi Chandra were Baj, Jurr and many other hunter animals.  In Jahangirnama, there is no mention of person that brought gifts for Jahangir from Lakshmi Chandra
              Arrival of Jahangir to Haridwar
        In 1621, Jahangir came to Haridwar from Agra due to his health problem. Jahangir was of an opinion that in case, Haridwar was better place than Agra he would settle there for summer and would establish a city. However, the season of Haridwar did not suit Jahangir. Jahangir offered gifts to Hindu religious priests and scholars. 
 It is not clear whether Kumaoni king attended Jahangir or not.  It said that the Mogul army visited Talladesh (South of Kumaon that is Bhabhar or plains) at Tanda nad Piaplfata and camped at Badshahi garden.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 1/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -179   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
 Notes on History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Pithoragarh-Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Champawat Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Almora-Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Nainital-Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Dwarhat-Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Johar-Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Ranikhet -Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Udham Singh Nagar -Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Bageshwar- Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Sor- Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Lakshmi Chandra the Askot-Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court; History aspects of Central Himalayan King Lakshmi Chandra the Kumaon King visiting Jahangir Court;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 179

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                  The Kumaon or Manashbhumi King Lakshmi Chandra, Lakhmi Chand or Lakshman Chandra (1597-1621) was contemporary to Badshah Jahangir (1605-1627).

                        Reform by Shakti Chandra or Shakti Chandra
                   Shakti Chandra or Gusain was elder brother of Lakshmi Chandra. However, being blind by birth Shakti Chandra could not become King of Kumaon. Shakti Chandra did various Tapas, went for religious fast and visited various pilgrim places. Shakti Chandra got command over power of touch, hearing that he was able to fill the vacuum due to birth blindness. Shakti Chandra chalked out policies for general administration and land revenue in his father’s time. Lakshman Chandra followed the policies of Shakti Chandra. Shakti Chandra used to look after general administration in the rule period of Lakshmi Chandra.
                     Shakti Chandra divided administrative staff into three classes.
1-Sardar- These officers was as today’s civil secretaries. These top posted Sardar were responsible for important jobs as in charge of district administration and central administration in capital.
2-Faujdar- These were army officers used to look after battalions of permanent soldiers or contractual soldiers.
3-Negi- These officers were low cadre officers looking civil service and army service. Negi were responsible to collect Neg or taxes from villages.
        The salary to government servants was paid from fixed land. The tax from these villages was called ‘Vittkar’. 
           The new social groups emerged as soldiers due to continuous war, battle and conflicts. Their main profession was just to take part in war, battle or conflicts. These soldiers used to get salary in the form of land from where these professional army men used to get revenue. The law for these army men was called ’Beesi Banduk’. 
 There were two types of court-
1-Bishtavali – Bishtavali court used to hear the pleas of soldiers or army related matter
2-Nyauwali- Nyauwali court was for common men.
 There were rules for appointing permanent soldiers and there were exams for appointing soldiers.
The brave and retired soldiers were awarded Jagir or Thokdari (villages).
‘Katakvale sainik ’ soldiers or reserve soldiers were also provided villages (to collect revenue as for their salary) and the condition was that whenever the kingdom needed those soldiers used to attend court.
                           Reform on taxation   
           Rudra Chandra wanted tax reform. Shakti Chandra helped his father and he reformed taxation system.
 Beesi – Shakti Chandra decided a unit of measuring farm land. One unit land was Bees Nali or twenty Nali (Nali means the quantum of seeds sown in a particular field).  Farmers have to pay tax on according to Nali measurement. British also kept same way of farmland measurement. By this new measurement system, every farmer came under taxation.
 The following taxes planned by Shakti Chandra were there in Lakshmi Chandra time.
Parviyon kar- Tax upon festivals time
Teeka kar –
Ghee kar –tax on production of Ghee by individual family
Jyula tax-
Sirti Tax-
Baikar Tax-
Racchyaa Tax-
Koot tax-
Bhat tax-
Khirchi tax-
Galla tax-
Bhent tax-

                                    State Stores 
 Shakti Chandra initiated having state stores for different materials as
Ganj- ganj store was for materials received from Ghee, Parviyaon, Khirch tax, Galla tax
Bhandar store- The store for material reccieved for Sirti, Maseek, Rachhaya, Teeka, Mal taxes
Sejwal store- The store for dresses of King as personal and formal dresses, Khadaun, shoes, Dushale, and personal arms
Kotyal store- Stores for dresses, meva or dry fruits and other gifts received from people
Selwan Store - The store for ammunition and arms as Dhanyu, Duna, Kan, sword, guns, Ramchangi, janbara etc
Darughar – store for raw materials for making gun powder and gun powder etc

                                         Animal sheds
 There were different sheds for state owned animals
Seekar shed - State wpned sheds for Goats of Lakha , Boka, Hilwan classes
Thath sheds – The milk providing caw and buffalos sheds
Bada sheds - The animals for sacrifice to deities were kept in Bada
Sate servants were kept for looking after state owned stores.

                    State Expenditure management

 
             Shakti Chandra divided the state expenditure into three classes
1-Expenditure on king families
2-Expenditure on salaries of servants for king and king families
3-Expenditure on salaries of servants for other state department

                          Kitchen and Culinary Management
             Shakti Chandra arranged kitchen and culinary with management skills. Shakti Chandra established many farms and gardens in villages for catering kitchen needs of the King and King Family. The Laksmishwar and Kapina gardens at Almora are witness that Gardening was promoted in Lakshmi Chandra period for state purpose.  The vegetables for king and his family were grown at Narisighbadi and Pandekholabadi.  Das or today’s Shilpkar were designated to do agriculture works on state owned gardens and farms.
                There a couple of villagers of villages responsible who were supposed to supply Snow from Snow Mountains to Almora. These villages were called ‘Hyunpal’.
 Lakshmi Chandra used to obey the advices of Shakti Chandra.

              Dissatisfaction among people against Lakshmi Chandra rule
            No doubt, Shakti Chandra reformed tax collection system at micro level. However, the tax system was just for kingdom benefits and not people’s benefits. There were no people oriented planning or help from the state.
           The tax collectors were very strict in tax collection. The tax collection reform was such that nobody could be relieved from tax payment.
           There are a few folklores from Lakshmi Chandra period for tax payment and tax collection in Kumaon. 
        It is said that many Brahmins of Satravali village of Katyur region stopped growing vegetables on farm but started growing vegetables on the roof of houses as there was no tax on house or land of house. The King Lakshman Chandra saw this system and asked the Brahmins. Brahmins told the King about tax system. King freed taxes on vegetables in Satravali village.
 Lakshmi Chandra expired in 1621. He was called ‘Syal and Biralu (Fox and Cat) king by people due to his coward nature and defeats.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 2/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -180   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Kumaon contemporary to Badshah Jahangir; History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Pithoragarh Kumaon contemporary to Badshah Jahangir; History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Bageshwar Kumaon contemporary to Badshah Jahangir; History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Dwarhat Kumaon contemporary to Badshah Jahangir; History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Champawat  Kumaon contemporary to Badshah Jahangir; History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Almora Kumaon contemporary to Badshah Jahangir; History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon contemporary to Badshah Jahangir; History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Ranikhet Kumaon contemporary to Badshah Jahangir; History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Kumaon, central Himalaya  contemporary to Badshah Jahangir; History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Kumaon North India contemporary to Badshah Jahangir; History aspects of taxation, revenue Administration in Lakshmi Chandra period a King of Kumaon South Asia contemporary to Badshah Jahangir;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Dilip Chandra: A Weak Chand King of Kumaon and famous for having twenty one Sons

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 180

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 Ruling period of Dilip Chandra: 1621-1624
Inscription- Inscription of Gadsir without date
Contemporary situation:
Garhwal - Shyam Shah -1611-1625 expired in 1631, Mahipat Shah – 1625-1635
Delhi/Agra – Jahangir 1605-1627
      Dilip Chandra was one of the weaker rulers among Chand Kings. He got the crown from his father Lakshmi Chandra and maintained the territory.  Trimall Chandra passed two inscriptions in 1616 and 1618 in the period of Lakshmi Chandra in hope that he would get the crown. However, due to conspiracy of Sukhram Karki and his two other powerful court fellows, instead Trimall Chandra, Dilip Chandra got crown of Lakshmi Chandra. 
              Disputes among Pant –Upreti
           The disputes among Pant and Upreti castes were quite old phenomenon. They had fierce groups.  Dilip Chandra was weal king. There were day to day conflicts between Pant and Upreti castes. They used to make conspiracy on each other in Gangoli.  Dilip Chandra passed an order that whoever is found attacking on others would be punished.
      Dilip Chandra dismissed Vasudev Pant a minster of Lakshmi Chandra period. Pant castes criticized Dilip Chandra and spread the rumors that Dilip Chandra was under influence of dead souls of Upreti.  Jeet Ram Pande, one of Pant group leader was caught looting Upreti village. Dilip Chandra sentenced Jeet Ram Pande to death.

                     Twenty one sons of Dilip Chandra
         Dilip Chandra died in 1624 due to tuberculosis. However, he left the army of twenty one sons.
                         Chief Councilor s of Dilip Chandra
               The chief councilors and officers in Chand kingdom were from Joshi, Pant, Pande, Tiwari and Upreti castes.
             The chief influencing advisors of Dilip Chandra were Sukhram Karki, Piru Gusain and Vinayak Bhatt originally from Sor. Piru Gusain was relative to Chand family. Pande described them as cunning advisors.  It seems that since, Sukhram Karki, Piru Gusain and Vinayak Bhatt were called cunning as they were not from Pant, Pande, Upreti and Tiwari castes. By this token, historians should have called Upreti-Pant groups cunning, indulged in conspiracy and cruel too.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 3/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -181   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Medieval History of Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Askot Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Johar Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Sor Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir; Medieval History of Dwarhat Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Pithoragarh Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Bageshwar Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Champawat Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Almora Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Nainital Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Ranikhet Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period;   

Bhishma Kukreti

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                Vijay Chandra a Chand King who was Victim of Conspiracy

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 181

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
               Ruling Period of Vijay Chandra- 1624-1625
              After Rudra Chandra’s death, Kumaon witnessed various internal conflicts among administrative and regional groups.  Dilip Chandra had twenty one sons. Dilip Chandra died in 1624. The three Sor group leaders Karki, Gusain and Bhatt became powerful in Dilip Singh court and they were more powerful than other separate groups led by separately by Pande, Upreti, Tiwari, Joshi and Pant. There were other groups too in Dilip Singh court. Karki, Gusain and Bhatt group crowned sixteen years old Vijay Chandra one of sons of Dilip Chandra on Kumaon Kingdom. It is said that group of Karki, Gusain and Bhatt was conning group, cruel and very selfish too.
               The Sor group led by Karki, Bhatt and Gusain saw that teen aged King Vijay Chandra became addicted to women, wine and hemp etc. The queen of Vijay Chandra was princesses of Badgujar of Bulandshahar. Sor group provided various medium of entertainment especially women for Vijaya Chandra.  Vijay Chandra became habitual of living in harem. Vijay Chandra did not have any interest in rule or court.
        Neel Gusain one of the Sons of late King Lakshmi Chandra or brother of Dilip Chandra opposed the lust of Vijay Chandra and conspiracy of Karki group. Sor group asked to make Neel Gusain blind with the permission of Vijay Chandra. Sor group led by Sukhram Karki, Piru Gusain and Vinayak Bhatt killed one by one the aspirants of crown or their supporters. Trimal Chandra son of Lakshmi Chandra ran away to Shrinagar Garhwal and took shelter under Garhwal kingdom. Another son of Lakshmi Chandra Narayan Chandra too shelter in Doti kingdom.
           Karki, Gusain and Bhatt group did not leave children in killing them brutally. The child of Neel Gusain was saved by a maid. A widow of a Tiwari pundit of Chaunsar village looked after the son of Neel Gusain without knowledge of the trio group.  Later on, this child became the Kumaon King as Baj Bhahdur Chandra.
   Vijay Chandra used to live in Harem and very rarely used to attend the court. Once he offered land to Damu Pande in 1625 without knowledge of Sor group (inscription). Vijay Chandra also built the door for Almora fort without knowledge of Sor group.  Karki, Gusain and Bhatt became angry by seeing the independent decisions of Vijay Chandra. The Sor group planned a conspiracy to kill Vijay Chandra. They wanted to ascend throne to a Rautlea clan.

                   Trimall Chandra in Shrinagar Garhwal
  Trimall Chandra stayed in Shrinagar Garhwal for some time. Trimall Chandra contacted Piru Gusain one of leaders of Sor group. Piru Gusain was relative of Chandra king family. It was decided that when Trimall Chandra would be made Kumaon King he would look after the interest of Piru Gusain and his group.  It seems that Karki and Bhatt were ready to help Trimall Chandra.
        Trimall Chandra was happy in Shrinagar and he showed his gratitude to Garhwali after he got kingdom.  Garhwali king helped Trimall Chandra monetarily too.
  There is a folklore Garhwali King involving attack on Kumaon. In Ramayana Pradip, Bahuguna wrote about Pradip Shah attacking Kumaon. However, the history does not permit both folklore and Ramayana Pradip.
                          Cruel Murder of Vijay Chandra
      Sukhram Karki killed Vijaya Chandra and there are a couple of stories related to Karki murdering Vijay Chandra.
 It seems that Sor group led by Karki, Gusain and Bhatt designed killing of Vijay Chandra. Karki got support from the Kitchen officer and a maid ‘Saruli’.  When the king was without arms, without body guards, and half naked for washing his hand after taking lunched, Karki murdered Vijaya Chandra by strangling.
  After murdering Vijaya Chandra, Sukhram Karki declared that king is dead due to mysterious reason. He declared that till, the king is elected he would look after the Kingdom.
 Since Sor group killed all the aspirants for Kumaoni Kingdom, only Trimall Chandra and Narayan Chandra were contenders for the Chand Kingdom.
 Mara group wanted Trimall Chandra as King. Fadtyal group wanted Narayan Chandra as king. Mara group brought Trimall Chandra to Almora immediately. It seems that Trimall Chandra was hiding near Almora.  Mara group crowned Trimall Chandra as king. Though a few Joshi, Pande, Pant groups opposed crowing time as inauspicious.
   Narayan Chandra was in Doti far from Almora. With the help of Fadtyal group, when he reached Chinakhan at Suval Rive Ghatr, Trimall Chandra was already crowned. Knowing the news of crowning of Trimall Chandra, Narayan Chandra and Fadtyal people ran away to Doti.
 Vijay Chandra was killed in 1625.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 4/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -182   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Medieval History of Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Askot Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Johar Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Sor Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir; Medieval History of Dwarhat Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Pithoragarh Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Bageshwar Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Champawat Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Almora Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Nainital Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Ranikhet Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period; Medieval History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon contemporary to Jahangir period;   

Bhishma Kukreti

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               History of Trimall Chandra a Kumaon King Contemporary to Shahjahan

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 182

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 Ruling Period of Trimall Chandra – 1625-1638
Inscription of Trimall Chandra- 1616, 1618, 1630 and two dateless inscriptions
Contemporary Kings-
Delhi /Agra -Jahangir -1605-1625
Shahjahan- 1628-1659
Shrinagar Garhwal
Shyam Shah 1611-1625 (expired in 1631)
Mahipat Shah -1625-1635
Queen Nakkati 1635-1640
 Getting Crown by Trimall Chandra
               Trimall Chandra was son of King Lakshmi Chandra. Dipi Chandra was elder to Trimall Chandra. Sukhram Karki, Piru Gusain and Vinayak Bhatt of Sor region became powerful in Dilip Chandra period. These three managed that teen aged Vijay Chandra son of Dilip Chandra got kingdom of Kumaon.
   It was clear that the trio Karki, Gusain and Bhatt wanted to kill all who were aspirants to become Kumaon King or were related to would be heir. Trimall Chandra and Narayn Gusain (sons of Lakshmi Chandra and uncles of Vijay Chandra) ran and too shelters in Garhwal and Doti kingdoms respectively.
               In 1625, Trimall Chandra got kingdom due to support of Piru Gusain and Mara group.  Trimall Chandra was aware that trio Karki, Gusain and Bhatt were dangerous and selfish. Trimall Chandra created good perception among people that he was able and clean administrator.
               Sukhram Karki was killed. Vinayak Bhatt was made blind by outing his eyes. King donated the property of Vinayak Bhatt to Madho Pande. Piru Gusain was given choice of visiting Allahabad and do suicide under banyan tree.
        Joshi group supported Trimall Chandra.  Trimall Chandra appointed Narottam Joshi of Jhinjhad as Prime Minister (Bajir). Trimall Chandra appointed Dinkar Joshi of Galli as Chaudhari and Vitthal Gusain as Diwan. Ratgali were kept general administrators as per past pattern only.

                  Personal and Palace Internal Security for Trimmal Chandra
          After killing of Vijaya Chandra and crowning of Trimall Chandra as king, there was trustless and restlessness in the palace.
           It was utmost necessary to keep eyes on kitchen and palace maids and kitchen police in charge. Trimall Chandra called new female maids (rajcheliyan) from Garhwal for avoiding involvement of maids into internal politics of Kumaon kingdom.  There were strict instructions for Rajcheliyan (female maids) that they would not go out of palace and would not contact outsiders.
         The Rasoi Daroga or palace kitchen police in charge had important place in the personal security of Kings. Due to conspiracy, Rasoi Daroga would have mixed poison into food and beverages for king as happened for Vijaya Chandra.  Trimall Chandra dismissed the Rasoi Daroga who was involved in conspiracy to kill Vijay Chandra.Trimall Chandra appointed Karn kathayat  (from family of late  Naalu Kathayat in the time of Gyan Chandra) as Kitchen Police in Charge.
 There were sixteen specific instructions or laws for Rasoi Daroga or Palace Kitchen Police inspector,a few are as follows  –
1-Kitechn police inspector would not contact any person related to Mara and Fadtyal groups.
2-The kitchen police inspector would taste the meal and beverage before the king
3-Kitchen police Inspector would keep eye on cook and would not leave cook alone in kitchen
4-The kitchen police and cook and kitchen staff would not call/talk anything related to poison as opium, semal etc.
5-The kitchen police inspector and staff would not keep any relation with family members of Sor citizens, Kali Kumaon, Katyrui and Chand princesses not would visit them.
6-The kitchen police would not visit or talk in any stage to people of  Kali Kumaon, Manral, Rautela, Soryal, Nagarkotiya castes.
7- Kitchen Police inspector should behave Rajcheliyan/female maids with grace
8-The kitchen police would not talk about Jadu-tona-manta (black magic) at all with anybody.
  There was real and imagery insecurity for the king Trimall. Trimall arranged many means to protect himself from kitchen or other people. Conspiracy was talk of the town in his time.

                                          Relationship with Doti Kingdom

               Kumaon King Trimall had cordial relationship with Doti Kingdom. His brother Narayan Chandra was taking shelter in Doti. Trimall Chandra did not invite his brother Narayan Chandra to Kumaon as he was also contender for Chand Kingdom. 

                                                Relationship with Mogul Kingdom

          Trimall Chandra had cordial relationship with Mogul Kingdom. Trimall Chandra regularly used to send tributes/gifts to mogul court. It seems that Trimall Chandra sent gifts at the time of coronation of Shahjahan in Agra.

# Read more about relationship of Trimall Chandra with Garhwal Kingdom in History of Uttarakhand part 183

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 6/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -183   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Trimall Chandra a Kumaon King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Pithoragarh Kumaon King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Dwarhat Kumaon King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Ranikhet Kumaon King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Almora Kumaon King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Nainital Kumaon King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Champawat Kumaon King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Bageshwar Kumaon King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Udham Singh Nagar  Kumaon King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Kumaon, Uttarakhand  King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Kumaon Central Himalaya King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Kumaon North India King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Kumaon , South Asia King Contemporary to Shahjahan; History of Trimall Chandra a Kumaon Asian King Contemporary to Shahjahan;

 

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