Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 67129 times)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Dosto,

In this topic of our Senior Members Shri Bhishma Kukreti ji will be posting information of History of Kumoan since 1000 to 1790 AD.



कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )

                                    History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD)
   

            Dedicated to Pundit Rudra Datt Pant who collected folk sayings and other knowledge for writing History of Kumaon.


प्[/i]रदेश की वर्तमान समस्याओं का सही समाधान खोजने के लिए  एवम अतीत को आत्मघाती चूकों की पुनरावृति रोकने के लिए , ऐतिहासिक घटनाओं का यथातथ्य विस्तृत अध्ययन करके उनके कारणों की  छान बीन करनी चाहिए । जनता के वर्तमान भाग्यविधाताओं के सही पथ प्रदर्शन हेतु हमारे पूर्वजों का अनुभव का प्रकाश नितांत आवश्यक है ।
 
-----सरकार ------फाल  ऑफ मुग़ल एम्पायर

[/size]  The History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD is vibrant and notable in many respect for the coming society. In the following  chapters,  Bhishma Kukreti will discuss about the disintegration of Katyuri Kingdom; Rise and fall of  Chand Dynasty in Kumaon. He wil also discuss about the culture, social aspects, education system  of each Chand King of Kumaon. 
  The readers will find various finer details of history aspects of Kumaon in the following chapters of History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD).

M S Mehta

Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule

 
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 120
 
   Early Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) -
          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
 
                   There were many historical ups and downs in Easter part of Middle East, North India, Central India and Uttarakhand at the time of last kings of Katyuris of Kartikeyapur. 

                                          Sarsava (North India) Kingdom
             Around the time of successors of Subhiskhraj Katyuri period after 908Ad, the Katyuri kingdom started disintegrating.
  The western block of Yamuna valley came under Trigart –Jalandhar kings.
 The Sarsava king Naresh Chandra captured Ambala, Bbhabar of Saharanpur, Foothills of Dehradun and Sirmaur (Himachal) territories. Sarsava or Sarva was the capital of Sarsava kingdom at Yamuna bank.

                                       Shahi or Shahiya King Jaypal
           Jaypal King was ruling Shahiya kingdom was in western part of Sarsava kingdom till Kabul. Jaypal had two capitals –Lahor and Udmand (near Indus River bank).  The Amir of Ghazani Sabuktigin and his son Mahmud started looting in Jaypal kingdom. Jaypal twice attacked with force on Ghazani Amir at Lamghan.  Both time Jaypal got defeated. In 1001, Mahmud captured the territory from Udmand to Kabul.  Mahmud captured four lakh people and took them to Ghazani.
  Jaypal expired due to defeat shock.
       
                         Shahi Naresh Anand Pal

                From 1001, Mahmud strengthens his kingdom and in 1008, attacked on Shahi kingdom ruled by Anand Pal.  The Parmar king Bhoj and other north India kings helped Shahi Naresh Anand Pal by sending their armies for Anand pal the Shahi King. There was bllod bathed war in Udmand. Anandpal was just to win that his elephant got mad and Shahi Naresh Anand Pal had to run away. Mahmud ran behind Shahi Naresh Anand Pal till Nagarkot of Vyas valley. Mahmud and his army looted countless wealth from the territory. Anand Pal was defeated by Mahmud and Anand Pal took shelter of Mahmud.
 

                Mahmud got the taste of wealth and made strategy to loot other Indian cities.
             Mahmud attacked Thaneshwar in 1011 and looted there. Thanshwar king Ram was defeated by Mahmud.
 
                           Shahi Naresh Trilochan Pal

                    The son of Shahi Naresh Anand Pal got the kingdom after his father death. Bhim Pal the son of Shahi King Trilochan pal was not in mood to accept the rule of Mahmud. Mahmud captured the two third region of Trilochan Pal.

                War between Shahi Naresh Trilochan Pal and Sarsava King 

            The Sarsava and Shahi kingdoms were adjoining to each other and both kingdoms did have disputes over Kingdom boundaries.  Trilochan and Naresh Chandra of Sarsava fought each others.
                Due to fear of Mahmud they came on talking terms. Trilochan Pal engaged his son Bhim Pal with daughter of Naresh Chandra.  Trilochan Pal reached to Sarsava to take his daughter in law. However, Naresh Chandra arrested Trilochan Pal.
   Mahmud was on campaigning to looting north Indian kingdoms –Ganga valley, Kannauj, Mathura etc.
Trilochan Pal was not ready to accept the over ruling of Mahmud and he did not have power to stop Mahmud. Trilochan Pal took asylum in Bhoj kingdom.
    Mahmud looted Baran (Bulandshahar and Mathura. The king Kokkal Kalchuri resisted but was defeated and Kokkal Kalchuri had to opt for suicide.
Mahmud looted Mathura, Kannauj. Mahmud also captured lakhs of people for slaving.

                                Sarsava King Chandra

      When Mahmud looted Ganga-Yamuna Doab, he started his campaign towards north.  The foothills were easier way for taking the looted wealth to Ghazani.
 The Sarsava king Chandra wanted to resist Mahmud but due to advice of Bhim Pal he reached to higher Himalayan altitude. Mahmud reached and to Chandra camp. Mahmud defeated Chandra.
 Mahmud captured millions of Indians and made them slaves in Ghazani.

                          Shahi Prince Bhim Pal

                      Probably with the help of Bhoj and Vidyadhar Chandel, after Mahmud return to Ghazani, Trilochan Pal and his son Bhim Pal recaptured territory of east Shahi kingdom.
     
                            Kannauj king Pratihar Rajyapal came under Mahmud and became governor for Mahmud. Chandel king Vidyadhar killed Rajyapal for his coward behavior before Mahmud. Mahmud attacked (1012) North India to take revenge.
             Mahmud started campaign from Himalayan foot hills.  Trilochan Pal and Bhim Pal shoed resistance but were defeated by Mahmud.
  Trilochan Pal was killed while running to Vidyadhar.
          Bhim Pal took asylum in Ajmer Kingdom. 
 Shahi Kings resisted stopping invasion of Mahmud for twenty five years.  Shahi kings were religious and with noble characters.  Great poet Kalhan describes about Shahi kings in details.
  Mahmud looted Somnath temple (1025-26).
 Mahmud started looting culture and died in 1030. His successors ruled India thereafter.


                   Kalchuri Kings

   Kalcharu king Gangeydev captured Kerdesh (Kangda) from Muslim invaders. Howver, Masud captured Hasi in 1036
 Kalchuri king Karna defeated Muslim king in 1037 at Kangda. North Indian kings –Tomar of Delhi, Parmar King Bhoj supported Karna.

                       Parmar King Bhoj (1000-1055)
  Parmar king sent his army for helping Shahi king Anand Pal for stopping Mahmud invasion. Bhoj also provided asylum to Trilochan Pal.

                Struggle against Mahmud and Muslim invasion

 The north and Central Indian kings did struggle for freeing Muslim invasion from India. These kings were Tomar King of Delhi, Bhoj, Kalchuri king Karn, Annhill Chahman.

               Bhoj Rule over Uttarakhand


             According to Udaypur inscriptions, Bhoj kingdom was extended up to Kailas and Rudrahimal of Uttarakhand.
  Bhoj also built temple in Kedarnath too.
  It is said that Garhwali kings were Parmar of Bhoj family.
   Bhoj was great donor and scholar. He used to provide shelters to scholars.

               Invasion by Muslim Kings
 
                 From 1051-57, Muslim kings recaptured Nagarkot, Ajudhan, Rupal, Darah, Jalandhar, Sarhind, Dhangan and Srughan. By 1075, Agara, Kanauj, Ujjain and Kalijar were under Muslim rules.
 
                                        Chahman King Vgrahraj fourth


    The rule of Ajmer king Vgrahraj fourth (1151-1167) was Delhi, Hansi, and eastern Punjab. He freed many Muslim territories.
               According to Shivalik inscriptions, His rule was on Shivalik region too. It seems his rule wa s also on some part of Hill foothills of Uttarakhand.

             Prithviraj Chauhman Third
  Prithvirah got kAjmer kingdom from his father in 1177. He was killed by Mahmud Gori,  Muhmad Gori attacked Gujrat and other territories.
 Mahmud Gori attacked Sarhind in 1191. Prithvi Raj Chauhman defeated Gori and captured Sarhind fort.
 In 1192, Mahmud Gori again attacked Chauhman kingdom and captured Prithviraj. Prithviraj was killed by Gori.

                             Start of Slavery Era

  This era was the era of slavery in India >
                            Asylums by Hindus in Himalayan Hills

 The suppressions of Muslim invaders compelled Indians to take shelters in Himalayan hills in mass.
 The priests, Siddh, Mantriks, Tantriks , scholars, ascetics, Nath, Saints took asylum in Himalayan hills.
 Katyuris provided shelters to these Hindus who did not accept the Muslim rules of converting into Islam.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 16/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -121
Early Asian Medieval History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…     
  (Oriental Early Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
           Notes on Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rulein Pithoragarh ; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects in Bageshwar around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule in Champawat ; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule in Almora ; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule In Nainital; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule In Udham Singh Nagar; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule in Pauri Garhwal; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule in Tehri Garhwal; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule in Pauri Garhwal; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule in Chamoli Garhwal; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule in Uttarkashi; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects in Dehradun around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule ; Asian and North Indian Medieval Historical Aspects in Haridwar around Baidyanath/Baijnath Katyuri Rule;


Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 121
 
    Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath (Uttarakhand, India) - 2
          (Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1200 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 Lack of History Records about Katyuri Imperialism of Baidyanath/Baijnath (Asian Medieval History)

                 Around 1000AD, Narsinghdev Katyuri shifted his capital from Karikeyapur to Baijnath/Baidyanath. Ashokchall captured Katyuri kingdom in 1191AD. The Katyuri kings tried to become free at end of Asokchall kingdom but Krachaldev defused the attack of Katyuri. However, after some years the Katyuris got some territories back.
 There are no sound history records available for Katyuri of Baijnath/Baidyanath. The details of Katyuri kings of different principalities were recorded at later stages of Baijnath Katyuri Kingdom.
 The folklores and available records suggest the Katyuri kings data.

                            Narsinghdev Katyuri king of Asian medieval Period


   The last Katyuri king of Kartikeyapur Narsinghdev shifted his capital from Kartikeyapur to Baidyanath/Baijnath (Kumaon). Most probably, Narsinghdev provided the name for new capital as Baidyanath/Baijnath Kartikeyapur.  The capital is at Gomati River bank, near to Almora and the roads from Someshwar, Bageshwar and Nand Prayag meet here.
  Okley and Gairola suggest that Narsinghdev used the materials from Karvipur for his capital building. Karvipur is supposed to be capital of Paurav kingdom.
  The Katyuri king of Kartikeyapur shifted the capital for a few reasons. However, the seasonal was different here from Joshimath.
         After shifting the capital from Joshimath to Baijnath, the rule over Garhwal became loosened. 
  Rahul suggests 9though less of logic base) that the Tibet king Yeshe-od of Shung-Shung captured parts of Joshimath region but Dr Dabral disagrees at all.
 There is less record available for history features about Baijnath Katyuri king Narsinghdev.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 20/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -122
 Asian Medieval History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri to be continued…
  (Oriental Medieval History (740-1200 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
Notes on Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Pithoragarh Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Askot Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Doti Nepal; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Sui or Kali Kumaon, Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Barahmandal Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Baijnath Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Dwarhat Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Lakhanpur Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Almora Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Nainital Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Garhwal ; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Haridwar ; Asian Medieval History Features of King Narsinghdev Katyuri Kingdom in Dehradun; 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Bhishma Kukreti

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South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri 

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 122
 
    Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath (Uttarakhand, India) - 3
          (Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1200 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

  There is no mention of Narsinghdev in any inscription or dynasty record.  The Doti, Askot, and Pali Dynasty record or Family tree (Vanshavali) has similarities but there are no similarities in other dynasty records (Vanshavali)

                                      PritamDev: The Katyuri King of Baijnath
 
                 The Jagar or folk literature describe about PritamDev as Katyuri king. The folk literature provides his ten predecessors but folk songs do not mention Narsinghdev and Kartikeyapur. That shows that Pritam Dev was not direct heir of Nar Singh Dev family.  The Katyuri kings of Kartikeyapur used to get title of ‘ Param Bhattarak Maharajadhiraj Parmeshwar’.

                 In Katyuri kings of Kartikeyapur period, the army chiefs or other higher cadre authorities were called ‘Raja’. However, folk sayings call Pritam as ‘Raja’. That shows or suggests that the forefathers of Pritamdev were high cadre authorities of Katyuri kings of Kartikeyapur. There is not record available about the forefathers or Pritam Dev or Pritam Dev getting crown ship of Katyuri kingdom.
  There is no history record for Pundir kingdom. However, the folk saying describes that Amardev Pundir used to rule over Mayapur Hat.

                         Queen Moladei   
 According to folk saying, Pritam Dev had many queens but did not have child. Childless and quite old aged Pritam Dev married with Moladei the daughter of Amardev Pundir. Amardev married his seven year old daughter with Pritamdev by fear and not by choice. 
            Moladei travelled Badrinath. She performed religious ritual of Narsingh deity at Joshimath and got son as blessing from Narsingh deity. This son was called Dula Dhamdev






Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 21/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -123
 South Asian Medieval History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri to be continued…
  (Oriental Medieval History (740-1200 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
Notes on South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri of Kumaon; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Pithoragarh Kumaon; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Champawat Kumaon; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Dwarhat Kumaon; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Kaliganga valley Kumaon; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Nainital Kumaon; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Almora Kumaon; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Bageshwar  Kumaon; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Chamoli Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Rudraprayag Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Uttarkashi Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Dehradun Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Doti Nepal; South Asian Medieval History Features of King Pritam Dev Katyuri in context history of Haridwar;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings -Dhamdev and Brahmadev
 
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 123
 
    Asian Middle Age History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath (Uttarakhand, India) - 4
          (Asian Middle Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))- (740-1200 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                            The Katyuri King Dhamdev
                     Various folk sayings state that Dhamdev was brave person with strength and vigorous courage. Once, in jealousy, his step mother advised his father PritamDev to send Dhamdev for fighting with very brave and dangerous rebellion Jagas (Yaksha) Samva in Patlidun. Dhamdev reached Patlidun. As per advice of Samva, Dhamdev killed his father Pritamdev and became Katyuri King.

                         The Katyuri King Brahmadev

            The three Katyuri family trees suggest that Brahmadev was heir of Dhamdev. There is no literature available about Brahmadev Katyuri. The guess is that Patlidun-Bhabar region were under his Katyuri rule.
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 22/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -124
 Asian Middle Age History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri to be continued…
  (Oriental Middle Age History (740-1200 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
Notes on Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev;
Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev in Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev in Pithoragarh Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev in Champawat Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev in Bageshwar Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev in Nainital Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev in Almora Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev in Doti Nepal; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev in Garhwal; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev in Bhabar; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev for  Dehradun history context; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri Kings Dhamdev and Brahmadev for  Haridwar History context













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South Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev 
 
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 124
 
    South Asian Middle Age History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath (Uttarakhand, India) - 5
          (South Asian Middle Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))- (740-1200 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

             According to legend and analysis by historians suggest that Veer Dev was last Emperor of great Katyuri Kingdom.
     There was disintegration of Katyuri Kingdom after death of Veer Dev Katyuri. No records or inscriptions are found about Veer Dev. Birdev/Beer Dev/Veer Dev/ Virdev/Vir Dev was cruelest Kings in the history of Uttarakhand as cruel as Gorkha rulers. Still, Uttarakhand perform rituals for  Veer Dev as cruel village deity or Ragas.
                       Title of Veer Dev Katyuri in South Asian Middle Age History Context
 ‘Maharajadhiraj’ was the title of Veer Dev Katyuri in folk legends as ‘Maharajan ke raja! pedon par fal-ful ni rahond dina’ . That shows that the major part of Baijnath Katyuri kingdom was intact in Virdev period.

                  Character of Katyuri King Virdev in South Asian Middle Age History Context

               Jagar legends suggest that Veer Dev Katyuri was brave, courageous, active, and obstinate/determined.  Once he decided he would not leave the work half done and used to complete the decided job.  In rage, Katyuri king Beerdev destroyed the high altitude fortes of his chiefs and founded them at low altitude.  It is said in legend that he also grounded hills to change hills into plain. Definitely exaggeration is there in those points.  The folk song is as-
Hankaro tumaro baba ! jis unchaa gadh neechaa banaya
Neecha gadh uncha banaya , mar gadh maidan bnaya
Hankaro tumara baba ..
Tarni tiriya rhon ni dina
Baruni baakri rhon ni dina
        Virdev Katyuri was greedy and used to snatch whatever he liked from his subject. He used to kidnap the girls or women he liked. He used to snatch goats, caws from his subject.
             The Jagar criticized Veer Dev Katyuri for his marrying with maternal aunt Teela as-
‘Mami tile Dhari bola …’
 
          Revenue and Taxation in Vir Dev Katyuri Period in South Asian Middle Age History Context

 The tax was collected in kind as there is no proof of coins. The government emplyess were strict in collecting taxes in kind. They never provided relaxation even in worst time of drought or flood. The following folk saying provides the taxation custom in South Asian Middle Age Katyuri King Virdev –
Banja ghat ki bhag ugauni , banji gai ki doodh chheenee
 The people had to provide tax of flour. The king employees used to filter the flour by seven mats. The tax was given by finest flour sieved through seven mats.
In case of shortage of tax, the king used to seize sons and daughters as slaves.
The king was passionate to get fresh water from Hatchhina spring. People used to stand in line from Hatchhina spring near Kasuani to palace for twelve miles. Then water vassal form spring was transferred from person to person.

                    Death of Veer Dev Katyuri King in South Asian Middle Age History Context


           The king used to fasten iron rings on the shoulders of the litter bearers and pass through them with poles of Dandi or Pinas so that the bearers would not throw him into down valley or precipice. However, the bearers threw him down and also sacrificed their lives for good to all people
 This way the dynasty of this Katyuri branch also ended. However, other branches of Katyuri flourished in Kumaon and parts of present Nepal.
 Period of Baidnath Katyuri Kingdom –
Narsingh Dev, PritmaDev, Dhamdev, Brahmadev and Veer Dev Katyuri – 1000-to 1090 or 1100 AD


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 23/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -125
 South Asian Middle Age History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri to be continued…
  (Oriental Middle Age History (740-1200 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
Notes on South Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer dev; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Champawat Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Hatchhina Kumaon;  Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Kasauni Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Bagshwar Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Dwarhat Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Almora Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Udham Sing Nagar Kumaon;  Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Nainital Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev ofPali  Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Kaliganga valley Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Bhikiyasain Kumaon; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Doti Nepal ; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Garhwal; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Haridwar; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev of Uttarakhand ;  Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev about history of North India; Asian Middle Age History Characteristics of Baijnath Katyuri King – Vir Dev /Beer Dev for history of India                   


Bhishma Kukreti

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Oriental Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King – Tribhuwan Pal Dev   
 
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 125
 
    Oriental Middle Age History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath (Uttarakhand, India) - 6
          (Oriental Middle Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))- (740-12500 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                  Though, the major Katyuri Kingdom disintegrated after Vir Dev Katyuri, yet, other Katyuri families ruled over Doti Nepal, Askot, and other places as Manilashikhar. The Manral caste is definitely Katyuri caste.

       Katyuri King – Tribhuwan Pal Dev   and his Successors in Context Oriental Middle Age History
 Tribhuvanpaldev donated land for Bageshwar temple 
   There was one rock inscription in Baidnath , Kumaon about  Tribhuvanpaldev. The Doti and Askot inscriptions provide the name as Trilokpal the successor of Brahmdev. Kumaon historians Ram Datt Tripathi and Badri Datt Pandey refer the name as Tribhuvanraj Dev.

              Family Tree of Tribhuvanpal Dev or Tribhuvanraj Dev

 Dr. Dabral state the following kings were after Vri Dev Katyuri Tribhuvanpal Dev or Tribhuvanraj Dev
SN.---------King Name ------------------Base for Information ---------------------------App Date
1-----------Tribhuvanpaldev----------------Unpublished inscription ---------------------?
2----------?---------------------------------------Ram Dev Tirpathi -----------------------------?
3---------?---------------------------------------Ram Dev Tripathi  -------------------------------?
4------------Udaypaldev--------------------Unp. Inscriptions ------------------------------------- 1152
5------------ Anantpaldev------------------ Unp. Inscriptions-------------------------------------1181
6------------- Indradev ------------------------Unpb . Copper Inscription------------------------1202
7-------------- Vijaypaldev-----------------------Rahul, Kumaon ----------------------------------1214
8--------------Lakshmanpaldev  -------------------- Unp. Inscriptions --------------------------?
9--------------Ballaldev ------------------------------Krachaldev inscription ---------------------1223
It seems that son and grandson of Tribhuvanpaldev were weak rulers and the regional army chiefs would have captured the territory as kings.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 24/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -126
 South Asian Middle Age History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri to be continued…
  (Oriental Middle Age History (740-1200 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
Notes on History Characteristics of Katyuri King – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Pali Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Askot Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Dwarhat Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of  Katyuri King of Manshikhar Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King ofDoti Nepal – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age;  History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Palipachhaun Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Chaukat Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Sainmapur Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Almora Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Champawat Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Nainital Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age; History Characteristics of Katyuri King of Udham Singh Pur Kumaon – Tribhuwan Pal Dev in context Oriental Middle Age;                                                                                         

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Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 126
 
    Himalayan Middle Age History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath (Uttarakhand, India) - 7
          (Himalayan Middle Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))- (740-1250 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                 There are no folk sayings or records available for son and grandson of Tribhuvanpal Katyuri king. However, inscription provides name of Uday Pal the great grandson of Tribhuvanpal Katyuri.  Rahul Sankritayan guessed crowning of Uday Pal Katyuri in 1152 AD.
                The two important historical events are very crucial in the period of Uday Pal Katyuri rule. The first important event is a person named as Jaytung Singh becoming King of Kumau (Kumaon) and visit by Madhvacharya in Uttarakhand. Jaytung Singh was the first Kumaoni king whose last name ends by Singh. The kingdom of Jaytung Singh was new dynasty in Kumaon. The rock inscription provides the knowledge of three kings of Jaytung Singh dynasty.




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 24/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -127
 Himalayan Middle Age History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri to be continued…
  (Himalayan Middle Age History (740-1200 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
Notes on Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Kumaon; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Askot Kumaon; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Johri Kumaon; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Dwarhat Kumaon; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Bageshwar Kumaon; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Champawat Kumaon; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Almora Kumaon; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Nainital Kumaon; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Himalayan Middle Age History Characteristics of Katyuri King –Uday Pal of Kumaon   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   


Bhishma Kukreti

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Arrival of Madhvacharya in Uttarakhand in  Baijnath Katyuri King time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age 

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 127
 
    Himalayan Medieval Age History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath (Uttarakhand, India) - 8
          (Himalayan Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))- (740-1250 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
 
                  Arrival of Madhvacharya in Garhwal in Katyuri King –Uday Pal Period

  There is dispute for life span of Madhvacharya or Purn Prajna or Anand Teerth, the founder of Madhav sect of Hindu religion. Some state that his life span is 1118-1197Ad and others refer as 1199-1278. Madhvacharya was chief proponent of ‘Tattvavad’ or philosophy of reality.
   The legends state that Madhvacharya visited Badrikashram twice in his life.
The first visit to Badrikashram by Madhvacharya is supposed to be 1153 AD.
 Madhvacharya desired to visit North India and Badri Ashram after completing his tour of South India. Madhvacharya visited Badrikashram and presented his commentary on Geeta to Sage Vyas.
    Madhavacharya observed complete silence in Badrikashram for 48 days. Daily, he used to take dip in Ganga. 
   Sage Vyas presented Madhavacharya three deity sculptures made by Shaligram stones. Madhavacharya founded these sculptures in Subrahmaniyam, Udipi and Madhyasthal temples.
Madhvacharya did ‘darshan’ of Vyasa and Narayan in Badrikashram. After returning from Badrikashram, Madhvacharya wrote commentary on ‘Brahmsutra’.
 It is said that he visited Badrikashram twice and after second visit to Badri, Madhvacharya wrote Mahbharata-Tatparya –nirnay.

                       Effects of Visit by Madhvacharya
 The effect of visit by Madhavacharya to Badrikashram on religious tourism of Uttarakhand is still visible.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 26/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -128
 Himalayan Medieval Age History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri to be continued…
  (Himalayan Medieval Age History (740-1200 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
Notes on Madhvacharya visit to Badrinath via Rishikesh Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Udaypur region of Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Shivpuri Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Ful Chatti , Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Ghattu Gad , Dhangu, Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age;  Madhvacharya visit via Garudchatti Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Mohanchatti, Dhangu Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Nothkhal, Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Bandarbhel, Dhangu , Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Mhadev Chatti, Dhangu, Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Simal, Dhangu Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Kandi Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Vyaschatti Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Dev Prayag, Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age; Madhvacharya visit via Pandukeshwar . Garhwal in Baijnath Katyuri King Time: a Period of Himalayan Medieval Age             


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Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age


History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 128
 
    Himalayan Medieval Age History of Katyuri Imperialism of Baijnath/Baidyanath (Uttarakhand, India) - 9
          (Himalayan Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))- (740-1250 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                           King Anantpaldev Katyuri

           The Dungiri or Drongiri rock inscription (place above Dwarhat, Kumaon) states a king named Anantpaldev. The year is 1238Samvat or 1181 AD. That means king Anantpaldev was the fourth generation king in Tribhuwanpaldev dynasty of Katyuri of Baidyanath.
   At the end of twelfth century around 1175 there was total disintegration of Katyuri kingdom or it might be said this was the period when Uttarakhand was totally disintegrated.

         Separation of Garhwal Region from Katyuri Kingdom

 Before, Anantpaldev Katyuri, Salan Garhwal and Dehradun regions were separated from Katyuri kingdom. At the time of Anantpaldev, there was separation of Nagpur, Pindar and Mayapurhat (Haridwar). The governors of these regions became kings of their own areas.

                                       Rise of Sui Kingdom
   The ambitious soldier Brahmadev founded a small kingdom at lower Kaliganga valley. He built the fort at Suidurg or Sui Kot.

                          Foundation of Dumkot or Donkot Kingdom
      A Rawat army man founded his own kingdom at Domkot or Donkot at the boundary of Suikot.
The rulers of Domkot and SuiKkot used to fight on each and every dispute.
             It is said that a Chandravanshi warrior from Jhunsi (near Prayag/Allahabad) came to Kaliganga valley with a few soldiers. Brahmadev offered him his daughter a land in Champawat. With the help of this Chandravanshi Thakur or warrior, Brahmadev was able to fight his neighbors. It is said the said warrior from Allahabad was the founder of Chand dynasty in Kumaon.
 
                   Khas chieftains becoming Kings
                 
                   Many Khas army chiefs or chieftains of various regions became free from Katyuri kingdom and founded their own kingdoms.

                              Attack by Ashokchall
 
            It seems the Nepali king Ashokchall attacked on Uttarakhand at the time of Anantpaldev and captured whole of Uttarakhand. It seems small kings who became free from Katyuri rule accepted over ruling of Ashokchall 
               
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 27/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -129
 Himalayan Medieval Age History of Baijnath/Baidyanath Katyuri to be continued…
  (Himalayan Medieval Age History (740-1200 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
Notes on Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Pithoragarh at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Dwarhat at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Champawat at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Suikot at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Dompur at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Salan at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Ngapur Garhwal at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Pindar Garhwal  at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Haridwar at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Kumaon at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age; History of Salan Garhwal at the time - Disintegration of Uttarakhand in Anantpaldev Katyuri Time of Himalayan Medieval Age;












 

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