Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 68841 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Friendly Army drill between Kumaon and Garhwal Armed forces in Trimall Chandra period

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 183

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

    Trimall Chandra did take shelter under Garhwal kingdom in his bad days. Garhwal king helped monetarily to Trimall Chandra for getting crown.  In the time of Trimall Chandra, there were cordial relations between Garhwal and Kumaon kingdoms.
              However, ‘Garhrajvansh Kavya’ and ‘Garhwal ka Aitihasik Vritant’ state that there was friendly battle between Kumaon and Garhwal armies.
                  Garhwal king Shyam Shah was busy in Tibet border in 1624-1625. Mahipat Shah (uncle of Shyam Shah in relation) was looking after the Garhwal kingdom rule from Shrinagar. There is inscription in Keshoray Math that Mahipat Shah took Garhwal rule in 1625. Shyam Shah was alive till 1631. That means Mahipat Shah was chief executive officer of King Shyam Shah.
  Mahipat Shah was Vammargi (stern believer on Tantra). At the time of Kumbh at Haridwar, in confusion, Mahipat Shah killed Naga saints and put out the eyes from idol of Bharat temple. He killed other innocent people. He wanted to die in battle for repenting his sinful deeds.   
 Mahipat Shah sent a request to Kumaon King Trimall Chandra to come forward for battle. Without getting positive answer from Trimall Chandra, Mahipat Shah marched towards Kumaon with his army.
            It is described in Garhrajvansh Kavya by Maularam that three pair of ‘Auji ‘(drum player professionals) of Salan (south Garhwal ) were leading army by playing Dhol-Damau. The soldiers from Lohaba and Badhan were marching with food materials into Kandi on their backs. They had Tada, Tobda, Batfar, Kath Patela etc for body protection. With Khas –Rajput soldiers, there were armed forces combined by Diswali Muslim, Dilwali Hindu from Delhi; and Chief Banwadidas Tumvar as commander. There were ministers, commanders and Brahmin priests with the king.
   When Trimall Chandra got message of Mahipat Shah, he consulted his minister and sent his lawyer to Mahipat Shah. In his plea, Trimall Chandra reminded Mahipat Shah that he (Trimall) took shelter and Garhwal king helped him in bad days. Therefore, Trimall requested Mahipat Shah to return back from border.  Trimall clearly sent message that he is Kumaon because of help from Garhwal king. Trimall requested that instead of attack or battle he was ready to send tribute.
             Mahipat Shah insisted on battle as dying in battle was main character of a Rajput.  The lawyer of Kumaon Kingdom suggested that if battle was inevitable, Mahipat Shah should come with least army. Mahipat Shah accepted the suggestion of Kumaon kingdom lawyer. Mahipat Shah sent back his major army. Mahipat Shah ordered to coronate his son Prithwipati Shah as Garhwal kingdom King. The army was led by under Banwadidas Tomar (originally from Delhi) and now, there were only 1200 soldiers. Mahipat Shah marched with his army towards Almora. No Kumaoni army resisted at all.  Mahipat Shah camped near Koshi River bank in Almora.
     The Kumaon king Trimall Chandra did not send his army for battle.  Mahipat Shah sent ‘bangles ‘ to Trimall Chandra and started throwing arrows towards palace. Now, Trimall Chandra sent his army to fight with Mahipat Shah.  Kumaoni army killed Mahipat Shah and Banwadidas Tomar in the battle. Perhaps this battle happened in summer of 1635. This battle was just to fulfill madness of a mad Garhwal king Mahipat Shah. The battle was unnecessary and hundreds of soldiers were killed. 



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 7/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -184   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Asian Medieval history of Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Dwarhat Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Champawat Kumaon; Medieval history of Bageshwar Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Nainital Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Almora Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Kumaon Central Himalaya; Asian Medieval history of Kumaon North India; Asian Medieval history of Kumaon, South Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Suppressing Rebellions by Kumaon King Trimall Chandra a contemporary to Badshah Shahjahan

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 184

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                     Balyan , Chhakhata Revolt
           There was revolt from Sammal Caste group in village Balyan, Chhabees Dumaula Patti of Chhakhata region. In the leadership of Peera Sammal ‘Paik’ (brave man), Sammal Jamindar declared them free from Trimall Chandra rule. Peera Sammal started ruling from a big stone as court. The army of Trimall Chandra killed all rebellions and their families. Only one pregnant woman was spared.  Till the early twentieth century, there was no farming on that ground where Sammal people were killed by Trimall Chandra army. The big stone was there and is the witness of killing of Sammal people by army of Trimall Chandra.

          History aspects of Bajbahadur Chandra
            Trimall Chandra did not have any child. Supporters of Trimall Chandra were Mara groups. The immediate heir of Trimall Chandra was his brother Narayan Chandra. However, supporters of Narayan Chandra were Fadtyal group and Mara group never allowed that Narayan Chandra become King.  Mara group was always in search of a Rautela heir for Trimall Chandra.  They informed Trimall Chandra that when Karki, Gusain and Bhatt of Sor ousted eyes of Neel Gusain his maid hid orphan son of Neel Gusain and handed over to a Tiwari widow in a village. The Tiwari widow nurtured the orphan. The name of that child was named as ‘Baja’. 
 There are other couples of folklore about Baja. 
In 1635, Trimall Chandra declared ‘Baja’ as his heir or prince. The age of ‘Baja’ would be 13-14 in 1635.
      Trimall Chandra used to offer various court-works to ‘Baja’. Now, ‘Baja’ was Baj Chandra or Baj Bahadur Chandra.
There is a four feet idol of Trimall Chandra in Jageshwar temple. There is Shloka carved on the back of idol and year is mention -1630.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 8/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -185   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Asian Medieval  Kumaon History contemporary to Shahjahan; Asian Medieval Kumaon History contemporary to Shahjahan; Asian Medieval Pithoragarh, Kumaon History contemporary to Shahjahan; Asian Medieval  Champawat, Kumaon History contemporary to Shahjahan; Asian Medieval Dwarhat, Kumaon History contemporary to Shahjahan; Asian Medieval Bageshwar, Kumaon History contemporary to Shahjahan; Asian Medieval Nainital ,Kumaon History contemporary to Shahjahan; Asian Medieval Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon History contemporary to Shahjahan; Asian Medieval Almora Kumaon History contemporary to Shahjahan; Asian Medieval Ranikhet, Kumaon History contemporary to Shahjahan; Asian Medieval history of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Dwarhat Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Champawat Kumaon; Medieval history of Bageshwar Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Nainital Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Almora Kumaon; Asian Medieval history of Kumaon Central Himalaya; Asian Medieval history of Kumaon North India; Asian Medieval history of Balyan, Chhabees Dumaula Patti of Chhakhata region , Kumaon, South Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Medieval History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra contemporary to Shahjahan and Aurangzeb


(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 185

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
Rule Period of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra- 1638-1578
Inscriptions available of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra-1640, 43,48,54,59,62,64,65,66,68,70,71,73,1675
Contemporary Kings
Garhwal- Nakkati Rani (1635-1640), Prithwipati Shah (1640-1664, expired in 1667), Fateshah (1664-1716)
Delhi Badshah- Shahjahan (1628-1659); Aurangzeb (1659-1707)
                   There are two names mentioned in the dateless Trimall inscription of Baleshwar temple –Trimall Chandra and Ballalchandra. Ballalchandra is said to be Bajbahadur Chandra.  There is his name Vijay Bahadur Chandra in the 1664, copper inscription of Baleshwar temple. The Shahjahanama a Shahjahan autography by Inayat Khan mentions Kumaon king as Bajbahadur Chandra.  The Kumaon court councilor Anantdev mentioned him as Bajbahadur Chandra and his father name as Neel Chandra in his book ‘Stutikaustubh’. Anantdev mentions that Neel Chandra visited various pilgrim places.
                Bajbahadur Chandra was not real son of King Trimall Chandra. Trimall Chandra was childless king. It was said that a Tiwari widow was nurturing the son of Neel Gusain (who was son of King Lakshmi Chandra) in a remote village.  Bajbahadur Chandra adapted that boy who was called ‘Baj’ in the village. The court poet of Bajbhadur Chandra Anantdev described forefathers of Bajbahadur Chandra as Gyanchandra, Kalyan Chandra, Rudra Chandra, Lakshman Chandra, Trimall Chandra and Neel Chandra.
  Chandra king Vijay Chandra ousted eyes of Neel Gusain.
                   Atkinson stated that baj Bhadur Chandra died at the age of eighty years as per a folk saying. A folk saying mentions that “Baras bhaya asse . budh gayee nasee’ and folk story that son of Bajbahadur Chandra  Udyot Chandra sent white hair to his father for reminding his father that now the prince (Udyot Chandra) was becoming quite old and his father (Baj Bahadur Chandra ) should leave the crown for his prince.  However, the historical logic does not permit that Baj Bahadur Chandra was eighty years old when he died. The age of Baj Bahadur would be 55-56 at the time of his death.
  Baj Bahadur Chandra was a religious person and was strong believer on deities, temples and Brahmins. His court Brahmin poet Anantdev was a Karmkandi Brahmin who wrote about adopted son and Pryaschit theories. However, in ‘Smriti-Kaustubh’, there no mention is that Baj Bahadur Chandra did any Shradh or Prayschit for Neel Gusain.

               Religious Donation by King Baj Bahadur Chandra
              Baj Bahadur spent his childhood in a high class Brahmin family. He felt that it was deities blessing that he became the King.  He donated land to Lakhanpur temple in 1640, twice to Badrinath temple in 1643, Someshwar temple in 1648 and Pinnnath temple of Baurari in 1654.

Read more about Bajbhadur Chandra in next chapter
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 11/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -186   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Medieval Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra contemporary to Shahjahan and Aurangzeb; History of Medieval Bageshwar, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra contemporary to Shahjahan and Aurangzeb; History of Medieval Pithoragarh, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra contemporary to Shahjahan and Aurangzeb; History of Medieval Dwarhat, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra contemporary to Shahjahan and Aurangzeb; History of Medieval Nainital, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra contemporary to Shahjahan and Aurangzeb; History of Medieval Almora, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra contemporary to Shahjahan and Aurangzeb; History of Medieval Champawat, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra contemporary to Shahjahan and Aurangzeb; History of Medieval Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra contemporary to Shahjahan and Aurangzeb;

Bhishma Kukreti

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            Help by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 186

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
 
                              Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra in Mogul Court
               From the time of Lakshmi Chandra, Kumaon kingdom was facing internal problems in hills. While, with the help and encouragement from regional Mogul commanders of Moradabad, time to time, the Hindu Jagirdar of Katehar used to encroach into Tarai of Kumaon. The Hindu Jagirdar became unauthorized mini rulers of Kumaon Tarai (plains). When Baj Bhadur Chandra got some relived time to take the situation under control it was too late. As his ancestors took help from Mogul Badshah for suppressing Katehar Jagirdar or looters.  Baj Bahadur Chandra decided to take help of Badshah Shahjahan for stopping encroachment of Katehar Jagirdars.
  Atkinson stated that Baj Bahadur Chandra reached to Mogul court, Delhi in 1654-1655 AD. Baj Bahadur Chandra went with precious and local gifts for Shahjahan Badshah. Shahjahan accepted to see Baj Bahadur Chandra.  By this time, Shahjahan had already sent his army to attack on Garhwal kingdom.
However, it seems that Baj Bahadur Chandra reached Delhi either at the end of 1653 in Delhi or just earlier of 1653. In 1653, Shahjahan sent a letter to Mandhata Prakash the king of Sirmaur (Himachal Pradesh that he (Shahjahan) sent army under Jammu-Kangda commander Irijkhan to win Shrinagar Garhwal kingdom. In the letter, Shahjahan ordered Sirmaur King Mandhata Prakash to help Irijkhan in winning Shrinagar Garhwal Kingdom.
Shahjahan wrote that after winning Shrinagar Garhwal, there will be following divisions of Shri Nagar Garhwal-
1-The eastern part of Garhwal adjacent to Kumaon would be given to Kumaon King
2-Western part of Garhwal adjacent to Sirmaur (Himachal Pradesh) would be given to Sirmaur King.
3-Mogul kingdom would keep Doon valley (Dehradun) for itself
                        Divide and Rule Policies of Shahjahan

  The historians blame on British rulers that they were cunning that they used to follow the divide and rule policies.  Badshah Shahjahan did conspiracy by aligning two other Hindu hill Kings to attack on another Hindu hill kingdom.
 In 1656, Kumaon king Baj Bahadur Chandra again reached to Delhi Mogul court of Shahjahan.
An expenditure ledger copy of Bajbahadur Chandra is available. In this ledger there are details of expenses for Baj Bahadur visiting Shahjahan court
बाजबहादुर चन्द्र  का दिल्ली जाने का खर्च
शाके १५७८ बैशाख सुदी ३ गुरौ श्री राजा बाजबहादुरचंददेव की चलाई दिल्ली -दरबार भई। पेशकश को साज। 
श्रीपातशाहीज्यू साहीजादा को --------------------------तैका रुपैया
१००१) मोहर दरी १४।।अद पाई आनु -------------१४५३१)
३००० ) रुपया नजरी को ----------------------------३०००)
२ षांड़ा बड़ा औलिया म्यान सुनुका कटाऊ का १५२ म० ५ न० म्यान १८१९ )
५ कटारा औली मुट्ठा सुनुका येक षंड मुट्ठा ५ को श्री सुधा
का १२३ म०मुट्ठा  ५   
का २ म० कोथी २ -------------------------------१०५४)
४ कटारी सुनु का मुट्ठा का -----------------------१९। )
९ गूंठ साज का ४३७ म० १ र सिरछालगजगाह गूंठ ५२४५ )
का १५९ म० १० गूंठ २ साज सिरछाल २ गजगाह २ साल २
का २७७३ र० गूंठ ७ सात माला गूंठ को अल्मोड़ा
बाली चौकी ५ का ३५ म० ७
का ७९३ म० ११२।।
७ षांडा और नाना का ४१म० ६ र: वीनातइनाल --------४६८ )
२ हातीन को साज मोल लीनु ---------------------------५०००)
१ हाती मोल लीनु ----------------------------------------८००० )
२ टूल हाती की मोल ली दीनी --------------------------२५४।।)
९ कटारा ---------------------------------------------------११९ )
२ कटारा दरी १० )-----------------------------------------२० )
२ कटारा दरी १२ )----------------------------------------२४)
१ हाती घर को दीनु ------------------------------------१००००)
९ गूंठ
२२५ )चंचल १  -----------------------१५० संग्राम गुसाईंवालो। }
१०० )नाबाबवालो १ ------------------१५० )मलयागर नेगीवालो १ }
१७५ )सौकावालो १ ------------------१४० )नंदन कुंवरवालो १ }         १३८० )
१०० ) भग्यूत भंडारीवालो १ -----१४० )कंठ पुलानोवालो १ }
२०० ) रामकृष्णवालो १
ग० ५३ मखमल --------------------------------------१२४ )
२ फुंदना ----------------------------------------------३९।।।)
चारजामा गदी बागडोर -------------------------------४४ )
९ चंवर बड़ी गुंठन मै दरी गजगाह -----------------९० )
२ षांड़ा -बड़ा आंवली --------------------------------२०००)
७ षांड़ा नाना दरी ३०) -------------------------------२१० )
 कस्तूरा की मौर षडी रुपा की ----------------------३ )
का० ३ म० ५ न ० ----------------------------------१३८९०।।।)
                जोड़ ऊपर को -----------------------४०४२७ )
बेगम कौ --------------------------------------------१४७३ )
१०१ ) मोहर -----------------------------------------५०० )
रुपैया --------------------------------------------------१९७३ )
साहीजादा दाराशाह कौ पेशकश बैशाख सुदी ६ रवौ
१०१ ) मोहर ------------------------------------------१४५३ )
रुपैया नजर कौ --------------------------------------१००० )
१ गूंठ सुनुका साज को सीरछाल गजगाह --------९४३ )
मालदारी १२९ का० ७८ म ० ५
४ गूंठ और सुनुका सात का ---------------------१६७६ )
४ माला अल्मोड़ावाली ---------------------------२५७ )
का २१ म० ५
१ षांडो नाना वीना चाकी तइनाल का २३ म० ४ -- २८० )
८ षांडा  नाना वीना चाकी तइनाल -----------------५७० )
१ षांडो बड़ो अवलिया --------------------------------१०० )
५ गूंठ ---------------------------------------------------५६० )
१७५ महेशपंथ वालो १ -----------------------९० ) जरदा १
१२५ ) वीसी गुसाईं वालो १ ---------------८० )देउतवाली १
९० ) मुस्की केशव बिष्टवालो १


***
ष = ख
)= रुपया
।=पाँव भर या चौथाई या चार आना
संदर्भ - बद्री दत्त पांडे , कुमाऊं का इतिहास पृष्ठ २९५ -२९६




Read more on attack on Garhwal by Shahjahan in History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 187

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 12/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -187   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Asian History aspects of Help by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal; Asian History aspects of Help by Pithoragarh Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal; Asian History aspects of Help by Champawat, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal; Asian History aspects of Help by Dwarhat, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal; Asian History aspects of Help by Bageshwar Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal; Asian History aspects of Help by Almora ,Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal; Asian History aspects of Help by Ranikhet Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal; Asian History aspects of Help by Nainital Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal; Asian History aspects of Help by Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal; Asian History aspects of Help by Kumaon  (Himalayan ) King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal; Asian History aspects of Help by Kumaon (North Indian)  King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal;

Bhishma Kukreti

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              History Aspects of Attack on Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 187

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti


             History Aspects of Shah Jahan attacking on Garhwal
                 The Garhwal King Shyam Shah visited Mogul King Jahangir in 1621 with gifts. All the kings under Mogul regime attended crowing ceremony of Shah Jahan in 1628. However, due to distance and other reasons, Garhwal king could not visit Shah Jahan crowing. Mahipat Shah was king of Garhwal in 1628. Mahipat Shah was energetic and brave King. Garhwal King Mahipat Shah defeated King Jaungpun of Davamandi (Tibet), Kings of Busher and Sirmaur Kingdoms (both in Himachal Pradesh).  Mahipat Shah included the territories of Kani Garh, Kalsi Garh and Bairat Garh of Sirmaur Kingdom into Garhwal Kingdom. Then the King Karm Prakash of Sirmaur complained to Shah Jahan but Shah Jahan could not pay attention on request of Sirmaur King. The new Sirmaur King Mandhata Prakash (1630-1654) again requested Shah Jahan to help Sirmaur to regain authority on Kani Garh, Kalsi Garh and Bairat Garh territory. When the brave King Mahipat Shah died, it was golden opportunity for Shah Jahan to attack on Garhwal.
                 There was news in the air that there are gold mines in Shri Nagar Garhwal. Shah Jahan was also annoyed by proud Garhwal King who did not visit him. Shah Jahan was eager to make Garhwal King as his schieftain. He ordered Kangda army commander Najavatkhan Mirja Shuja to attack on Doon valley (Dehradun).  Kangda army commander Najavatkhan Mirja Shuja attacked on Doon valley. Sirmaur King Mandhata Prakash and his army were also with Kangda army commander Najavatkhan Mirja Shuja. The Mogul army captured Kalsi Garh and Bairat Garh. Kangda army commander Najavatkhan Mirja Shuja handed this territory to Mandhata Prakash the King of Sirmaur. Mogul Kangda army commander Najavatkhan Mirja Shuja attacked on Salurgarh of Garhwal territory and won the same. Kangda army commander Najavatkhan Mirja Shuja handed over Salur Garh territory to the king (Jameendar of Shahjahan) of Lkhanpur.
               After winning Chandi Ghat (present Lakshman Jhula), Mogul army marched towards Shrinagar Garhwal.  At this period, the Nakkati queen was ruling on Garhwal on behalf of her teen aged son. She sent message to Kangda army commander Najavatkhan Mirja Shuja that she would send ruppes ten lakhs as gift and would accept the ruling of Mogul King Shah Jahan. Kangda army commander Najavatkhan Mirja Shuja waited for one and half month sixty miles far away from Shrinagar. The queen did not send money as promised by her. His soldiers started dying due to unknown fever and shortage of food. Garhwali armed soldiers blocked all valleys and started attacking on Mogul army. Garhwali soldiers killed hundreds of Mogul soldiers. Mogul Kangda army commander Najavatkhan Mirja Shuja had to run away from Garhwal. Najavatkhan Mirja Shuja reached to Shambhal (Moradabad region) after twenty days through dense forests. He and a few soldiers had to live on forest produces for food.  Shah Jahan felt insulted by this defeat of Mogul army commander. However, Shah Jahan was unable to act anything.
           In 1652, again, Shah Jahan planned to attack on Garhwal Kingdom. Sirmaur King Mandhata Prakash, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra and Haridwar king Nagardas were on the side of Shah Jahan. As already, written that Shah Jahan promised to hand over the future won territory of East Garhwal to Kumaon Jameendar (king) and west Garhwal to Sirmaur Jameendar (king).
 Shah Jahan ordered his new army commander of Kangada Airiz Khan to attack on Garhwal. Airiz Khan could only do looting in some parts of Doon valley (Dehradun). He was unsuccessful in capturing Garhwal territory.
  In 1654, Sirmaur Jameendar (king) died.  Shah Jahan was happy over winning Mewar king Jay Singh in 1654. Now, Shah Jahan was ready for attacking Garhwal kingdom.
    Shah Jahan handed over the charge of attack campaign on Garhwal Kingdom to his famous and brave commander Khaleelulla Khan. Khaleelulla u Khan had many feathers on his caps for winning battles in past. Khaleelulla Khan had experience of battles in Kabul (hill regions).
     In December 1654, Khaleelulla Khan camped in Dehradun and handed over the order of Shah Jahan for making Saubhagya Prakash the son of Mandhata Prakash as Jameendar (king) of Sirmaur.
  In another message in 1654, Shah Jahan ordered Saubhagya Prakash (Sirmaur Jameendar or king) that ten thousand soldiers Mogul army led by Bairam Khan would attack on Garhwal and Saubhagya Prakash should help Bairam Khan.
 At end of December Saubhagya Prakash and Baj Bahadur Chandra joined Mogul army in campaign for attacking Garhwal kingdom. There were armed forces of small kings of Himachal Pradesh to help Mogul army.
  Mogul army captured Doon valley easily without any resistance from Garhwal army. Bairam Khan built a mud fort in Kilaghar (Kaulagadh). Bairam Khan renovated ruined forts in Bahadurkhanpur, Vasantpur and Sahaspur and also built new forts and camps for Mogul force.
              Due to continue attacks of Mogul army on Doon valley, the local Garhwal kingdom army was unable to defend the subject. Many times, the people had to resist themselves in organized or unorganized ways.  Still, there are a couple of folklores sung in Jaunsar about local brave people fighting with Mogul army.
             In 1654, people could not resist before huge Mogul army with arms and ammunition with support of  Sirmaur army. The people ran into forests with their cattle. Khan army killed thousands of innocent Hindu people and Khan captured many of Hindus and made them slaves before Hindu Jameendars (kings).
   The Garhwal army took backward instance and shifted towards hill sides. A part of Garhwal army was in Chandighat port at Ganga River. Mogul army defeated Garhwal army and captured Chandighat. 
 

Read more about Help by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur to Shahjahan for Attack on Garhwal in History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 188

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 13/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -188   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History Aspects of Attack on Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Dehradun, Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Jaunsar, Dehradun, Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Ravain –Jaunsar region, Dehradun, Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Kolagadh, Dehradun, Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Chandighat, Dehradun, Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Rishikesh, Dehradun, Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Lakshman Jhula Pauri Garhwal ,Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Bhadurkhanpur, Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Vasantpur, Dehradun, Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Sahaspur,  Dehradun, Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army; History Aspects of Attack on Kalsi, Dehradun, Garhwal by Badshah Shah Jahan, Mogul army;

Bhishma Kukreti

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     History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom


 (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 188

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                        Order of Badshah Shah Jahan for Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra

                When Shah Jahan got information about arrival of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra in Delhi, Mogul Badshah Shah Jahan sent an order (Farman) and Ratnajadit Khilat (robe of  honor with attached by gems) .  Mogul Badshah Shah Jahan ordered Kumaon King to attack on Garhwal Kingdom.
                  Till that time, Mogul army was failed to enter into inner hill regions of Garhwal Kingdom. When Mogul Badshah Shah Jahan ordered the time was not suitable for attacking Garhwal Kingdom due to season. Therefore, as per advice of Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan, Kumaon Jameedar (as per Mogul historian) or King postponed attack on Garhwal.

                Management of the Dehradun Garhwal territory won by Mogul Emperor
                  Mogul Empire Shah Jahan was anxious to extend his suzerainty to Garhwal. According to eminent historian WE Begley, Mogul Empire Shah Jahan wanted this territory specially Doon Valley (Dehradun) to protect his new palaces and summer capital being constructed in Shivalik hill region near Faizabad town 40kilometer north to Saharanpur.
         Mogul army won Dehradun of Garhwal easily. The annual income of Doon (Dehradun) valley was one lakh rupees on that time.  Dedh Hajari Mansabdar of Mogul empire Chaturbhuj Chauhan was anxious to rule over Doon valley (Dehradun). Chaturbhuj Chauhan was deputy of commander Khan in Doon valley attack. As per advice of Shah Jahan, Khallilu Khan appointed Chaturbhuj Chauhan as military Governor of newly won Doon valley (Dehradun).
        Khallilu Khan appointed Raja Nagardas the Jagirdar or king of Haridwar as Military Governor of quenqured   some region of Ganga bank region of Udaipur Patti of Pauri Garhwal as Chandighat (present Lakshman Jhula), Swargashram. Chandighat of Haridwar.
           Mogul Empire was happy to win strategic territory Doon (Dehradun) valley. He gifted Mal or Bhabhar and Tarai regions to Kumaon Jameendar Baj Bahadur Chandra.

             Attack of Kumaon king Baj Bahadur Chandra on Garhwal kingdom
                 In rainy season of 1655, the attack plan on Garhwal was postponed. However, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand was free to attack on Garhwal kingdom.
                  Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand reached Almora with order and Khilat (a robe of honor) from Mogul Empire Shah Jahan.  Baj Bahadur planned to attack on Garhwal kingdom with two side attacks.
           One army started attacking Garhwal through Pindar valley, Kumaon army won Pindar valley and reached to Badhan territory of Garhwal.  The second Kumaon army attacked Garhwal Kingdom through Lohaba. It was trouble to lose Shrinagar capital for Garhwal King. There were attacks on Garhwal from four sides. Mogul army was in Doon valley (Southwest Garhwal) and Bhabhar (plains of South Garhwal) and Kumaon armies were attacking on two sides of North East Garhwal.  It was difficult for Garhwal king to defend his territory.  Garhwal was surrounded by enemies from for directions. Garhwal King sent message to Mogul Empire Shah Jahan for accepting Mogul supremacy.

                    Reward to Baj Bahadur Chand from Mogul Empire Shah Jahan
            There were strong talks for alliance between Mogul and Garhwal kingdom The Prince Dara Shikoh and princess Jahanara were in favor of Garhwal King.
                   On 3rd April 1656, Baj Bahadur Chand visited Mogul Empire Shah Jahan court with gifts. The detail of gifts is already provided in last chapter.
                Mogul Empire Shah Jahan was not now capturing Garhwal Kingdom. Therefore he wanted Baj Bahadur Chandra be happy. Mogul Empire Shahjahan honored by title ‘Bahadur’. Now, Baja was allowed to play music ‘Nakkara’ while coming and going to Mogul court.
            Baj Bahadur was not happy by artificial honor by Mogul Empire Shah Jahan. Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand requested for getting Chaurasi Mal (Plains of Kumaon) and help from Mogul commander to get rid of Katehar looters from Bhabhar. Mogul Empire Shah Jahan accepted the request of Kumaon Jameendar (King) and allowed Chaurasi Mal to Kumaon Jameendar. This Mal or region was once, under Kumaon kingdom. Mogul Empire Shah Jahan ordered his Sambhal commanders to help Kumaon Jameendar (King)in getting rid of Katehar looters from Tarai-Bhabhar. Subedar Rustam Khan compelled Katehar looters to run away from Tarai-Bhabhar region of Kumaon. The Mogul court order (Farman) refers Baj Bahadur as Kumaon Jameendar and not Kumaon Raja.
                                       Establishing Bajpur Town
              After getting Chaurasi Mal as gift from Mogul Empire Shah Jahan, Baj Bahadur Chandra established a new city Bajpur in Tarai region. He appointed court employs in Bajpur.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 14/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -189   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx

Notes on Oriental History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; South Asian History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Indian subcontinent History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Indian History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; North Indian History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Himalayan History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Central Himalayan History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Uttrakhand History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Kumaon History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Garhwal Kingdom; Asian History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Pindar valley of Garhwal Kingdom; South Asian History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra helping Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan by attacking Badhan region of Garhwal Kingdom;

Bhishma Kukreti

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                General History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra


 (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 189

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                   Medani Shah in Shah Jahan Court

                  At the time of Kumaon king Baj Bahadur Chand Garhwal kingdom faced attack from all four sides. In north, Tibet kingdom had been problematic for boundary disputes for centuries. In East, Baj Bahadur was ready attacking Garhwal to help Mogul Empire. From west Sirmaur Kingdom was to attack Garhwal again to help Mogul.  Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan already captured Doon valley of Garhwal Kingdom.  It was necessary for Garhwal king Prithvi Pati Shah to have cordial relationship with Mogul Empire.
                Prithvi Pati created good relation with Mogul prince Dara Shikoh. Prithvi Pati Shah sent his son prince Medani Shah to Mogul court. Medani Shah handed over gifts of one hundred gold coins to Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan on his father’s behalf.  Mogul Emperor provided gifts of honor (khilat), Bajuband, and a Kipchak horse.
   According to Maularam, Shah Jahan gave one elephant and eleven horses to Medani Shah too. In later stage, Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan returned Doon valley and Bhabhar Garhwal to Garhwal King.
    Honor to Tiwari by Baj Bahadur Chandra
               Tiwari family took care of   Baj Bahadur in childhood and Kumaon Trimall Chandra adopted Baj and declared him as prince. Baj Bahadur ascended on crown in 1638. 
         Studying the copper inscriptions of 1659, 1662, 1670, it is clear that Kumaon or Manas Bhumi King Baj Bahadur Chand used to help Tiwari family regularly. Kumaon King donated a couple of villages to Tiwari family. Baj Bahadur called his elder Narayan Tiwari from the Tiwari family Chausar village and asked his desire. Tiwari requested same Brahminical position for Tiwari as of Pande and Pant castes.  From Baj Bahadur Chandra period, Tiwari caste got same position as High class Brahmin (Kulin Brahmin or Badi Dhoti Brahmin) as Pande, Pant used to get.
                       Narayan Tiwari built a Shiva temple in Hariya Dungari. The expenditure was born by Baj Bahadur Chandra. Tiwari built a water reservoir near Chausar village.

                                                 Tarai Management
        Baj Bahadur Chandra chalked out a plan to manage Tarai region /plains of kingdom.
 There were two seasonal head quarters of Kingdom officials for managing Tarai Kumaon. The winter head quarter was in Bajpur. The summer and rainy season head quarters were in Badakhedi and Kota in Shivalik hills.  Baitan reported runs of houses and gardens in Badakhedi and Kota. It means the season in Tarai was not unhealthy in Tarai as was in nineteenth century.
                                Court of Baj Bahadur Chandra on Mogul Style
                    Baj Bahadur Chandra spent his childhood in poverty and scarcity. However, after getting declared prince of Kumaon he had chance to spend lavish life. The life style of his friend Mogul army commander Khalilullakhan impressed Kumaon King Baj Bahadur. Baj Bahadur started bringing Mogul culture to Kumaon court. From Kumaon court the Mogul culture spread to rural Kumaon.  Baj Bahadur brought and appointed many Muslim servants from Delhi and Sambhal or Moradabad regions with him.  A few Muslim music players used to play drums and tambourines in his court. The Muslim Chobdar used to walk before Baj Bahadur with silver stick.  Maulabaksh was in charge of Muslim employees in Kumaon court. 
        Maulabaksh brought Muslim Hediya community and established them in Tarai region of Kumaon for protection. The descents of these Hediya people used to loot people in nineteenth and twentieth century.
   Baj Bahadur appointed a Halwai (sweetmeat maker) for palace kitchen. The Management of Palace kitchen was on the rules laid by Shakti Gusain.  Baj Bahadur added new villages for getting expenses for place kitchen. These villages were called ‘Pal’ villages.
 There were expenses on arms and ammunition as gun powder. For gun and gun powder expenses the income from many villages were reserved. These villages were called ‘Darkotiya (dar means gun powder and Kot means fort), ‘Silkaniya’. The villages were called ‘Mahrudi’ whose villagers were to carry guns and gun powder

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 17/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -190   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Relationship of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 190

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                          Garhwal and Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb

                   Garhwal king Prithwipati Shah had to create friendly alliance with Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan.  Dara Shikoh the Son of Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan became friend and supporter of Garhwal kingdom.  When Shah Jahan became ill, there was fight for Mogul empire among sons of Shah Jahan. Aurangzeb killed or exiled all his brothers.   
               Now, Aurangzeb was to kill sons of his brothers. Suleman Shikoh the son of Dara Shikoh had to take asylum in Shri Nagar Garhwal. Aurangzeb threatened Garhwal king to return Suleman Shikoh.  Aurangzeb followed the strategy of Shah Jahan to attack Garhwal from three sides.  At the end, Garhwal king had to hand over Suleman Shikoh to Aurangzeb. Garhwal king was forced to accept supremacy of Aurangzeb. Garhwal King Medni Shah sent his relatives Bhim Singh and Prem Singh as Mansabdar in Aurangzeb court.
            Though, a folklore states that for a while Kumaon King provided asylum to Suleman Shikoh but there are not proofs for the same.
     
               Attack of Baj Bahadur Chandra on Garhwal King

  Around 1663, Garhwal King Prithwipati Shah became seriously ill and he declared Fate Shah the son of Medni Shah as heir of Medni Shah.
   Through conspiracy means, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur got the support of Bishts of Savali Patti and Bangari Rawat of Bangari Patti of present Pauri Garhwal.
  Baj Bahadur sent his one army towards Garhwal from Pindar Valley. He led second army himself and marched towards Garhwal through Chaukhatiya. This path was to reach to Shrinagar through Lohaba and Baijron.  Baj Bhadur reached to Shri Nagar and there was a treaty between Garhwal and Kumaon Kingdoms.  Baj Bahdur handed over Thokdari of Tali to Bishts of Savli Patti and Bharsali to Bangari Rawat.  At this time, many Dangwal warriors and Ganida bIsht (who helped Kumaon king) also migrated to Kumaon from Garhwal. Kumaon King rewarded them. Baj Bahadur took golden Nanda Devi sculpture and female dancers of temple and established sculpture in Malla Mahal.

                    Request of Garhwal King to Aurangzeb
                 Virtually, Garhwal and Kumaon kingdoms were under Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb. Prithwipati Shah was seriously ill. Prithwipati complained about looting of Kumaon king in Shrinagar.   Mansabdar Bhim Singh also informed Aurangzeb that there is gold store in Kumaon.

On 16th January 1664, Aurangzeb presumed that Prithwipati was dead and he sent an order to Fate Shah to attack on Kumaon Kingdom. Prithvipati was ill and Fate Shah was in his teen age. Therefore, Garhwal king could not attack on Garhwal.
             Attack by Mogul Army on Kumaon Kingdom
 Garhwal and Kumaon were under mogul rule. Kumaon king attacked to Garhwal. Therefore to punish Kumaon king, Mogul army attacked on plains of Kumaon in May 1665. Mogul army captured Bhabhar-Tarai regions of Kumaon. Mogul army took over administration of Tarai-Bhabhar under Mogul administration. However, it was not easy for Mogul army to fight/attack in hills of Kumaon. Mogul army spent one lakh rupees to build road for Top and other ammunitions. In 1666, Mogul army appointed two hundred Oads (building builders) to build road from Bhabhar towards Almora hills of Kumaon.
  When Mogul army attacked and captured Bhabhar and Tarai regions of Kumaon, Garhwal King Prithwipati Shah sent his army to help Mogul army. However, the nephew of Prithwipati Shah helped Kumaon king as he was married to Kumaon King family member.
  It is unknown that till what time Mogul army was there in hills of Kumaon. It is also unknown about the place of attack by Garhwal King on Kumaon.
   After 1665, Aurangzeb was busy in other acts in other parts of India.

             Request letter of Baj Bahadur to Minister of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb 

      Due to capture of Bhabhar and Tarai (Kumaon Mal) by Mogul army and help from Garhwal king to Mogul army, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur was in uneasy position.
        Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra sent a request letter (fariyad) to Alivardikhan the minster of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb.
             Kumaon King wrote “I am old servant of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb. Shah Jahan looked after me. My kingdom is the territory of Mogul Emperor. The Shrinagar King sent you false information about huge gold stock and wealth with me. The gold as mentioned by him would not be there in entire hill state. The Shrinagar King should be ordered to prove the truthfulness of gold stock. I am ready to pay tax in lieu of my attack on Shrinagar kingdom without permission of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb.”

                           Tax by Baj Bahadur Chand on people for Mogul Emperor

                    To have better relationship with Mogul Empire, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur levied new taxes to his subject. In 1672, Baj Bahadur started taking a type of ‘Jajiya ‘ or Paul tax or Mundkar tax tax from each family. This tax was sent to Mogul court and gifts to various administrators in Mogul court and regional Mogul army.
                   In 1673, suggestion from Minister Nabab Alivardikhan, Aurangzeb pardoned Kumaon king. It is assumed that Mogul Emperor might have returned Bhabhar and Tarai region to Kumaon Kingdom. 
              After getting pardon from Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb,   Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand and his son visited Aurangzeb court in 1673.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 18/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -191   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Asian History of Relationship of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Relationship of Pithoragarh -Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Relationship of Champawat-Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Relationship of Bageshwar-Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Relationship of Nainital-Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Relationship of Almora-Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Relationship of Ranikhet-Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Relationship of Udham Singh Nagar-Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Relationship of central Himalayan Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Relationship of Kumaon  North Indian King Baj Bahadur Chandra with Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Events of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb 

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 191

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 Taklakhar Conquer by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb 
                    The Kailas Mansarovar pilgrim tourists used to complaint to King Baj Bahadur that Huniya (Bhotiya or Tibetans) harassed and cruelly behaved with them in their pilgrim tour for Kailas Mansarovar. Kumaon King Baj Bahadur built the road for taking field guns in that area to settle the issue of harassment by Huniya to pilgrims. In 1670, Baj Bahadur Chand attacked Huniya region (Today’s Chinese territory of Kailas –Mansarovar region). The contemporary to Aurangzeb, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur surrounded Taklakhar fort and captured the same. There were big cracks on the fort walls due to gun attack. Till nineteenth century the fissures were visible. 
       Contemporary of Aurangzeb, Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand captured fortresses of Huniya and dislocated Huniya from strategic administrations. Baj Bahadur Chandra took promises from Huniyas that they would not harass pilgrims. Huniyas used to take taxes from religious tourists too. Huniya promised to Baj Bahadur that they would not collect taxes from pilgrimages.  Baj Bahadur ordered in 1673 (copper inscription) for providing income from five villages (Panchu) to arrange free food and shelters for Mansarovar tourists.
                                Revolt by Udyot Chand 
                     Udyot Chandra was s prince. When Baj Bahadur was on campaign for winning Huniya region, Baj Bahadur came to know that his son and his opponents are planning for revolt. Therefore, Baj Bahadur Chand sent Udyot Chandra to Sayupar (cross of Saryu River) in Gangoli. Baj Bahadur sent his son Udyot Chand to rule on Gangoli, Sor, Seera, Johar, Danpur, Pargnas of Gangoli.

                 Recapturing Chiton Garh by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chandra

 While returning from conquer of Huniya Des (Today’s Chinese territory of Kailas Mansarovar), Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand met Doti Rainka of Sor. When Baj Bahadur Chandra reached to Brahmdev Mandi near Kali River bank, the king came to know that a ruler (by title -raja) of Chiton built a fort on hill above Brhamadev Mandi. The Chiton ruler also declared him as sovereign ruler too. Baj Bahadur attacked on the Chiton Garh and won the fort. Kumaon King hanged Chiton ruler on a tree. By hanging the Chiton ruler by Baj Bahadur, regional rulers of other regions under Kumaon Kingdom were terrified.


 Capturing Byans Kingdom by Baj Bahadur a Kumaon king contemporary to Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb

                    There was rule of Chand kings on Johar and Darma (today in Pithoragarh). However, Byans region was not under Chand Kingdom and was ruled by Jumal Kings for centuries. Baj Bahadur Chand attacked on Byans and brought Byans under Chand kingdom.
               Byans was also on the border of Huniya Des. As Baj Bahadur came to alliance with Huniya of Kailas, he applied same alliance treaty with Huniya of bordering Byans. The traders of Kumaon exporting to Huniya Des would give tax (surti  kar) to Huniya des. But the tax on gold dust, salt, musk would be given to Kumaon court. In 1670, Baj Bahadur Chand audited the revenue of Askot ruled by Rajvar under Kumaon kingdom.
          Looting in Nagina
                 Atkinson wrote that in 1672, King Baj Bahadur Chandra looted Nagina of Bijnour district. However, the logic does not permit to accept that Baj Bahadur would have attacked on angina. Bijnour was under Mogul Rule. Therefore, it was not possible for Baj Bahadur to attack on Mogul territory.

 Donation and Religious Deeds by Baj Bahadur Chand a Kumaon king contemporary to Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb

              Baj Bahadur was influenced by impressed by Mogul culture and appointed many Muslim court employees.  However, he believed devotedly to Hindu religion.
                    Kumaon king performed many religious rituals. Baj Bahadur Chandra offered lands to Baleshwar temple (1664); Bridh Kedar temple (1666); Jageshwar temple (1670); Bageshwar temple (1671).
              Baj Bahadur Chand offered copper plates to Jageshwar temple roof. Baj Bahadur built numbers of water reservoirs (Naule).
               Baj Bahadur Chand offered lands to Kamal joshi, Krishna Nand Joshi and Kulomani Pande.
        Baj Bahadur Chandra built temples in Bhimtal and Pinnath.
         The King did not sign the copper inscriptions but he carved Katar (a type of sword) symbol as Baj Bahadur. Baj Bahadur is also called ‘Katardar’ king. 

             Manga Kar or Manga tax
   Due to disputes with Garhwal king, fear of snatching his kingdom by Mogul Empire, appointing Muslim employees,; using new Islamic cultural symbols in his palace; attacks on Huniya des and various other aspects as religious rituals, there was additional expenditure burden on state financial position.  Baj Bahadur created a new tax called Manga Tax. Manga tax was two rupees per family.

                                   Honors to Scholars
                     Baj Bahadur used to offer shelters to astrologers and other scholars. Hiramani Joshi of Mala village, Ramapati of Sarp village, Manorath Joshi of Mena village were chief astrologers in his court. These astrologers wrote Panchang and a couple of astrology books. A Mahrashtriyan Brahmin Pundit Anant Dev wrote ‘Smriritkaustubh’ book. There are Sanskrit scripts in a couple of copper inscriptions of Baj Bahadur Chand.

                        Administrative Officers of Baj Bahadur Chand

       The Joshis of Jhinjhad were on top posts. Chaudhri, Sahu and Ratgali used to look after tax collection and food stocks. Chaudhri, Sahu and Ratgali people used to pay tribute (Ghoos) to Joshis.
            Narotam Joshi, Bhavdev Joshi and Sudarshan Upreti were ministers in Baj Bahadur court. Rajguru Pande was Court Guru and Rudradev Pande was court Pundit or Purohit. In 1648, Lakshmichan was Rajguru.
   Vishwarup Pande, Vinayak Adhikari, Vikrmark Gusain, Pratapaditya Gusain, Arjun Singh Gusain were army commanders and cabinet ministers.


                              Evil some and Sinful deeds by Baj Bahadur Chandra

               At the end of his life Baj Bahadur started feeling of conspiracy against him from all his employees including prince. He did not trust on his own employees.  There was a Dalakoti Brahmin from Chaugarkha in his court. He told to king that Kumaoni people are deceptive.
 There is Folklore that as per notorious advice of Dalakoti, King Baj Bahadur killed hundreds of innocent employees and blinded many.   Baj Bahadur came to know about deceptive advice by Dalakoti Brahmin. Baj Bahadur punished Dalakoti.
               Baj Bahadur offered financial helps to affected people. However, the people did not trust on the king. In his old age, Baj Bahadur became eccentric and used to order without any second consideration.

                        Death of Baj Bahadur Chandra
 In his old age, Baj Bahadur started mistrusting on his employees including his sons.  Baj Bahadur Chand felt that his employees would kill him. He dismissed old employees. Baj Bahadur died in 1678. Nobody was there to look after him properly at his death time.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 19/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -192   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History Events of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Attack on Garhwal kingdom by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Attack on Huniya Des by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of recapturing Chiton Garh by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of winning Byans territory by  Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of religious works and rituals by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of new Tax system by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Sinful and oppressing deeds by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Mistrusting on employees by Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Administration of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb; History of Army commanders of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur Chand, a contemporary King to Emperor Aurangzeb;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Religious Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 192

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 Time Period of Kumaon King Udyot Chandra -1678-1698
Inscriptions of Kumaon king -1678,1682,1684,1689,1690,1691,1692,1693,1695,1697,1698 AD
Contemporary Neighboring Kings of Kumaon King Udyot Chand
Shrinagar Garhwal King Fateshah -1664-1716
Delhi Mogul Emperor – Aurangzeb
                      Udyot Chandra was elder son of Kumaon king Baj Bahadur Chandra. Kumaon King Baj Bahadur had three sons –Udyot Chandra, Pahad Singh Gusain and third son who became Sanyasi and ran away.
                    Baj Bahadur transferred his son Udyot Chandra to Gangoli from Almora believing that Udyot Chandra was to revolt against him. At the time of death of Kumaon King Baj Bahadur in 1678, Udyot Chandra was in Gangoli and Udyot Chandra was coroneted without any resistance.
            The court employees, subjects and learned people were happy on death of Baj Bahadur.
Just after getting kingdom, Kumaon King Udyot Chandra gifted land to his supporter Devi Datt Pathak.

                              Attack on Garhwal Kingdom by Udyot Chandra

                         Politically, Garhwal and Kumaon Kingdoms were under Mogul rule but they were free to rule their territories.
                     In 1678, Kumaon King Udyot Chandra attacked to Garhwal kingdom and king and his army commander Maisi Sahu were leading Kumaon army.  Kumaon Kingdom Army commander Maisi Sahu attacked on Garhwal from Badhan border. Garhwal Kingdom army killed Maisi Sahu. Kumaon king and his army ran away to their capital Almora.
 On that period, the culture was that the defeated king had to attack again. Kumaon king Udyot Chandra attacked again on Garhwal through Ganai region in 1679. Kumaon King captured Lohaba, Chandpur regions of Garhwal and looted the region and ran away. Now the turn was for Garhwal king to attack on Kumaon Kingdom.
 Garhwal King did war treaty with Doti Katyuri kingdom (now, in Nepal). In 1680, Doti king attacked to Kumaon from its east side and captured Champawat. From west, Garhwal king attacked on Kumaon and captured Dunagiri and Dwarhat of Kumaon. The battles were for two years. However, at the end Kumaon King was successful to get free his lost territories from Doti King and Garhwal King.
                  Kumaon king Udyot Chandra established army camps in east near kali bank in Sor, Champwat and Brahma Mandi to defend the territory.
  Kumaon King Udyot Chandra established army camps in Dunagiri and Dwarhat.

                   Religious Ritual Performances by Kumaon King Udyot Chandra

                 Udyot Chandra was very religious man. He used to perform rituals in temples and in place for keeping away the bad evils.
               Kumaon King Udyot Chandra offered land to Ramewashwr temple in 1682 and in 1684, offered land twice to Jageshwar temple. 
  Udyot Chandra had gone for Ganga Snan (bathing into Ganges) to Daranagar in 1684. While coming back from Daranagar, he came to know that Doti King attacked on Kumaon again.


                           Doti Campaign

                      Doti King Deep Sahi attacked on Kali Kumaon knowing the absence of King Udyot Chand.  Garhwal King was busy in war with Sirmaur Kingdom. In 1685, Kumaon army pushed back Doti army from kali-Kumaon. Kumaon army marched towards Doti.
  In 1685, Kumaon army entered Doti. Kumaon army captured Ajmer Garh, summer palace of Doti King and central court of Doti (Chauntara). Doti King ran to Dipali at the bank of Seti River in foothills. In 1687, Kumaon army reached to Dipali and captured the territory. Doti king ran away and took asylum at Khairagarh (a territory of Awadh king). In 1688, Udyot Chandra attacked on Khairagarh. Doti King accepted the super rule of Kumaon and agreed to pay tribute.

                              Building Temples and Ritual Performances
            When Udyot Chandra returned to his capital Almora, there was huge celebration for the win. King Udyot Chand started building new palace. Kumaon King Udyot Chand built a new pond in present palace. The Kumaon King Udyot Chand built temples in his name and on his queen’s name –Udyotchandreshwar and Tripur Sundari respectively. He had a Khavanis queen Parvati whom he loved the most. He built a temple on her name Parvateshwar temple.
                    Kumaon King donated lands for Baleshwar temple (1686); Deepchandeshwar temple (1690); Pinnath temple (1691); Bridh Jageshwar temple (1692); Kalika temple (1693), Bhauunaditya temple (1695); Rameshwar and Nagarjun temple (1697).
        Kumaon King Udyot Chandra performed Lakshdeepdan, Grihdan, Shakradhwajropan  and many more religious rituals.
 King Udyot Chand built a temple Bhard mandir for Bhut pujai and now, that temple is called Shai Bhairav temple.

                              Defeat from Doti King 

                 Dot King (now in Nepal) accepted the super rule of Kumaon and agreed upon to pay tribute. However, Doti King broke the Khairagarh treaty and stopped paying tribute to Kumaon King.
              Kumaon King Udyot Chandra attacked on Doti in 1696.  There was fierce battle between Doti army and Kumaon army at Jurail of Dandeldhura region. Doti army defeated Kumaon army. Kumaon King Udyot Chandra returned Almora for taking new armed force. Manorath Joshi and Shiromani Joshi of Jhinjhad were leading Kumaon army in Jurail (place in Doti kingdom).  Doti army killed Shiromani Joshi. Kumaon King had to call back his balance army from Jirali to Almora.
                     Mal Management

              Bhabhar and Tarai regions were important from crop fertility point of view.  Kumaon King Udyot Chandra paid much attention on managing Mal (Bhabhar-Tarai).  Udyot Chand built gardens in Mal. New mango gardens were built in Kashipur and Kota.  Kumaon court officer for Mal Shrinath Adhikari established new town –Shrinathpur.
                     
                       Building works by Udyot Chand 
   Udyot Chand erected new temples and repaired various old temples. Udyot Chand erected new palace buildings. In 1689, Udyot Chand built Tallamahal and in 1692, he built Rangmahal. Udyot Chand built pond and bathroom in his palace. Udyot Chand built a hall for celebrating Dashhara festival.

                           Employees of Udyot Chand

                  The Joshis of Jhinjhad were ministers in the court of Udyot Chand. Bhav Dev Joshi was his personal secretary or Diwan.
 Prataladitya Gusain, Jasvant Singh Gusain, Arjun Singh Gusain, Pahad Singh Gusain, Sujan Singh, etc were court ministers.  There are records of officers as Rippumall, Harimall, Bhim Singh, rama Pundit, Shri Nath Adhikar.

                   Honoring scholars by King Udyot Chand 
                  Udyot Chand the Kumaon King contemporary of Aurangzeb was scholar and used to honor scholars.  Scholars from far away from other parts of India used to come in Almora for scholarly discussions.
        King Udyot Chand offered land and house to a Bhatt south Indian Brahmin.
      In 1690, Matiram poet created verses ‘Alankar Panchshika’ in praise of Prince Gyan Chand son of Udyot Chand.  Famous poet Matiram also created poems in praise of King Udyot Chand. There was Madan a poet in Udyot Chand court. Once, King Udyot Chandra was annoyed by Madan. Matiram soothed King Udyot Chand.  Udyot Chand pardoned Madan poet on advice of Matiram.

                      Death of Udyot Chand

                    Kumaon King Udyot Chandra used to honor religious saints and Mahatmas. Udyot Chand had great faith in a Mahatma Ridhisidhi Gusain who used to live in Almora. Mahatma Ridhisidhi also used to like   Udyot Chand.
  As per advice of saints, King Udyot Chandra handed over his kingdom to his son Prince Gyan Chandra and became busy in praying deities.
 Religious Kumaon King Udyot Chand died in 1698. His Khavanis wife Parvati burnt herself live with his dead body (Sati) .


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 20/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -193   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Asian History of Religious Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Pithoragarh-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Dwarhat-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Bageshwar-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Champawat- Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Almora-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Nainital-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Ranikhet- Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb; Asian History of Religious Haldwani-Kumaon King Udyot Chandra: A Contemporary king of Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb-

 

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