Author Topic: HISTORY of MEDICAL and WELLNESS TOURISM IN INDIAN SUBCONTINENT , SOUTHEAST ASIA  (Read 7242 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic of India
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -9
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)

    It is believed that Mahabharata was crated around 800 BCE and formed in Shruti around  400 BCE. The largest epic of the world Mahabharata was finally edited in Gupta dynasty (3rd to 5th century) The epic is stories of Bharat dynasties and many eminent characters but deals mainly the war between Kaurava and Pandavas. There are philosophical teachings in Mahabharata – Purusharth, Karmyog, Sankhya etc.
   There are 100000 Shlokas and 1.8 million words in Mahabharata.
   Medicines and medical Science in Mahabharata Epic
 There are instances of medicines and medical science including medical treatment in Mahabharata Epic.
 The epic creator mentions of Medicine deity Ashwini as medicine experts or health expert in Adiparva 3/56  as Tamupadhyaya Prativach , ashvinau stutih , tau devbhishjau twa chakshupmant krttaraaviti . sa evmukt upadhyayainaupmanyurashinau stotumupachakrme vaagbhi rigbhi .
  Narada asks and preaches Yudhishthir in Lokpal Sabhakhyan parva as “ O Yudhishthir ! Do you take care of diseases by medicines and by right food consumption (Pathya)  ? Do you sit with old people for eradicating mental problems? Does your doctor expert of eight parts of medical science ? ” (Sabha Parva 15/90-91)
  In India, from the Veda period, the basics for good  health was right  food consumption.
 The Indian theory that one type of poison (Sthavar Visha )  neutralizes other type of poison (Jangham Visha)  is described in story style in  Adiparva, Mahabharata  (127/53-59).




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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic of India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic ,India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



Bhishma Kukreti

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Mantra as Medical Remedies for Poison Retribution in Mahabharata epic
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in   Mahabharata Epic , India -2
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 11
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  In Ayurveda, there is mention of Mantra uses for poison retribution – Tell to Devarshi and Brahmarshis that Tap-Satyamay Mantra never fail. Poison gets neutralized/eradicated by Mantra by true Rishi that many times, medicines can’t do that . (Sushrut Kalp, 5/9-10)
  In Mahabharata, there are mentions of poison/retribution/ eradication stories.
In Adiparva  (Adiparva 50/34, there is story that Sage Kashyap was visiting King Parikshit for using Mantra for poison retribution. Takshak snake asked the motive of Kashyam going very fast for his destination. Kashyap told that today, Takshak would bite Parikshit and he (Kashyap) would alive Parikshit by Mantra power. Takshak introduced him and bate a tree that died /changed into ashes instantly and Takshak asked Sage Kashyap to alive the dead tree. Kashyap  collected all ashes and made the tree alive.
यद् वृक्षं जीवयामास काश्यपस्त्क्षकेंण वै
नूनं मन्त्रे र्ह्तविषो न प्रणश्येत काश्यपात . Adiparva 50/34)
 As per the curse by Shringi sage, Takshak would definitely bite King Parikshit. Parikshit arranged poison preventive methods – Knowledgeable, well acknowledged Brahmins of Mantra , Medicines and Medical experts
रक्षा च विदधे तत्र  भिषजश्चौषधानि च .
ब्राह्म्यान मन्त्र सिधाश्च  सर्वतो वै न्ययोजयत
( Adi parva 42/30)
 The above story offers to readers the concept of medical expert visiting patient and visiting patients by medical expert is nothing but part and partial of medical tourism , though the opposite of patient visiting doctors or hospitals.
  Reference – Atidev , Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas page 82-84 , and Mahabharata (with Hindi translation part -1, page 127-129 Geeta Press Gorakhpur India)

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in   Mahabharata Epic , India to be continued … 11
   
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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata epic , India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata,  India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued   



Bhishma Kukreti

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Tuberculosis or Rajakshma Disease in Mahabharata
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in    Mahabharata Epic - 3
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -11
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  There is mention of diseases in Mahabharata epic. Atiputra  in Charak Samhita mentioned that human gets Yakshma disease because of excess *. Atriputra offered example of Chandrama King marrying 28 daughters of Prajapati. Vichitravirya the son of Queen Satyavati  (wife of Kuru King Shantuna and step mother of Bhishma ) got  Rajkshma disease because of excess *. Even many medical practitioners could not cure Vichitravirya . He died because of Rajkshma disease.
ताभ्या सह समा सप्त विहरन प्रिथावीपति
विचित्रवीर्यस्तरूणोयक्ष्मणा समग्रिह्यत
सुह्र्दा यतमाना नामापते सह चिकित्सकै
जगामस्तमिवादित्य  कौरव्यो यमसादनम
(Mahabharat 1/102/80-91
 King Pandu had a disease called Pandu (yellow color) and had problems for * with women. (Shall discuss in later stage)
King Dhritrashtra was blind by birth.

   
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Bhishma Kukreti

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 Doctors with King and Army in battles in Mahabharata Epic
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata - 4
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -12
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
 Baharat in his Collection (Baharat sagrah ) and Dhanvantari in Shuhrut Samhita discussed about doctor near to the king . Both advised doctor to take care of food for the King .  The King should obey instruction by doctor-
न ही भद्रोअपि गजपति निरंकुश  श्लाघनीयो जनस्य ( Bahat Sagrah 8/5) ,
Kautilya in his Arthashastra (10/62) states that the doctor camp should be near the army in battle field and there should be a flag on the camp.
 In Mahabharata, it is stated that Yudhisthir appointed craftsmen and medical experts for his army on salary. They were with surgical and medical appliances (Udyog Parva  52/12)
 No doubt, for army men going for battle was not tour but for medical practioners being in battle field was different kind of medical tour either medical practitioner visiting to the king and his court members  or visiting battle filed for  earning.
   
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Surgery and Visiting Doctors concept in Mahabharata
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in   Mahabharata - 5
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -13
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
      Atidev rightly states in his Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas (page 85) that there was clear concept of surgery in Mahabharata epic. When Arjun injured Bhishma the Kaurava Army Chief by his sharp arrows, Bhishma fell down on arrows as if arrows were beds. Duryodhan and other kings visited Bhishma lying on arrows. Kaurava King Duryodhan took medical experts and surgeons to Bhishma for his medical aid. They were expert Vaidya and experts in getting out spikes of arrow. Watching those experts, Bishma said to Duryodhan, “ What is the need of medical experts at this stage? Send them back after offering money.”  Duryodhan sent back those surgeon and experts back after offering them money. (Bhishma Parva, 120/55-59
 Experts visiting patients is nothing but medical tour only.
There are many stories about surgery in Mahabharata too.
   
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Tour and Travel Incidents in Adiprva of Mahabharata Epic
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in    Period , India 6
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 14
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  There are many   internal and external tours and travels incidents cited in Mahabharata Epic –
Tour and Travels Incidents cited  in Adiprva of Mahabharata Epic
 The short details are as follows  in Adiparva , Mahabharata about tours and travels
1-Sages coming from different parts of country to Naimsaranya for listening preaching of Sutnanadan Ugrashrava
2-Brahma Visiting Sage Vyas and requesting him for writing Mahabharata
3- Many stories about tours and travels in chapter  of  Samudra Manthan
4- Kashyap Sage visiting King Parikshit
5-Astik sage visiting for protecting snakes
6- Sage Vyas visiting Yagya Shala of King Janmajeya
7-King Dushyant visiting Kanvashram  Garhwal for hunting
8- King Dushyanta roaming in Forest for pleaure
9-Shakunatala , child Bharat with disciples of Kanva sage visiting Dushyanta court
10- Vrihaspati Son Kch visiting Guru Shukracharya for training of Sanjivani medical practices
11- Shantanu visiting Ganga bank
12- Devvrata (Bhishma) visiting Boatmen King Nishadraj
13- Pandu visiting forests for enjoyment and hunting
14- Married Pandu with wives visiting Garhwal forests for repent the cursing
15- Indra, Dharmaraj, Ashwini Kumar visiting Ashrams of Pandu in Garhwal
16-Drona visiting Parushram Ashram for learning archery
17-Drona visiting his friend King Drupada
18-Drona Charya roaming for getting archery teaching job   
19- Karna Visiting  for attending weaponry competition to Hastinapur
20 Pandavas touring Vanavrata Jaunsar region for  wellness or joyful tour
21-Pandavas roaming forests of West Garhwal
22- Pandavas visiting Ekchakra city (Chakrata Garhwal)
24- Pandvas visiting Chitrarath Kingdom
25- Vishwamitra visiting Vashishtha Ashrama for Eden Caw
26- Pandavas requesting their priest Dhaumya Brahmin as their local guide too  in  Garhwal
27- - Pandavas touring Drupad Kingdom and taking part in Draupadi Swayambar
28- Hundreds of Kings reaching Drupad kingdom for Draupadi Swayambar
29-  Krishna and balram visiting forest home of Pandavas
30- Narada visiting Pandva house in forest
31- For repenting Arjun visiting various places as Haridwar, Manipur and marrying there
32-Arjun stealing Subhadra from her palace
 The Mahabharata epic creators described tours and travels as per situation, objectives, class and places in Adiparva
 

Reference- (Sankshipt Mahabharata, 1987 part 1, part 2, Edited by Jaydayal Gondka , Geeta Press Gorakhpur , India) 
   
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Tour and Travel Incidents in Sabhaparva of Mahabharata Epic -
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in   Mahabharata, India 7
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 15
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  There are many   internal and external tours and travels incidents cited in Sabhaparva Mahabharata Epic –
1- Krishna visiting /touring Dwarika
2- Narada visiting new capital of Pandava  under construction
3- Various Kings attending Rajsuya Yagna
4- Tour by Bhima, Krishna to Magdha
5 Duryodhan and other Kaurva attending Rajsuya Yagna of Yadhisthir
6- Pandava visiting Hastinapur
7- Pandava preparing for Forest tour for thirteen years



Reference- (Sankshipt Mahabharata, 1987 part 1, part 2, Edited by Jaydayal Gondka , Geeta Press Gorakhpur , India) 
   
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Tour and Travel incidents in Vanaparva of Mahabharata Epic
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic  , India -8
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -16
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
 There are following tour and travel incidents in Vanaparva of Mahabharata Epic-
1-Pandava starting their forest roaming journey
2-Pandava meeting Dhaumya and announcing him as their family priest 
3- Vidur visiting Pandava and returning
4-Vyasa visiting Hastinapur and meeting Duryodhan
5- Krishna visiting Kamyak forest and meeting Pandava
6-Arjun visiting upper Garhwal and obtaining weapons
7-Nal getting out of Kinngdom
8-Nal taking job of chariot driver in exile
9- Search for Nal
10- Pandava meeting Lomesh sage and Vyasa coming there
11- Pandva meeting Yadvas in Prabhash Kshetra
12-  Ashtavakra visiting King Janka court
13-Pandava visiting Badrkasrhram region
14- Bhima roaming  into forest for water
15-Dhamya taking Pandva for various places in Garhwal
16-Arjun visiting heaven /Garhwal
17-Pandava roaming  forest to forests
18-Kaurva visiting Gandhrva region
19-Vyasa visiting Yudhishthir in forest
20- Jaydratha kidnapping Draupadi
21-Rama stories and various tour and travels in that episode
22- Pndva meeting an Yaksha in a pond in forest








Reference (Sankhipt Mahabharata, part II, Contents, Geeta Press , Gorakhpur ,  )
   
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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Tour and Travel incidents in Viratparva  and Udyog Parva of Mahabharata Epic
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mahabharata Epic  , India -8
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -16
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  Mahabharata creators mentioned following tour and travels incidents in Viratparva of Mahabharata Epic.
1-Pandava changing their look and occupation for spending hidden year (vanparva)
2- Pandava getting job in Virat palace and do different activities
3-Kaurva army attacking on Virat kingdom
Tour and Travel incidents in Udyog Parva of Mahabharata Epic
1-King Drupad sending Envoy to Dhristrashtra
2-Duryodhan and Arjun visiting Krishna in Dwarkapuri for help
3-  Shalya  visiting Hastinapur and Duryodhan welcoming Shalya at various places by welcome gates etc
4- Sage Santsujat visiting Dhritrashtra
5- Sanjay visiting Pandava as envoy of Duryodhan
6- Krishna visiting Kaurva court as envoy of Pandava 
7-Kunti visiting karna
8-Kaurvas and Pandava ‘s Armies marching towards Kurukshetra battle  field
There are other incidents of touring and travelling mentioned in the above parts of Mahbharata epic.

Reference (Sankhipt Mahabharata, part II, Contents, Geeta Press , Gorakhpur ,  )
   
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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Sperm Donation Tourism Concept in Mahabharata Epic -1 
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in   Mahabharata Epic -9
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia -17
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
       Conceiving through some outsider’s sperm was quite old system for keeping family tree alive in case, the husband was unable for conceiving or the woman was widow.  Today, sperm storage is easy but was not easy in past. Therefore, man had to have physical mating with the woman.
 There are a couple of instances of sperm donation or offering uterus for carrying child in Mahabharata.  The stories might be unreal but it is a fact that the concept of sperm donation tourism was there in that initial period of Mahabharata epic creation or Gupta Empire Period.
  Sperm donation created tourism in Mahabharata epic too.
  There is a story in Sambhav Parva (Adiparva, 103- 104 -105 Chapters ) in Mhabharata epic.  Satyavati was queen anf wife of Kuru Emperor Shantuna . Shantanu and Satyavati had two sons and Bhishma (De Vrata) was step son of Satyavatri . The first son of queen Satyavati died early. Second Son Vichitra Virya had two wives and he died without childless.  Then, there was problem of family tree of Kuru Vansh for future.
     Satyavati asked her step son Bhishma for marrying that Kuru Vansh forwarded. Bhishma reminded his step mother about his vows of non-marrying and no * with any woman. Bhishma advised Satyavati for conceiving wives of Vichitravirya by Niyog by calling a Brahmin –
पुनार्भरतवंशस्य हेतुं संतानवृधये
यक्षामि नियतं मातस्त्म्भे निगदत शृणु. –१
ब्राह्मणों गुणवान कश्चिद धनेनोनिम्न्तर्यताम
विचित्रवीर्य क्षेत्रेषु य: समुत्पादयेत प्रज्ञाः – २
(Sambhav Parva of Adiparva , 104 Chapter)  1, 2 )
 Mother! For continuing and protection of  the Kuru family tree, I am speaking the fixed rule . Call a healthy and  suitable Brahmin by offering him money and produce children from wives of Vichitravirya.
 This is another way of medical tourism by calling sperm donors by offering him money and conceiving the women. In Manuspmriti, (9, 51)  there is detailing of Niyog (Sperm donation system) that the donor would paste Ghee on his body and should have * with the woman. After producing children, the man was as good as father for the said woman.
 Satyavati called her first son Krishna Vyas produced  by Sage Parashar . That was also another case of sperm donation type too ( Sambhav Prava 9-15)
  Vyas Came and had * with Amba and Ambalika and a maid servant by Niordh system. In Nirodh, the sperm donor had to be without emotion and had to have * not for pleasure but for producing child. ( Sambhav Parva 27-53, Sambhav parva chapter 104 , 105)
    The discussion between Bhishma and Satyavati reveals that , usually, sperm donor would be strong and having qualities. Sperm donor was paid the money. After sx, there was no right on children by sperm donor. In this case, the donor had to travel to the women and not women travelling to the donor.

     
   
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2018
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in – 18
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



 

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