Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 67762 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Loosing Kumaon Kingdom by King Doti Kalyan Chandra

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 203

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                     Capturing Rudrapur and Vijaypur by Rohila 

               Hari Ram Joshi was in charge of Almora when Ali Muhammad Khan was preparing for attacking Kumaon. Once, Hari Ram Joshi worked under Shiv Datt Joshi in Tarai management.  Perhaps Hari ram Joshi did not pursue matter to King Doti Kalyan Chandra to send money and help to Shiv Datt Joshi.
               However, even after no help from King Kalyan Chandra, Shiv Datt Joshi resisted Rohila attack on Rudrapur with a small army. The Kumaon army led by Shiv Datt could not resist the army of Muhammad Khan. Shiv Datt Joshi ran away and took shelter in  Balkheri (Barakhaidi) fort near Kathgodam. At the same time, Awadh ruler Mansoorali Khan (Safdarjang) recaptured Kumaoni territories Bilari and Sarbana. The Rohila ruler appointed Hafiz Rahmat Khan as local representative for Rudrapur region. Hafiz Rahmat Khan followed Shiv Datt Joshi. Shiv Datt Joshi and his army ran away towards Almora. Hafiz Rahmat Khan followed Shiv Datt Joshi and captured Vijaypur near Bhimtal. Rohila Commander Bakshi Sardar Khan stayed in Balkheri. He was there to stop Kumaon army to come in plains.
         Rohila captured Rudrapur and Vijaypur. The information reached to Kumaon King about loss of Rudrapur and Vijaypur.  Doti Kalyan Chandra deputed army to fight Rohila. The battle between Kumaon army and Rohila army took place at Vijaypur. Rohila defeated Kumaon army.

                            Destruction in Almora by Rohila Army
  As soon as Rohila defeated Kumaon army, Kumaon army ran towards Almora. No doubt Kalyan Chandra sent army to Vijayapur but did not take care for defense for Almora.  Rohila followed Kumaon army as if Kumaon army was guide for Rohilas.  Rohila armed forces reached to Almora via Ramgad, Pyuda, Suwal River.  As soon as Rohila army reached near Almora, the Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra ran towards Garhwal for shelter.
   Rohila army captured Almora with ease.
             Rohila (Afghan soldiers) destroyed temples and worship places in Almora and nearby villages. Rohila soldiers killed cows and they spilled cow blood on the alters and other worshiping medium. The Rohila soldiers took out gold and silver jewelries and melted those jewels and converted into gold and silver brick. Rohila soldiers made people slaves too.
                   The Rohila commanders sent soldiers in nearby villages to llot them and to destroy temples.  There are nose less, eyeless, earless idols in temples of Lakhnapur, Dwarhat, Katarmal, Bhimtal and Almora due to taking out ornaments from these parts of idols by Rohilas. The idols of Jageshwar and Bhramari Devi are safe because of bee biting.
             Rohilas looted the state money (one Crore), precious metals, ornaments etc from Palace and administrative buildings.  The Rohila army also captured people.
             The Rohilas burnt the records and other historical medium.  Nothing was left in palace. Therefore, the history records to know Kumaon history are not available.
            The Rohila ruler Ali Muhammad Khan became pleased to know the capturing Kumaon Kingdom. He sent precious presents for commander Hafiz Rahmat Khan.
                Rohila Sardar Ali Muhammad Khan reached to Almora. Most of Rohila soldiers were face geographical problems in hills of Kumaon. 
               After reaching to Almora, Ali Muhammad Khan distributed gifts to soldiers. However, Rohila soldiers were eager to go back in plains.
  The Tehri Riyasat register states that in October 1743, 32000 armed force of Ali Muhammad Khan attacked on Kumaon. After winning Kumaon, Ali Muhmmad Khan camped in Bansuli ka Sera. He captured 17000 men and women. Rohila ruler sent those men and women to Rohilkhand as slaves.
 Kumaon King ran away with his queens from Almora and took shelter in Badhangarhi (Garhwal). Garhwal King Pradip Shah sent twelve nobles to welcome Kumaon King. Pradip Shah arranged for food and shelter for Kumaon king and his subordinates including queens.

                   Anup Singh Tadgi
  There was a patriotic sardar Anup Singh who sent letters to village to village in Kumaon not to surrender Rohilas and not to provide them information. He sent message that Rohilas were not our King. Anup Singh gathered other patriots and reached to Lobha King.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 1/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -204   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Creating History by Help from Garhwal King to Kumaon King to Fight with Outsider Attacker
 
                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 204

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                    In the past, Garhwal King and Kumaon King used to fight with each other and they used to please outside (Mogul Badshah) to down each other.
 However, when around 1743, Rohila Chieftain Ali Muhammad Khan captured Kumaon and also send message to attack on Garhwal, the Garhwal king came out to help his traditional enemy. Garhwal King Pradip Shah provided honorable shelter to Kumaon King Badhangadhi , Garhwal.
         Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra restructured and recollected his army. Garhwal King reached to Badhangadhi with his 30000 armed forces (as per record in Tehri riyasat). Both the Kings started marching towards Almora. Both the Kings marched through Gairsain, Mehalchauri, Lobhagadhi (Garhwal. The Garhwal-Kumaon Kings did not get any resistance from Rohila in Mahargaon, Badaiti and Dwarhat of Kumaon territory.  Both the Kings captured on Doonagiri and Dwarhat. 
               From Doonagiri Garhwal and Kumaon armies marched towards Kaindari and Borari where Rohila army had camped.
        It seems that there was fierce battle between Garhwal-Kumaon army and Rohila army near Dunagiri and twenty miles away from Almora. Beten informed that both kingdom army stopped Rohilas in Ghirmundi.
          The Tehri riyasat record states that Nagarkotiya soldiers of Guldar Fatevdaru and slidiers from plains were also there in Garhwal Kingdom army. Record states that Pradip Shah reached on Dungri hill with Kumaon king in December 1743.
 The folklore say that Garhwal army commander fought with bravery.
 However, Rohila army defeated collective army of Garhwal and Kumaon Kingdoms.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 2/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -205   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Kumaon; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon; History of Champawat Kumaon; History of Bageshwar, Kumaon; History of Mahargaon, Kumaon; History of  Chaukhitiya, Kumaon; History of badaiti, Kumaon; History of Dwarhat, Kumaon; History of Doonagiri, Kumaon; History of Kaindari, Kumaon; History of Borari ,Kumaon; History of Ghirmundi, Kumaon; History of Dungari hill, Kumaon; History of Almora, Kumaon; History of Nainital, Kumaon; History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon; History of Kashipur, Kumaon; History of Rudrapur, Kumaon;

Bhishma Kukreti

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               History of Settlement (Treaty) with Rohila by Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra
                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 205

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
                    Garhwal King Pradip Shah came to help Kumaon King to fight Rohilas army. However, due to modern equipments and newer strategies Rohilas defeated collective army of Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms Around 1743.
              The Rohila army was facing adverse seasonal effects in hills of Kumaon. They were not getting the adequate materials for which they were habitual. Rohila soldiers were eager to go to plains. Hundreds of soldiers died because of severe cold. It is said that still there are ruins of graves of dead Rohila soldiers around Almora.
           Hakim Hafiz Rahmat Khan (commander of Ali Muhammad Khan) threatened to attack on Shrinagar Garhwal.  However, Rohilas were satisfied for looting Kumaon. There was no place to keep looted men-women and materials with Rohila army. It was not benefits for Hafiz Rahmat Khan to stay in Kumaon. 
  There were treaty proposals from both the sides. Hafiz Rahmat Khan put conditions before Kumaon King -
1-Kumaon King would pay tribute or tax for rupees 60,000 annually to Rohilas
2-Garhwal King should not help to Kumaon King
3-In place of Doti Kalyan Chandra, Another King should take the regime of Kumaon Kingdom
4-Kumaon King should pay punishment allowance to Rohila for amount of rupees three lakhs.
 It is said that Kumaon king did not have a penny to pay to Rohilas. Garhwal King paid three lakhs rupees to Kalyan Chandra for paying to Rohila.
 After spending seven months in Kumaon hills, Rohilas returned to plains. Rohila looted Kumaon, killed people and made them slaves. Rohila took looted wealth and slaves with them. The attack of Rohila was cruel some. Till date, folklores criticize Rohilas attack on Kumaon. Still in twenty first century, the cruel and suppressive person is called ‘Rohila’.
    Ali Muhammad Khan wanted to rule over Kumaon. Ali Muhammad Khan was unhappy on his commander Hafiz Rahmat Khan for Rohila army returning from Kumaon. Ali Muhammad Khan ordered his army to stay back in Balkhari and took the region of Kashipur , Rudrapur and some parts of Kumaon hills under Rohila rule. 
In these seven months, Kumaon king stayed in Lobha fort near Gairsain. His other supporters stayed in Gairsain.
 After Rohila army returning to plains and having treaty, Garhwal king Pradip Shah took Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra with him to Almora. Doti Kalyan Chandra started repair works of palace and houses in Almora those were destroyed by Rohilas. The people also started returning to capital.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 3/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -206   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Kumaon; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon; History of Champawat Kumaon; History of Bageshwar, Kumaon; History of Mahargaon, Kumaon; History of  Chaukhitiya, Kumaon; History of badaiti, Kumaon; History of Dwarhat, Kumaon; History of Doonagiri, Kumaon; History of Kaindari, Kumaon; History of Borari ,Kumaon; History of Ghirmundi, Kumaon; History of Dungari hill, Kumaon; History of Almora, Kumaon; History of Nainital, Kumaon; History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon; History of Kashipur, Kumaon; History of Rudrapur, Kumaon;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Reasons of Defeat of Collected Kumaon –Garhwal Armies from Rohilas

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 206

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                     The present and future citizens of Kumaon, Garhwal and Hardwar regions should study the aspects of History of defeat of collective Kumaon –Garhwal armies from the hands of Rohilas around 1743. Today, politicians and administration of Uttarakhand are ignoring the hills of Uttarakhand. The present reasons for ignoring to hills are hidden in the history of battle between Rohilas and collective armed forces of Garhwal and Kumaon kingdoms.
                How come armed forces of Rohilas inexperienced about hills of Kumaon defeated Kumaon and Garhwal armed forces?  How come the Garhwal and Kumaon soldiers did not defeat Rohilas in the hills?
 The reasons are simple.
         First of all Garhwal and Kumaon kings never thought about changing taking place into other territories. In sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in plains of India, the new ways of ammunition was being introduced into army and Garhwal-Kumaon army was equipped with Stone Age weapons and strategies.
  The war strategies in plains of India were taking new shapes and modernization was the key factors. However, Garhwal-Kumaon Kingdoms were relying on old way of defense.
  The Kumaon-Garhwal kings started copying the Mogul architecture and culture but did not do anything modern in selection, training and promotion of armed forces. There was no motivating salaries system for Kumaon-Garhwal soldiers.
       Each Rohila soldier had a gun but Garhwal-Kumaon soldiers were just equipped with sword or dagger. Rohila were having gun powder bunch at the end of dagger. The Garhwal-Kumaon army was using arrow and bow.
               Kumaon and Garhwal kings were busy for infighting with each other and for taking revenge they became slaves of Mogul empire.  By nature proud community of Garhwal-Kumaon had already lost the self esteem and so was the case of armies.
                   There was conspiracy, mistrust among soldiers, courtiers and people for each other in Kumaon. Therefore, there was no time with Kings to modernize army and to take social benefit works.
                 Due to internal jealousy, weak commanders and weak administrator took the administration of Kumaon Kingdom. The weak commanders and weak administrator never could see the future.
  The administrators of Kumaon coroneted Kings not by their positive characters but for their own self interests and such weak kings destroyed Kumaon. Those weak kings were made due to conspiracy and self interest by selfish people, therefore, those kings and their mentors were busy in propagating self interest characteristics and conspiracy only.
                     The weakest point in Garhwal and Kumaon at that time of 1743, was that the outsider Kings (Chand and Panwar) ignored local talents (Khas –Kirat etc) and brought outsiders to administrate.  Instead of appointing training devoted to hills Khas and Kirat soldiers Garhwal and Kumaon Kings brought outsiders as Nagarkotiya, Badhapuria, Dilwali, Diswali soldiers from plains of India.  These soldiers were not devoted to hills but were greedy for money only. These soldiers did not have any love for hills except getting money. There were no soldiers against Rohilas who were ready to die for motherland in Garhwal-Kumaon Kingdoms. The local soldiers were brave and patriotic soldiers but outsider soldiers were just greedy. By promoting outsiders against local talent the Garhwal-Kumaon kings paved the way for outsiders to attack on Garhwal-Kumaon.
             Kings as Doti Kalyan Chand did not have any knowledge of border and defense of bordering territories.  Joshi from Tarai-Bhabhar requested repeatedly money from the Kumaon King to defend the border from Rohilas and the foolish King Doti Kalyan Chand ignored valuable request of local administrator Shiv Datt Joshi. History will never forgive the groups who brought Doti Kalyan Chand and the king Kalyan Chand.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 4/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -207   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Kumaon; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Champawat Kumaon; Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Bageshwar, Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Mahargaon, Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of  Chaukhitiya, Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of badaiti, Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Dwarhat, Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Doonagiri, Kumaon; Reasons for Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Kaindari, Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Borari ,Kumaon; Reasons for Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Ghirmundi, Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Dungari hill, Kumaon; Reasons for  History of Almora, Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Nainital, Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon; History of Kashipur, Kumaon; Reasons for  Defeat of Kumaon-Garhwal  collective armies from Rohilas and History of Rudrapur, Kumaon

Bhishma Kukreti

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  History of Second Attack on Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 207

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                            Around December 1743 or January 1744, Rohila army returned to Rohelkhand plains from Kumaon hills or Almora hills.  Rohilas kept a tiny army in Badakhedi fort of Mall. The Rohila chieftain Ali Muhammad Khan had guess that Delhi Mogul would attack on Rohilas. Around March and April 1744, a Rohila commander Nabib Khan came to Badakhedi of Kumaon Mal (Bhabhar-Tarai of Kumaon) with bigger army.
            Nabib Khan sent one battalion towards Almora via Kosi River valley and another valley to Champawat via Kali River valley of Kumaon. The idea of Rohilas was that in case Delhi Mogul emperor defeat those (Rohilas) they would be safe in hills of Kumaon.
      Rohilas always insisted that Bhabhar-Tarai (Mal) of Kumaon was their own territory.  In January 1745,   the carpenters under the leadership of a ‘Architect chief (Imarat Daroga) of Awadh Nabab or chieftain were cutting trees from Mal forest. The Rohila armed soldiers of Ali Muhammad Khan (Rohila Chief) forced the carpenters and architect chief to leave the forest.  Nabab Safadar Jung of Awadh territory went to Delhi and complained to Delhi Mogul emperor.  Awadh Nabab or chieftain advised the Mogul emperor to attack on Rohila chieftain Ali Mohammad Khan and his army. Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah was also annoyed by Rohila chieftain for quite some time. Mogul Emperor Muhammad agreed to attack on Rohilas.
               At the same period, around January –February 1745, Kumaon chief of Mal (Bhabhar-Tarai) Shiv Datt Joshi attacked on Rohila army staying in Badakhedi fort. At present Razab Khan was commander of Badakhedi fort.  There was fierce battle between Kumaon army and Rohila army. Kumaon army led by Shiv Datt Joshi defeated Rohila army and Rohila army ran towards Rohelkhand territory. Getting such defeat information, Rohila army staying in Almora and Champawat regions also ran to plains of Rohilkhand.
              Rohila chief Ali Muhammad Khan could not send his additional army to Kumaon for fight back with army of Shiv Datt Joshi as he got information of Mogul attack on Rohila territory in February 1745.
           On 25th February 1745, Mogul emperor marched from Delhi towards Rohilkhand with chief minister Kamruddin Khan. Safdar Jung Khan, Ameer Khan and huge army.  The Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah reached near Sambhal on 30th April 1745. Before his arrival to near Sambhal region, the Mogul army reached the place eight miles far from Rohila fort Bangarh. This fort was ten miles in north from Badayun.  Rohila chieftain Ali Muhammad Khan was taking shelter in Bangarh fort.
  Long back, Kumaon King, Katehar and other regional Hindu chieftains had already complained for Rohila’s terror to Mogul Emperor.
  When Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand got information about Mogul Emperor coming to Katehar, he decided to visit Mogul Emperor in person. Kumaon king took ornaments of Jageshwar temple on loan. Kumaon King converted ornaments into gold and silver coins to pay tribute to Mogul Emperor.
  When Kumaon King reached to Ramnagar he met with Shiv Datt Joshi who was returning from Badakhedi. Kumaon king and Shiv Datt Joshi reached to Kashipur. Mogul Empire Prime minister Kamruddin Khan sent 50 cavalry and artillery to welcome horses Kumaon King and Shiv Datt Joshi. That showed that Kumaon King had already sent personal tribute for Kamruddin Khan to get full support of Mogul emperor. It was a custom to pay personal tribute or bribe to ministers of emperor for getting support from Emperor.   
  With Shiv Datt Joshi, Kumaon King reached to Sambhal via Moradabad. Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand met an informer of empire. The advocate of Kumaon Kingdom Shiv Ram Pandey also reached there and met the king.
    Kumaon king Doti Kalyan Chand met mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah in Badshah camp near Sambhal with the help of Kamruddin. Kumaon King offered tribute to Mogul emperor as Gold coins, gold and silver plates, Chnavar, musk, Nirvisi, Kuhi, Kohla, hunter birds, horses, animal skins etc.
              There were other regional chieftains from Katehar regions present before Mogul Emperor who also complained to Emperor about Rohila Chieftain. Doti Kalyan Chand got support from other chieftains. Doti Kalyan Chand put his problem of Rohilas before the emperor. Mogul Emperor agreed to help Kumaon King.
  On 2nd June 1745, Rohila chief Ali Muhammad Khan accepted the supremacy of Mogul Empire. Mogul army captured Ali Muhammad Khan and other Rohila chief commanders as , Paidekhan, Dundikhan , fatah Khan and brought them before Mogul Emperor in his camp. Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah ordered to keep Rohila chief Ali Muhammad Khan under surveillance of prime minster. After some time, Ali Muhammad Khan was appointed chief of Chakla Sarhind. Mogularmy destroyed Bangarh fort and Mogul Emperor forfeited all the territory and wealth of Rohila chief Ali Muhammad Khan.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 5/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -208   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Second Attack on Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army; History of Second Attack on Champawat Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army; History of Second Attack on Almora Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army; History of Second Attack on Kali Valley Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army; History of Second Attack on Kosi River valley Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army; History of Second Attack on Bhabhar and hills of Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army; History of Second Attack on Tanakpur Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army; History of Second Attack on Banbasa of Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army in Badakhedi; History of Second Attack on Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army; History of Second Attack on Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army around Kashipur; History of Second Attack on Kumaon Kingdom from Rohila and Kumaon army defeating Rohila Army around Ramnagar; History of Kumaon at  Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah period; History of Bhabhar –Tarai Kumaon at  Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah period; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon at  Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah period; History of Almora Kumaon at  Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah period; History of Nainital Kumaon at  Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah period; History of Bageshwar Kumaon at  Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah period; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon at  Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah period; History of Nainital Kumaon at  Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah period;

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Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/ Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 208

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                  In April-May 1745, Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand met Moghul/Mughal/Mugal Emperor Muhammad Shah in Sambhal region.  Mogul /Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah started his journey for Delhi from Sambhal on 4th June 1745.  Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand met the Moghul Emperor in Gadhmukteshwar and presented him gifts.  Moghul /Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah provided the Kumaon king an honor (Khilat) and new order of Jagir (control to rule) of Tarai-Bhabhar (today’s Udham Singh Nagar).
   While, returning Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra paid visit to the Emperor prime minister Kamruddin Khan in his camp. Kumaon King thanked and showed his gratitude to Kamruddin for his great help.
            The camp of Awadh chieftain Nabab Mansur Ali Khan Safdar Jung was nearby to Kamruddin. Kamruddin and Safdar Jung did not see eye to eye with each other. Therefore, Kumaon King did not pay visit to Awadh Nabab. Kumaon King sent gifts for Awadh Nabab though his ambassador Hari Har Pant. Awadh Nabab Safdar Jung felt it as insult

                   Administration in Tarai-Bhabhar of Kumaon

            Doti Kalyan Chandra reached to Tarai-Bhabhar. Kumaon King handed over the administration to capable Shiv Datt Joshi.  Kumaon King appointed new officers and retained old officers to for administrating Tarai Bhabhar of Kumaon. He confirmed old Jagirs and provided new Jagirs (land).

                    Capturing Shiv Datt Joshi by Awadh Nabab Safdar Jung
               Before, Shiv Datt Joshi reached Sarbana, the regional commander Teju Gaud of Awadh ruler Safdar Jung captured Sarbana region. Awadh Ruler Safdar Jung took revenge of Kumaon King not visiting him in person in Gadhmukteshwar.  Shiv Datt Joshi sent a letter to Awadh ruler Safdar Jung that Sarbana region was under Kumaon and reminded Awadh ruler that even Delhi Emperor also confirmed the control of Kumaon King on Sarbana.  Awadh ruler Safdar Jung did not pay attention of message of Shiv Datt Joshi.
         Shiv Datt Joshi persuaded the matter many times but Awadh Nabab did not leave his control over Sarbana Pargana.
      Shiv Datt Joshi attacked on Awadh army led by Teju Gaud. Teju Gad defeated Shiv Datt Joshi and captured him. Gaud sent Shiv Datt Joshi to Lucknow. Shiv Datt Joshi was in prison of Awadh for one year.
  Kumaon king sent his appeal to Delhi Mogul/Mughal Empire. The Emperor sent message to Awadh Nabab. Awadh Nabab freed Sarbana region and Kumaon King got back Sarbana. Awadh Nabab freed Shiv Datt Joshi.
         Shiv Datt Joshi tried his best to correct the economical and agriculture system in Tarai and Bhabhar that was lost in past disturbances by Rohilas and Awadh ruler.
                Shiv Datt Joshi worked for strengthening the boundaries. Shiv Datt Joshi built forts in Rudrapur and Kashipur. Shiv Datt Joshi kept sufficient army in these forts. Shiv Datt Joshi appointed two separate administrators for Rudrapur and Kashipur regions.
     Shiv Datt Joshi handed over the rule of Sarbana, Bilhari and Dhaner Pargana to Barbek jamindar. Shiv Datt Joshi handed over rule of Bhabhar to Lul clan Jameendar (alredy administrating Kali Kumaon). These rulers were supposed to arrange police force themselves.  Heti and Mewati were looking after police administration in other region. Joshi reorganized the administration.
 When Shiv Datt Joshi visited Almora, Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand declared as Jameendar of Tarai –Bhabhar and gifted him many villages in hill and plains of Kumaon as Thati.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 6/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -208   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/  Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Kashipur Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Rudrapur,Tarai-Bhabhar from Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Sarbana, Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Bilhari Tarai-Bhabhar from Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over  Dhaner, Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Bajpur, Tarai-Bhabhar from Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Barakhera, Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Chakarpur, Tarai-Bhabhar from Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Gularbhoj, Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Kicchha ,Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Gosulaun, Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Bichhva, Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Lalpatti, Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/Mughal  Emperor Muhammad Shah; History of Kumaon King Getting Back Control over Sitarganj, Tarai-Bhabhar from Mughal/Mogul Emperor Muhammad Shah;

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History Aspects on Relationship of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand with Garhwal Kingdom

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 209

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                  Doti Kalyan Chandra came from a poor farmer family of Doti Kingdom. Doti Kalyan Chandra was totally inexperienced about politics. After becoming King, Doti Kalyan Chandra learnt all the political tricks. Doti Kalyan Chandra changed old advisers. There was not much difference between his diplomacy and diplomacy of his predecessors.

        Garhwal King helped Doti Kalyan Chandra at the time of Rohilas defeating Kumaon army. There were cordial relations of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra with Garhwal King Pradip Shah.
              In 1731, there was marriage of daughter of Doti Kalyan Chandra with Prince Tej Singh Katehriya. Pradip Shah sent his officer Bhujbal Singh as Garhwal Kingdom representative for attending marriage.
               In 1739, second daughter of Doti Kalyan Chandra was married to King of Sirmaur (Himachal Pradesh). The marriage procession had to go and come through Dehradun. Garhwal King and Sirmaur King did not have cordial relation. Therefore, Kumaon army was with the marriage procession. There was no undesired event at the time of marriage procession.
   In 1739, Garhwal King Pradip Shah deputed his ambassadors or advocates Bandhu Mishra and Lakshmi Dhar Oza to Kumaon Kingdom capital with friendly gifts. Kumaon King also paid gifts for Garhwal King.
   Around 1739-40, Peshva ambassador and Rajsthan Kings ambassadors used to visit Kumaon.
In 1741, Jagat Singh the advocate or diplomat of Udyapur Kingdom reached to Kumaon. The foreign policy of Garhwal and Kumaon Kingdoms were on the same line.
 In 1741, the diplomats of Garhwal and Kumaon visited the King Jay Singh Sawai of Jaipu. Both the ambassadors handed over gifts from their respective Kings to Jaipur King.
              The Peshvas of Pune, Maharaja Sahu the King of Satara,Holkar King sent diplomats to Kumaon. These Kings wanted a confederation of Hindu Kings against Delhi Mogul Empire. Most probably, Kumaon and Garhwal Kings did not agree to fight against Delhi Mogul
                    Death of Doti Kalyan Chandra

   Doti Kalyan Chandra lost his eye sight at old age. People said to him that it is because that he ousted rooted eyes of Brahmins. Doti Kalyan Chandra called Shiv Datt Joshi from Mal. Doti Kalyan Chandra put his teen age son on the lap of Shiv Datt and asked religious vow from Shiv Datt Joshi that Shiv Datt Joshi would protect child age prince Deep Chandra. Shiv Datt Joshi took vow to protect immature prince Deep Chandra. In 1747, Doti Kalyan Chandra declared and crowned Prince Deep Chandra as King of Kumaon Kingdom. Shiv Datt Joshi was declared as guardian of immature King Deep Chandra. In early 1748, Doti Kalyan Chandra died.
 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 7/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -209   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History Aspects on Relationship of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand with Garhwal King, History of Diplomatic relationship of Kumaon King with Mogul Empire; History of Diplomatic relationship of Kumaon King with Katehar Kingdom; History of Diplomatic relationship of Kumaon King with Sirmaur Kingdom; History of Diplomatic relationship of Kumaon King with Peshwas of Pune; History of Diplomatic relationship of Kumaon King with Satara Kingdom; History of Diplomatic relationship of Kumaon King with Holkar Kingdom; History of Diplomatic relationship of Kumaon King with Udaypur Kingdom; History of Diplomatic relationship of Kumaon King with Jaipur Kingdom;

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 History of Deep Chandra: a Kumaoni King who repented religiously for His Father’s Sins

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 210

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

      Ruling period of Kumaon King Deep Chandra (Dip Chand)
Ruling Period – 1748-1777 AD
Inscriptions – 1749, every year from 1752-1760, every year from 1763-1774

                    Contemporary Kings of Kumaon King Deep Chandra
Garhwal Kingdom- Pradip Shah (1717-1772) and Lalit Shah (1772-1780)
Delhi Mogul Emperor – Ahmad Shah ( 1748-1754), Alamgir second (1754-1759) and Shah Alam (1759-1806)

                     Religious Repent on behalf of Father

              Doti Kalyan Chandra was famous for his sinful deeds.  Deep Chand the son of Doti Kalyan Chand performed many rituals for pacifying his father’s sins. His mentor Shiv Datt Joshi helped Deep Chandra in repented religious performances and acts.
 Doti Kalyan Chandra took loan in form of ornaments from Jageshwar temple. On behalf of Kingdom, Shiv Datt Joshi donated six villages to Jageshwar temple. Doti Kalyan Chandra grabbed the property of various Rautelas (relatives and family members of earlier Chand dynasty kings) . Shiv Datt Joshi returned properties to maximum of Rautelas.  In 1730, King Doti Kalyan Chandra grabbed the property of Puranmall Gaida Bisht. Vairishal Gaida was born after the death of his father Puranmall Gaida Bisht.  Shiv Datt Joshi returned the property of Puranmall to his son Vairishal Bisht.
  Shiv Datt Joshi the Mentor of immature King Deep Chand appointed his son Jaikrishna as Prime Minister (Nayab) of Almora region. Shiv Datt settled to Tarai-Bhabhar to look after fertile region.
           There are thirty copper inscriptions of King Dip Chand. First seventeen inscriptions are of his first ten years of rule. Out of these thirty six inscriptions, twenty five inscriptions are land donations for temples and eleven are for donations to Brahmins.
      Deep Chandra donated lands or gifts to following temples
Seven times donations to Jageshwar temple
Badrinath temple (two time donations)
Kedarnath temple (two time donations)
Vridhjageshwar temple (two time donations)
Kalika temple of Gangoli (two time donations)
Nageshwar temple (single time donation)
Nagnath temple (single time donation)
Kalika –Shitala of Dwara temple (single time donation)
Udayeshwar of Salam temple (single time donation)
Gannath temple (single time donation)
Narayan temple (single time donation)
Punyagiri temple (single time donation)
Pipnath temple (single time donation)
Bhimeshwar temple (single time donation)
Bhalneshwar temple (single time donation)
Deep Chandra donated lands to following Brahmins
Vishan Datt Joshi (twice)
Ganga datt Joshi
Jairam Joshi
Rewadhar Joshi
Maniram Upreti
Kamlapati Upreti
Devi Datt Tiwari
Shishushankar Tiwari
Radhapati






Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 7/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -211   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
History of Kumaon King Deep Chand contemporary to Mogul Emperors Ahmad Shah, Alamgir and Shah Alam; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon King Deep Chand contemporary to Mogul Emperors Ahmad Shah, Alamgir and Shah Alam; History of Dwarhat ,Kumaon King Deep Chand contemporary to Mogul Emperors Ahmad Shah, Alamgir and Shah Alam; History of Bageshwar, Kumaon King Deep Chand contemporary to Mogul Emperors Ahmad Shah, Alamgir and Shah Alam; History of Champawat, Kumaon King Deep Chand contemporary to Mogul Emperors Ahmad Shah, Alamgir and Shah Alam; History of Almora Kumaon King Deep Chand contemporary to Mogul Emperors Ahmad Shah, Alamgir and Shah Alam; History of Nainital, Kumaon King Deep Chand contemporary to Mogul Emperors Ahmad Shah, Alamgir and Shah Alam; History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon King Deep Chand contemporary to Mogul Emperors Ahmad Shah, Alamgir and Shah Alam; History of Tarai-Bhabhar Kumaon King Deep Chand contemporary to Mogul Emperors Ahmad Shah, Alamgir and Shah Alam;
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra

                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 211

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

               Tarai –Bhabhar Administration by Shiv Datt Joshi

                In past, at the rule of Doti Kalyan Chand, Shiv Datt Joshi worked hard in Kumaon Tarai-Bhabhar. Shiv Datt Joshi appointed his cousin brother Hari Ram Joshi as Hakim (administrator) of Kashipur Pargana. Hariram was wise, hard working, experienced administrator. However, Hari ram Joshi also opposed Shiv Datt Joshi. Hariram was administrator in Almora too.  In 1749-50, Hariram Joshi ignored or opposed Shiv Datt Joshi. Shiv Datt Joshi replaced Hariram and appointed Shiromani Das a Brahmin from Bajpur as administrator of Kashipur in place of Hariram Joshi. Hariram Joshi waited to take revenge for his dismissal as administrator of Kashipur.

                          Helping Rohilas 

    In 1745, Delhi Mugal captured Ruhelkhand and captured Rohila Sardar Ali Muhammad Khan. Delhi Empire appointed Ali Muhammad Khan as administrator of Chakla Sarhind. Ali Muhammad Khan started secret political relation with Amhmad Shah Abdali. On 21st January 1748, Ahmad Shah Abdali entered into Lahore.  Ali Muhammad ran away from Sarhind and came back to Moradabad. Immediately he captured Ruhelkhand.
 Now, again, Kumaon was in danger from Ali Muhammad Khan’s future attack. However, Ali Muhammad Khan died in 1748 and Delhi Emperor Muhammad Shah too died in 1748.
  In 1750, Bangas (Pathan from Afghanistan link) attacked on Nabab Safdar Jung of Awadh.  Saddulla Khan the son of late Ali Muhammad Khan and Rahmat Khan helped Bangash. With the help of Maratha, Nabab Safdar Jung of Awadh defeated Bangash and Rohila army.  Rohila ran towards Tarai –Bhabhar of Kumaon. Rohila army reached in dense jungle in Kumaon foothills. Some historians call the place as Chilkiya and some describe it as Lal Dhang.
           At Thapli, in dense jungle, Rohilas established their army camp. The dug trenches and put guns. Awadh army and Maratha army also reached there and they put their gun opposite of Rohilas. Awadh army wanted to stop the food supply for Rohilas. However, Kumaon King helped Rohilas to get food supply. Kumaon King did not help Rohilas as obligation but Kumaon King was aware that after the battle is pacified the Rohilas would disturb Tarai-Bhabhar, Kumaon. Kumaon King was not sure of Awadh ruler helping Kumaon Kingdom in case, Rohila disturb Kumaon.
 Shiv Datt Joshi helped Rohilas. For two months the Rohila army and Awadh army aided by Maratha were standstill opposite of each other with a few flanking and guerilla fights from both the sides. Rohila Sardar Saddulla Khan requested his Afghan kin Ahmad Shah Abdali to help him. Ahmad Shah Abdali sent his army from Afghanistan. When the army of Ahmad Shah Abdali reached to Punjab, Maratha King mediated the treaty between Rohilas and Awadh ruler Nabab Safdar Jung.
                A historians as Irwin, Sarkar and Shrivastava as per  Gulistan described the place of shelter of Rohila as Chikliya. Hadiktulakalim described this place as Lal Dhang. There are three places as Chilkiya and two places as Lal Dhang in Garhwal and Kumaon Bhabhar Tarai. Therefore, it is difficult to know the exact place of tussle between Rohilas and Awadh army.. 
       However, Chilkiya of Kumaon was near to Shiv Datt Joshi and possible to supply food to Rohilas. Chikliya of Garhwal is far from Rohilkhand.
        According to Ramayana Pradip, Rohila sent message to Garhwal King for help. Garhwali King Pradip Shah also sent a promising letter to Rohilas that they can use Garhwal land for shelter and crossing Ganga from Chandi Ghat.
       That shows that Kumaon King (under the guardianship of Shiv Datt Joshi) and Garhwal King helped Rohilas.
            Rohilas took shelter in Chilkiya or Lal Dhang in 1751. There was treaty between Rohilas and Awdh ruler in February 1752, in Lal Dhang or Chilkiya. By the treaty between Rohilas and Awadh, both the Kumaon and Garhwali Kings felt great relief.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -212   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Kashipur, Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Jaspur, Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Chilkiya Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Laldhang Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Gadarpur Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Kicchha Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Bajpur, Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Barakhera Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Gularbhoj Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Sitarganj Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra; History of Udham Singh Nagar Tarai-Bhabhar Administration and Helping Rohilas by Kumaon King Deep Chandra;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Conspiracy and Terror from Fadtyal Group (Fadtyalgardi) in Kumaon King Deep Chand Period


                   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 212

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                    King Deep Chandra was weak King. Due to his crowning at early age, Deep Chand was puppet of Shiv Datt Joshi. Shiv Datt Joshi was capable administrator and was very cruel for enemies. Deep Chand was amicable and soft spoken person. The command of Kumaon Kingdom was on the hands of Shiv Datt Joshi and his sons Jay Krishna Joshi and Harsh Dev Joshi.
            There were two main groups in Almora- Fadtyal group and Maradal group. Shiv Datt Joshi belonged to Maradal group. Therefore, the main command of Kingdom was in the hands of Maradal. Shiv Datt Joshi appointed Mara Dal people on main administrative posts.  The power of Kumaon Kingdom was on the hands of Mara Dal for long time.
              Fadtyal Group members were keen to appoint Prime Minister (Diwan) from their group. Fadtyal group member decided to appoint Kumaon King from their members. From a copper inscription of 1755, it is found that to appoint Amar Singh Rautela , Fadtyal group brought  Rohilas to attack on Kumaon Kingdom . There was battle in Golauli. Shiv Datt Joshi came with army from Tarai-Bhabhar. The war ended in a day. Shiv Datt Joshi defeated Rohila army.
            There is less known about who provided Rohila army to Fadtyal group? The place Galoli is also uncertain today.
 Inscription states that   Shiv Datt Joshi suppressed the conspiracy of Fadtyal Group with solid hammer.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 10/12/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Sarkar, fall of Mogul Empire
Sailendra Nath Sen, 2010, An Advanced History of Modern India
William Crooke, 1897, The North Western Provinces of India, page 116
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -213   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx

 

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